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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 869 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. The dales printed in heavy type are certain, at least within a unit. Events in Contemporary History. Probable Real Biblical Events. Dates. Babylonia. Assyria. Egypt.' Indeterminable, Creation of Man but much before 47U. Menes, the first king of the First Egyptian Dynasty 3998-372I . Fourth Dynasty 3969-3908 Cheops. The Great Pyramid built 2098-1587. Rule of the Hyksos 1587-1328. Eighteenth Dynasty 1503-1449. Thothmes (Tethmosis) III. (leads victorious expeditions into Asia) 1414-1383. Amen-hotep (Amenophis) III. 1383-1365. Amen-hotep IV. 1328-1202. Nineteenth Dynasty 1300-1234. Ramses II. 1234-1214. Merenptal-II. 952-749 (al. 945-745). 1 Twenty-secondD yn a st y 952-93011 (Breasted, 945.924)• Sheshonq (Shishak). Shishak invades Judah in the , fifth yearof Rehoboam (1 Ki. xiv. 25 f.) 1 The real Biblical date, Ussher in Gen. xi. 26 interpolating 6o years, because it is said in Acts vii. 4 that Abraham left Haran after his father Terah's death (Gen. xi. 32), and also (as explained above) interpreting wrongly Ex. xii. 40. 2 Hilprecht's dates (The Bab. Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, vol. i. pt. i. 1893, pp. II, i2; pt. ii. 1896, pp. 23, 24. 43, 44). Petrie's dates, Hist. of Egypt, vol. i. (ed. 5, 1903), pp. 20, 30, 233, 251, 252; vol. 111. (1905), pp. 2, 235, 281-7, 296-360. Other authorities, however, assign considerably lower dates for the dynasties prior to the 18th. Thus Breasted (Hist. of Egypt, 1906, pp. 22 if., 221, 597) agrees with Ed. Meyer in giving, for reasons which cannot be here explained, for the beginning of the 1st dynasty c. B C. 3400, for the 4th dynasty c. B.C. 2900--2750, and for the rule of the Hyksos c. B.C. 1680-1580; and in his Researches in Sinai, 1906, p. 175, Petrie proposes for Menes B.C. 5510, and for the 4th dynasty B.C. 4731-4454. See EGYPT (Chronology). ' So Sayce, Rogers (Hist. of Bab. and Ass., 1900, i. 318 f.) and others. The date rests upon a statement of Nabu-na'id's, that Sargon's son, Naram-Sin, reigned 3200 years before himself. Lehmann holds that there are reasons for believing that the engraver, by error, put a stroke too many, and that 2200 should be read instead of 3200. a The real Biblical date. e Rogers, i. 373-375. Many monuments and inscriptions of other kings in Babylonia, between 4000 and 2000 B.C., are also known. i The lists of the Babylonian and Assyrian kings are not continuous; and before 1907, from the data then available (see the discussion in Rogers, op. cit. i. 312-348), Khammurabi, the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty, was commonly referred to such dates as 2376-2333 B.C. (Sayce) or 2285-2242 B.C. (Johns). But inscriptions recently discovered, by showing that the second dynasty was partly contemporaneous with the first and the third, have proved that these dates are too high : see L. W. King, Chronicles Concerning Early Bab. Kings (1907), i. ”-1 10; and the article BABYLONIA, Chronology. The date B.c. 2130-2088 is that adopted by Thureau-Dangin, after a discussion of the subject, in the Journal des Savants, 1908, p. 199; and by Ungnad in the Orient. Litt.-zeitung, 1908, p. 13, and in Gressmann's Altorientalische Texte and Bilder zum A.T. (1909), p. 103. 8 King, op. cit. i. 116, ii. 14. 9 The dates of the kings are, in most cases, those given by Kautzsch in the table in his Outline of the Hist. of the Literature of the O.T. (tr. by Taylor, 1898), pp. 167 ff.; see also A. R. S. Kennedy, "Samuel" in the Century Bible (1905), p. 31. The dates given by other recent authorities seldom differ by more than three or four years. 1O The figures after a king's name indicate the number of years assigned to his reign in the O.T. For Saul, see i Sam. xiii. 1, R.V 11 The date of Sheshonq depends on that fixed for Rehoboam. Petrie places the accession of Rehoboam in 937 B.C. 1996-182I [22I I-2036 61 Chronology of Ussher. 1099-1058 I058-1017 1017--977 4004 [41571] 2348 [2501 6] 1491 977 959 956 956 954 7000 B.C. C. 2I00 (if, as is probable, the Amraphel of Gen. xiv. I is Khammurabi) C. 1230 C. 1025-10109 C. I0I0-970 c. 970-933 Judah. 933. Rehoboam(17) 916. Abijah (3) 913. Asa (41) Israel. 933. Jeroboam I. (22) 912. Nadab (2) 911. Baasha (24) The Deluge Abraham The Exodus Saul (2) 10 David (40) Solomon (40) 7-6000.2 Temple of Bel at Nippur founded c. 40002 Lugal-zaggisi, king of Uruk (Erech, Gen. x. to) 3800.' Sargon of Agade, who carries his arms as far as the Mediterranean Sea c. 2800 8 Ur-bau and Dungi, kings of Uru (Ur, Gen. xi. 28, 31) C. B.C. 213o-2O88? Khammurabi unifies Babylonia and constructs in it many great works (see art. BABYLONIA) C. 1400. Burnaburiash. Tel el-Amarna correspondence C. 2300. Ushpia, priest of Ashur, builder of temple in the city of Ashur c. 2225. I lu-shama, first king of Assyria at present (1909) known8 C. 1300. Shalmaneser I. (builder of Calah, Gen. x. II)

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