Online Encyclopedia

CHRYSIPPUS (c. 280-2o6 B.c.)

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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 320 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHRYSIPPUS (c. 280-2o6 B.c.), Greek philosopher, the third great leader of the Stoics. A native of Soli in Cilicia (Diog. Laert. vii. 179), he was robbed of his property and came to Athens, where he studied possibly under Zeno, certainly under Cleanthes. It is said also that he became a pupil of Arcesilaus and Lacydes, heads of the Middle Academy. This impartiality in his early studies is the key of his philosophic work, the dominant characteristic of which is comprehensiveness rather than originality. He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy. His polemic skill earned for him the title of the " Column of the Portico." Diogenes Laertius says, " If the gods use dialectic, they can use none other than that of Chrysippus "; ei pi 'yap iv X Quit &v ilv ZTO& (" Without Chrysippus, there had been no Porch "). He excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. His relations with Cleanthes, contemporaneously criticized by Antipater, are considered under Sroics. He is said to have composed seven hundred and fifty treatises, fragments alone of which survive. Their style, we are told, was unpolished and arid in the extreme, while the argument was lucid and impartial. See G. H. Hagedorn, Moralia Chrysippea (1685), Ethica Chrysippi (1715); J. F. Richter, De Chrysippo Stoico ,;astuoso (1738); F. Baguet, De Chrysippi vita doctrina et reliquiis kI822); C. Petersen, Philosophiae Chrysippeae fundamenta (1827) ; A. Gercke, " Chrysippea " in Janrbiicher fur Philologie, suppl. vol. xiv. (1885) ; R. Nicolai, De logicis Chrysippi libris (1859) ; Christos Aronis, %p(ecaaoc ypaµµarmKL (1885); R. Hirzel, Untersuchungen zu Ciceros philosophischen Schriften, ii. (1882) ; L. Stein, Die Psychologie der Stoa (1886) ; A. B. Krische, Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der alien Philosophie (1840); J. E. Sandys, Hist. Class. Schol. i. 149.
End of Article: CHRYSIPPUS (c. 280-2o6 B.c.)
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