Online Encyclopedia

CHUMASHAN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 459 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHUMASHAN . In S.W. California, Somewhere in 7 or more Nearly ex- S. of the Salinan S.W. Cali- dialects. tinct; only and Mariposan; fornia. with many 15-2o Endo- in the basins of small settle- viduals still the Sta Maria, ments. living. Sta Inez, lower Sta Clara, &c., on the coast, and the northeroSta. Barbara Islands. COPEHAN In central N. Cali- Somewhere in 2 chief di- About 130 at (Wintun). fornia, W. of the N.California. visions,with various vtl- Pujunan; %V. of many small lages, and the Coast range, settlements. as many on from San Pablo Round Val- and Suisun Bays ley Reserva- N. to Mount tion. Shasta. CosmANOA_v. In the coast region Somewhere in N o t r u e Nearly ex- of central Cali- tinct ; only fornia, N. of the 25 or 3o viduals still living. central Cali- tribes, but fornia. 15-ao settle- Salinan; from meats. about San Fran- cisco S. to Point Sur and Big Panoche Creek, Stock. Area. Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population. 14. ESKmtoAN. and from the Interior of 9 W e l l - About 28,000, 15. ESSELENIAN. Pacific Ocean to Alaska marked of which the San Joaquin (Rink) ; in g r o u p s, there are river. the region with 6o-7o in Green- Greenlandandsome W. of Hud- s e t t l e - - land r r,000 of the Arctic son's Bay ments," A l a s k a islands, the whole (Boas); pre- &c. 13,0 0 0, northern coast N. ferably the Many small C a n a d a of the Algonkian latter. 4500, and and Athabaskan, Somewhere in Asia 12oo. from the straits of Extinct; last Belle Isle to the speaker of endoftheAleutian language Islands; also in died about extreme N.E. 1890. Asia W. to the About 900, Anadyr river; in of which E. North America 300 are in in earlier times Alaska. possibly consider- About 40,000, ablyfarthersouth. of which On the coast of W. Io,000 are in Canada; of those in the United States 28,000 are Chero- kee. Only some 140 fndt- viduals still living. Extinct prob- ably in IS58; a few sur- vived later, y, in possiblico. Mex 3990, in 6 pueblos (some 150 at Isleta). 1219 in Okla- holna. About taco; half in Canada and half in the U n i t e d States. About 2000., 16.HA1oAN(Skit- California, S. of W. or central settlements. tagetan). Monterey, N. of California. 2 dialects; 17. IROQUOIAN. the Salinan. Interior of about 25 18. KALAPUYAN. The Queen Char- Alaska or chief 19. KARANKAWAN. lotte Islands, off N.W. Can- "towns," 20. KERESAN. the N.W. coast ada. and many 21. KIOWAN. of British Colum- Somewhere be- minor set- 22. KITUNAHAN. bia, and part of tween the tlements. 23. KOLUSCHAN the Prince of lower St Some ischief (Tlingit). Wales Archi- Law r e n ce tribes with 24. KULANAPAN pelago, Alaska. and Hub- many minor (Porno). The region about son's Bay subdivisions, 25. KUSAN. Lakes Erie and (Brinton, About 15-r8, Ontario(Ontario, Hale); in S. withminor New York, Penn- Ohio and divisions. sylvania, Ohio, Kentucky S-6, with &c.),and on both (B o y l e , minor divi- hanks of the St Thomas). sions. Lawrence, on the Somewhere in 17 "villages" N. to beyond the N.W. Ore- (pueblos) ; Saguenay, on the gon. ecrliermore. S. to Gasp€; also Somewhere in r. represented in the S. Texas. 2 chief divi- S.E.United States Somewhere in sions and 3 by the Tuscarora, the New others. Cherokee, &c. Mexico- Some 12-15. (now chiefly in Arizona Oklahoma). region. In N.W. Oregon, At the foot of in the valley of the Rocky the Willamette, Mountains above the Falls. i n S. W. On the Texas coast, Montana. from Galveston to Somewhere E. Padre Island. of the Rocky In N. central New Mountains in Mexico, on the Montana or Rio Grande and Alberta. its tributaries. the Somewhere in Jemez, San Jose, the interior &c. of Alaska On the upper Ark- o r N. W. ansas and Can- adian rivers, in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, &c.; formerly on the head-waters of the Platte, and still earlier on the upper Yellowstone and Missouri, in S.W. Montana. In S.E. British Col- umbia, N. Idaho, and part of N.W. Montana. On the coast and adjacent islands of S. Alaska, from 55° to 6o° N. lat.; also some in Canada. About 30 About moo. Canada. Somewhere in On the coast in N.W. California N.W. Cali- local divi- (Sonoma, Lake fornia. sions, &c.; and Mendocino no t r u e counties), W. of tribes. the Yukian. On the coast of Somewhere in- 4, earlier About 50. central Oregon, land from more. on Coos Bay and Coos Bay, Oregon. Stock. Area. Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population. Coos and Coquille rivers, S. of the Yakonan; now mostly on Siletz Reservation. 26. LUTUAMIAN In the region of the In S. Oregon, 2, with local x034; of these (Klamath). Klamath and Tule N. of the subdivisions. 7 5 5 K I s- lakes, Lost and K l a m a t h math, and Sprague rivers, lakes. 279 Modoc &c., in Oregon (56in Okla- (chiefly) and N.E. homa). California; now on Klamath Re- servation, Oregon, with a few also in Oklahoma. 27. MARIPOSAN In S. central Cali- Somewhere in 30-40 groups About 150, at (Yokuts). fornia, in the central Cali- with special Tule river valley of the San fomia. dialects. reservation, Joaquin, on the &c. Tule, Kaweah, King's rivers1&c. ; E. of the Salman, S. of the Moque- lumnan. 28.M000ELUMNAN In central Cali- Somewhere in 7dialects, no Several hun- (Miwok). fornia, in three central Cali- true tribes; dred; much sections: the main fomia. about 20 scattered. area on the W. local groups slope of the Sier- with numer- ras, from the Cos- ous minor umnes river on ones. the N. to the 29. MUSKOGIAN Fresno on the S.; Somewhere About 12, About 40,000; (Muskhogean). a second on the W. of the with many of t h es e 30. PAKAWAN N. shore of San lower Missis- minor divi- 38,000 in (Coahuiltecan). Francisco B a y, sippi. sions. Oklahoma, and a third (small) Some part of 20-25, some 1000inMiss S. of Clear Lake N.E. Mexico. very small. sissipppi,35o on the head-waters in Florida, of Putah Creek. and a few in In the Gulf States, Louisiana. E. of the Missis- Practically sippi,most of Mis- extinct; in sissippi, Alabama 1886 about and Georgia,part 3o individu- of Tennessee, S. als still Iiv- Carolina, Florida and Louisiana; now mostly in Oklahoma. On both banks of the Rio Grande in Texas and Mexico, from its mouth to beyond ,(. PU UNAN Laredo; at one N.E. C a I is N o t r u e ing, mostly (Maidu). time possibly E. fornia. t r i b e s; o n t h e 32. (KU0arok). a.4TEAN to Antonio, and Somewhere in s e v e r a I Mexican 33. SAHAPTIAN. W. to the Sierra Cali. larger and side of the 34. SALINAS. Madre. Somewhere in very many Rio Grande, 35. SAI.ISHAN. In N.E. California, the region of smaller loc- About 250 E. of the Sacra- theColumbia, al divisions, full-bloods. mento river, be- or farther N. " villages," In61889 much tween the Shastan Somewhere in &c. 00 some and Moquel- S. W. Ca Ii- Mlany,"& ; umnan. fornia. ager"viic-. r e d u c ed InCalifextrorniemea, onN.the W. 5.7. since; pos- Klamath river, 2 or 3 larger sibly 300. &c.; W. of the divisions ; About 4200. I Shastan. no true Practically In the region of tribes. extinct; in the Columbia and 1884 only its tributaries, in 10-12 indi- parts of Washing- v i d u a l s ton, Idaho and living. Oregon; between lat. 44° and 47°, and from the Cas- cades to the Bitter Root Mountains. On the Pacific coast of S.W.California, from above S. Antonio, to below S. Louis Obispo; W. of the Mari- posan. Some 6o-65, About 15,000 of which a in Canada, number are and some merelylocal 6300 in divisions. the United States. A large part of S. Central or N. British Columbia British Col- and Washington, umbia. with parts of Idaho and Mon- tans; also part of Vancouverlsland, and outliers in N. British Columbia (Bilqula), and S. W. Oregon. Stock. 37. SHOSHONIAN. 38. SIOUAN. 39. TAKELMAN. 4o. TANOAN. 41. TIMUQUAN. 42. TONIKAN. 43. TONKAWAN. 44. TSIMSHIAN (Chimmesyan). Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population. 36. SISASTAN. 45. WAILATPUAN. Area. In N. California and S. Oregon, in the basins of the Pit and Klamath rivers, on Rogue river and to beyond the Siskiyou Mountains; S. of the Lutuamian. Less than 40 Shasta full-bloods; some 1200 Achomawi. In the W. part of the United States; most of the country between lat. 35° and 45° and long.so5' and 120°, with extensions N., S., and S.E. outside this area; represented also in California, and in Mexico by the Piman, Sonoran and Nahuatlan tribes. In the basin of the Missouri and the upperMississippi; from about N. lat. 33° to 530 and, at the broadest, from 89° to 110° W. long.; also represented in Wisconsin (Winnebago), Louisiana,the Carolinas, and Virginia (formerly). In S.W. Oregon, in the middle valley of Rogue river, on the upper Rogue, and to about the California line or beyond. In New Mexico, on the Rio Grande, &c., from lat. 33° to 36°; also a settlement with the Moqui in N.E. Arizona, and another on the Rio Grande at the boundary line, partly in Mexico. In Florida, from the N. border and the Ocilla river to Lake Okeechobee, perhaps farther N. and S. In part of E. Louisiana and part of Mississippi; in Avoyelles parish, La., &c. In S. E. Texas, N.W. of the Karanka wan; remnants now in Oklahoma. In N.W. British Columbia, on the Naas and Skeena rivers, and the adjacent islands and coast S. to Millbank Sound; also (since 1887) on Annette Island, Alaska. Foot-hills and plains E. of the Rocky Mountains in N.W. United States or Canada, but residence inPlateau region long-continued. In the Carolina- Virginia region. In some part of S. Oregon. Some part of New Mexico. Some part of Florida. Somewhere in the Louisiana - Mississippi region. Somewhere in S. or W. Texas. On the head-waters of the Skeena river. Somer2-15in the United States; many more in Mexico, ancient and modern. Some 6o or Extinct in more settle- 18th cen- ments. Wry. In the United States, some 24,000. About 38,000; of which some 1400 in Canada. Practically extinct; perhaps 6 speakers of the language alive. About 4200 in 12 pueblos. Practically extinct; i n 1886 some 25 individuals living at Marksville, La. Nearly ex- tinct; in 1884only78 individuals living; in 1905 but 47, with Pon- kas, in Oklahoma. About 3200 in Canada, and 95o in Alaska. A western section (Molala) in the Cascade region between Mounts Hood and Scott, in Washington and Oregon; an eastern (Cayuse) on the head-waters of the Wallawalla, Umatilla and Grande Ronde rivers. In Oregon, S. of the Columbia river. Language practically, extinct; 405 Cayuse (in 1888 only 6 spoke their m o t h e r tongue) are still living; in 1 8 8 1 about 20 Molalas. In N. California or Oregon. 6 or more linguistic divisions. Some 20 large and many minor ones. 2. Some 14-15 pueblos. 3. I. 3 main and several minor divisions. modern times; the existence of an Arawakan colony in south-western Florida, a 16th-century representative in North America of a South American linguistic stock. Some stocks, e.g. Atakapan, Beothukan, Chemakuan, Chimarikan, Chitimachan, Kiowan, Kitunahan, Lutuamian, Takelman, Tonkawan, Wailatpuan, Yanan, Yuchian, Zuni, &c., were not split up into innumerable dialects, possessing at most but two, three or four, usually fewer. Of the larger stocks, the Athabaskan, Algonkian, Shoshonian, Siouan, Iroquoian, Salishan, &c., possess many dialects often mutually unintelligible. In marked contrast with this is the case of the Eskimoan stock, where, in spite of the great distance over which it has extended, dialect variations are at a minimum, and the people " have retained their language in all its minor features for centuries " (Boas). As to the reason for the abundance of linguistic stocks in the region of the Pacific (from Alaska to Lower California, west of long. 115°, there are 37: Eskimoan, Koluschan, Athabaskan, Haidan, Tsimshian, Wakashan, Salishan, Kitunahan, Chimakuan, Chinookan, Sahaptian, Wailatpuan, Shoshonian, Kalapuyan, Yakonan, Kusan, Takelman, Lutuamian, Quoratean, Weitspekan, Wishoskan, Shastan, Yanan, Chimarikan, Yukian, Copehan, Pujunan, Washoan, Kulanapan, Moquelumnan, Mariposan, Costanoan, Esselenian, Salinan, Chumashan, Yuman) there has been much discussion. Of these no fewer than 18 are confined practically to the limits of the present state of California. Dialects of Athabaskan, Shoshonian and Yuman also occur within the Californian areas, thus making, in all, representatives of 21 linguistic stocks in a portion of the continent measuring less than 156,000 sq. m. In explanation of this great diversity of speech several theories have been put forward. One is to the effect that here, as in the region of the Caucasus in the Old World, the multiplicity of languages is due to the fact that tribe after tribe has been driven into the mountain valleys, &c., by the pressure of stronger and more aggressive peoples, who were setting forth on careers of migration and conquest. Another view, advocated by Horatio Hale in 1886 (Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci.; also Proc. Canad. Inst., Toronto, 1888), is that this great diversity of human speech is due to the language-making instinct of children, being the result of " its exercise by young children accidentally isolated from the teachings and influence of grown companions." A pair of young human beings, separating thus from the parent tribe and starting social life in a new environment by themselves, would, according to Mr Hale, soon produce a new dialect or a new language. This theory was looked upon with favour by Romanes, Brinton, and other psychologists and ethnologists. Dr R. B. Dixon (Congr. intern. des. Amer., Quebec, 5906, pp. 255-263), discussing some aspects of this question, concludes " that the great linguistic and considerable cultural complexity of this whole California-Oregon region is due to progressive differentiation rather than to the crowding into this restricted area of remnants of originally discrete stocks." How far two dialects of one stock can go•in the way of such differentiation without becoming absolutely distinct is illustrated by the Achomawi branches of the Shastan family of speech, which Dr Dixon has very carefully investigated. 456 Stock. Area. Earliest Home. Tribes, &c. Population. 46. WAKASHAN Most of Vancouver Somewhere in 3 main divi- 4765,of which (Kwakiutl- Island (except the interior sions, with 435 are in Nootka). some 3 of the E. of British more than the United 47. WASHOAN. coast) and most Columbia. SO" tribes." States. 48. WEITSPEKAN of the coast of In N.W. Ne- 1. About200,in (Yurok). British Columbia vada. 6 divisions; the region 49. WisHOSKAN from Gardner In N. Cali- no true of Carson, (Wiyot). channel to Cape fornia or S. tribes. Reno, &c. Mudge; also part Oregon. 3-5 divisions; A few hun- of extreme N.W. I n N. Cali- no true dreds; in Washington. fornia. tribes. 187o esti- In E. central Cali- mated at fornia and the ad- 2000 or joining part of more. Nevada, in the Nearly ex- region of Lake tint. Tahoe and the lower Carson valley. In N.W. California, W. of the Quo- ratean. In N.W. California, in the coast region, S. of the 50. YAKONAN. Weitspekan. W. c e n t r a I 4 chief divi- About3oo,on 5r. YANAN. In W. Oregon, in Oregon. sions, with the Siletz 52. YUCHIAN. the coast region So mew her e numerous Reserva- 53• YUKSAN. and on the rivers farther E. villages, Lion. from the Yaquina Somewhere E. r. Practically to the Umpqua. of the Cfiata- r. extinct; in In central N. Cali- hoochee. 5 divisions; 1884 but 35 fornia in theregion N. or central no true individuals of Round Moun- California. tribes. living. tain, &c., S. of About 5oo, the Shastan. with Creeks In E. Georgia, on in O kla- the Savannah homa. river from above About 250. Augusta down to the Ogeechee, and also on Chatahoo- chee river; rem- nants now in Oklahoma. In N.W. California, Eof the Copehan, with a N. and a S. section; in the Round Valley region. 54. YUMAN. In the extreme S.W. N. W. Arizona. 9-7o. IntheUnited of the United Statesabout States (lower 4800. 55 ZU31AN. Colorado and Gila Some part of r. 1500. valley), part of California, most of Lower Cali- fornia, and a small part of Mexico. In N.W. New Mexico, on the t h e N e w Zuni river. Mexico - Ari- zona region. Of these 55 different linguistic stocks 5 (Arawakan, Beothukan, Esselenian, Karankawan and Timuquan) are completely extinct, the Arawakan, of course, in North America only; 13 (Atakapan, Chimarikan, Chitimachan, Chumashan,Costanoan, Kusan, Pakawan, Salinan, Takelman, Tonikan, Tonkawan, Wishoskan, Yakonan) practically extinct; while the speakers of a few other languages or the survivors of the people once speaking them (e.g. Chemakuan, Chinookan, Copehan, Kalapuyan, Mariposan, Washoan, Yukian), number about 200 or Soo, in some cases fewer. Of the Wailatpuans, although some individuals belonging to the stock are still living, the language itself is practically extinct. The distribution of the various stocks reveals some interesting facts. Among these are the stretch of the Eskimoan along the whole Arctic coast and its extension into Asia; the immense areas occupied by the Athabaskan and the Algonkian, and (less notably) the Shosho-"tian and the Siouan; the existence of few stocks on the Atlantic slope (from Labrador to Florida, east of the Mississippi, only 8 are represented); the great multiplicity of stocks in the Pacific coast region, particularly in Oregon and California; the extension of the Shoshonian, Yuman and Athabaskan southward into Mexico, the Shoshonian in ancient, the Athabaskan in The test of vocabulary is not the only means by which the languages of the North American aborigines might be classified. There are peculiarities of phonetics, morphology, grammar, sentence-structure, &c., which suggest groupings of the linguistic stocks independent of their lexical content. Some languages are harsh and consonantal (e.g. the Kootenay and others of the North Pacific region), some melodious and vocalic, as are certain of the tongues of California and the south-eastern United States. Some employ reduplication with great frequency, like certain Shoshonian dialects; others, like Kootenay, but rarely. A few, like the Chinook, are exceedingly onomatopoeic. Some, like the northern languages of California, have no proper plural forms. Of the Californian languages the Pomo alone distinguishes gender in the pronoun, a feature common to other languages no farther off than Oregon. The high development and syntactical use of demonstratives which characterize the Kwakiutl are not found among the Californian tongues. A few languages, like the Chinook and the Tonika, possess real grammatical gender. Some languages are essentially prefix, others essentially suffix tongues; while yet others possess both prefixes and suffixes, or even infixes as well. In some languages vocalic changes, in others consonantal, have grammatical or semantic meaning. In certain languages tense, mood and voice are rather' weakly developed. In some languages syntactical cases occur (e.g. in certain Californian tongues), while in many others they are quite unknown. Altogether the most recent investigations have revealed a much greater variety in morphological and in grammatical processes than was commonly believed to exist, so that the general statement that the American Indian tongues are all clearly and distinctly of the " incorporating " and " polysynthetic " types needs considerable modification. Using criteria of phonetics, morphology, grammar, &c., some of the best authorities have been able to suggest certain groups of North American Indian languages exhibiting peculiarities justifying the assumption of relationship together. Thus Dr Franz Boas (Mem. Intern. Congr. Anthrop., 1893, pp. 339-346, and Ann. Archaeol. Rep. Ontario, 1905, pp. 88-Io6) has grouped the linguistic stocks of the North Pacific coast region as follows: (I) Tlingit (Koluschan) and Haida; (2) Tsimshian; (3) Wakashan (Kwakiutl-Nootka), Salish, Chemakum; (4) Chinook. In the same region the present writer has suggested a possible relationship of the Kootenay with Shoshonian. In the Californian area Dr R. B. Dixon and Dr A. L. Kroeber have made out these probable groups among the numerous language stocks of that part of the United States: (I) Chumashan and Salinan; (2) Yurok (Weitspekan), Wishoskan, Athabaskan, Karok (Quoratean), Chimarikan; (3) Maidu (Pujunan), Lutuamian, Wintun (Copehan), Yukian, Porno (Kulanapan), Costanoan, Esselenian, Yokuts (Mariposan), Shoshonian, Shastan, Moquelumnan and possibly Washoan; (4) Yanan; (5) Yuman. Suggestions of even larger groups than any of these have also been made. It may be that, judged by certain criteria, the Kootenay, Shoshonian, Iroquoian and Siouan may belong together, but this is merely tentative. It is also possible, from the consideration of morphological peculiarities, that some if not all of the languages of the so-called ` Palaeo-Asiatic " peoples of Siberia, as Boas has suggested (Science, vol. xxiii., n.s., 1906, p. 644), may be included within the American group of linguistic stocks. Indeed Sternberg (Intern. Amer.-Kongr. xiv., Stuttgart, 1904, pp. 137-140) has undertaken to show the relationship morphologically of one of these languages, the Giliak (of the island of Saghalin and the region about the mouth of the Amur), to the American tongues, and its divergence from the "Ural-Altaic " family of speech. Here, however, more detailed investigations are needed to settle the question. At one time the opinion was widely prevalent that primitive languages changed very rapidly, sometimes even within a General generation, and the American Indian tongues were character rather freely used as typical examples of such extreme ofIndtan variation. The error of this view is now admitted languages. everywhere, and for the speech of the New World aborigines Dr Franz Boas states (Hndb. Amer. Ind. pt. i., 1907, p. 759) : " There is, however, no historical proof of the change of any Indian language since the time of the discovery comparable with that of the language of England between the loth and 13th centuries." Another statement that has obtained currency, appearing even in otherwise reputable quarters sometimes, is to the effect that some of the vocabularies of American Indian languages consist of but a few hua.dred words, one being indeed so scanty that its speakers could not converse by night, since darkness prevented resort to the use of gesture. This is absolutely contrary to fact, for the vocabularies of the languages of the American Indians are rich, and, according to the best authority on the subject, " it is certain that in every one there are a couple of thousand of stem words and many thousand words, as that term is defined in English dictionaries " (Boas). The number of words in the vocabulary of the individual Indian is also much greater than is generally thought to be the case. It was long customary, even in " scientific " circles, to deny to American Indian tongues the possession of abstract terms, but here again the authority of the best recent investigators is conclusive, for " the power to form abstract ideas is, nevertheless, not lacking, and the development of abstract thought would find in every one of the languages a ready means of expression " (Boas). In this connexion, however, it should be remembered that, in general, the languages of the American aborigines " are not so well adapted to generalized statements as to lively descriptions." The holophrastic terms characteristic of so many American Indian languages " are not due to a lack of power to classify, but are rather expressions of form of culture, single terms being intended for those ideas of prime importance to the people" (Boas). This consideration of American primitive tongues in their relation to culture-types opens up a comparatively new field of research, and one of much evolutional, significance. As a result of the most recent and authoritative philological investigations, the following may be cited as some of the chief characteristics of many, and in some cases, of most of the languages of the aborigines north of Mexico. 1. Tendency to express ideas with great graphic detail as to place, form, &c. 2. " Polysynthesis," a device making possible, by the use of modifications of stems and radicals and the employment of prefixes, suffixes, and sometimes infixes, &c., the expression of a large number of special ideas. By such methods of composition (to cite two examples from Boas) the Eskimo can say at one breath, so to speak, " He only orders him to go and see, and the Tsimshian, " He went with him upward in the dark and came against an obstacle." The Eskimo Takusariartorumagaluarnerpd ? (" Do you think he really intends to go to look after it ? ") is made up from the following elements: Takusar(pd), " he looks after it "; iartor (poq), " he goes to "; uma (voq), " he intends to "; (g) aluar (poq), he does so, but "; nerpoq, ` do you think he." The Cree " word ' " kekawewechetushekamikowanowow " (" may it," i.e. the grace of Jesus Christ, " remain with you ") is resolvable into: Kelawow (here split into ke at the beginning and -owow as terminal), " you " (pl.); ka=sign of futurity (first and second persons); we=an optative particle ; weche =" with " ; tusheka = verbal radical, " remain " ; mik =pronominal particle showing that the subject of the verb is in the third person and the object in the second, " it-you "; owan =verbal possessive particle, indicating that the subject of the verb is something inanimate belonging to the animate third person, " his-it." The Carrier (Athabaskan) lekeenahweshcendcethcencezkrok, " I usually recommence to walk to and fro on all fours while singing," which Morice calls " a simple word," is built up from the following elements: le =" prefix expressing reciprocity, which, when in connexion with a verb of locomotion, indicates that the movement is executed between two certain points without giving prominence to either "; kee=particle denoting direction toward these points; na =" iterative particle, suggesting that the action is repeated "; hwe = particle referring to the action as being in its incipient stage; sheen=" song " (when incorporated in a verb it " indicates that singing accompanies the action expressed by the verbal root ") ; dce =" a particle called for by sheen, said particle always entering into the composition of verbs denoting reference to vocal sounds"; thce=" the secondary radical of the uncomposite verb thizkret inflected from thi for the sake of euphony with nwz; neez =" the pronominal element of the whole compound " (the n is demanded by the previous hwe, ee marks the present tense, and z marks the first person singular of the third conjugation; krok= " the main radical, altered here by the usitative from the normal form kret, and is expressive of locomotion habitually executed on four feet or on all fours." 3. Incorporation of noun and adjectives in verb, or of pronouns in verb. From the Kootenay la9guage of south-eastern -British Columbia the following examples may be given: Natltlamkine= " He carries (the) head in (his) hand "; Howankotlamkine =" I shake (the) head in (my) hand "; Witlwumine=" (His) belly is large "; Tlitkatine =" He has no tail "; Matlnaktletline=" He opens his eyes." In these expressions are incorporated, with certain abbreviations of form, the words agktlam, head "; agkowum, " belly " ; aqkat, " tail "; aqkaktletl, eyes." In some languages the form for the noun incorporated in the verb is entirely different from that in independent use. Of pronominal incorporation these examples are from the Kootenay: Nupqanapine=" He sees me" ; Honupqanisine =" I see you "; Tshatlipitlisine =" He will kill you "; Tshatlitqanawasine =" He will bite us "; Tshatltsukwatisine =" He is Foing to seize you ; Hintshatltlpatlnapine =" You will honour me. ' For incorporation of adjectives these examples will serve: Honitenustik =" I paint (my face)," literally, " I make it red " (kanohos, " red "; the radical is nos or nits for nohos); Howitlkeine =" I shout," literally, " I talk big "; Howitlkaine = " I am tall (big)." In some languages the pronouns denoting subject, direct object and indirect object are all incorporated in the verb. 4. The formation of nouns of very composite character by the use of stems or radicals and prefixes, suffixes, &c., of various sorts, the intricacy of such formations exceeding often anything known in the Indo-European and Semitic languages. Often the component parts are " clipped," or changed by decapitation, decaudation, syncopation, &c., before being used in the compound. The following examples from various Indian languages will illustrate the process:—Kootenay : Agkinkanuktlamnam =" crown or head," from eq (prefix of uncertain meaning), kinkan=" top," Clam=" head," -nam (suffix=" somebody's "). Tlingit: Kanyi kuwate=" aurora," liter-ally, " fire (kan)-like (yiq)-out-of-doors (ku)-colour (wale)." 5. The development of a great variety of forms for personal and demonstrative pronouns. In the latter, sometimes, the language distinguishes " visibility and invisibility, present and past, location to the right, left, front and back of, and above and below the speaker " (Boas). According to Morice (Trans. Caned. Inst., 1889-189o, p. 187), the Carrier language of the Athabaskan stock has no fewer than seventeen possessive pronouns of the third person. 6. Indistinctness of demarcation between noun and verb; in some languages the transitive and in others the intransitive only is really verbal in form. 7. The use of the intransitive verb as a means of expressing ideas which in European tongues, e.g., would be carried by adjectives. In the Carrier language almost all adjectives are " genuine verbs " (Morice). 8. The expression of abstract nouns in a verbalized form. Thus Cree (Algonkian) generally says, in preference to using the abstract noun pinaatisewin, " life," the periphrastic verb apimatisenanewuk, literally " that they (indefinite as to person) live." So far is this carried sometimes that Horden (Cree Grammar, London, 1881, p. 5) says: " I have known an Indian speak a long sentence, on the duties of married persons to each other, without using a single noun." As an interesting example of a long word in American-Indian languages may be mentioned the Iroquois taontasakonatiatawitserakninonseronniontonhatieseke. This " word," which, as Forbes (Congr. intern. d. Amer., Quebec, 1906, p. 103) suggests, would serve well on the signboard of a dealer in novelties, is translated by him, " Que plusieurs personnes viennent acheter des habits pour d'autres personnes avec de quoi payer." Not so formidable is deyeknonhsedehrihadasterasterahetakwa, a term for " stove polish," in use on the Mohawk Reservation near Brantford, Ontario. The literature in the native languages of North America due to missionary efforts has now reached large proportions. Naturally Bible translations have been most important. According to Wilberforce Eames (Handbook of Amer. Inds., 1907, pt. i. pp. 143-145), " the Bible has been printed in part or in whole in 32 Indian languages north of Mexico. In 18 one or more portions have been printed; in 9 others the New Testament or more has appeared; and in 5 languages, namely, the Massachuset, Cree, Labrador Eskimo, Santee Dakota and Tukkuthkutchin, the whole Bible is in print." Of the 32 languages possessing Bible translations of some sort 3 are Eskimoan dialects, 4 Athabaskan, 13 Algonkian, 3 Iroquoian, 2 Muskogian, 2 Siouan, 1 Caddoan, i Sahaptian, i Wakashan, 1 Tsimshian, 1 Haidan. Translations of the Lord's Prayer, hymns, articles of faith and brief devotional compositions exist now in many more languages and dialects. A goodly number of other books have also been made accessible in Indian versions, e.g. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (Dakota, 18J7), Baxter's Call to the Unconverted (Massachuset, 1655), Goodrich's Child's Book of the Creation (Choctaw, 1839), Thomas, a Kempis's Imitation of Christ (Greenland Eskimo, 1787), Newton's The King's Highway (Dakota, 1879), &c. The " Five Civilized Tribes," who are now full-fledged citizens of the state of Oklahoma, possess a mass of literature (legal, religious, political, educational, &c.) published in the alphabet adapted from the " Cherokee Alphabet " invented by Sequoyah about 1821, " which at once raised them to the rank of a literary people." Of periodicals in Indian languages there have been many published from time to time among the " Five Civilized Tribes." Of the Cherokee Advocate, Mooney said in 1897-1898, " It is still continued under the auspices of the Nation, printed in both languages (i.e. Cherokee and English), and distributed free at the expense of the Nation to those unable to read English—an example without parallel in any other government." More or less ephemeral periodicals (weekly, monthly, &c.) are on record in various Algonkian, Iroquoian, Siouan and other languages, and the Greenland Eskimo have one, published irregularly since 1861. Wilberforce Eames (Handbook of Amer. Inds., 1907, pt. i. p. 389) chronicles 122 dictionaries (of which more than half are still in MSS.) of 63 North American-Indian languages, belonging to 19 different stocks. The following linguistic stocks are represented by printed dictionaries (in one or more dialects) : Algonkian, Athabaskan, Chinookan, Eskimoan, Iroquoian, Lutuamian, Muskogian, Salishan, Shoshonian, Siouan. There exists a considerable number of texts (myths, legends, historical data, songs, grammatical material, &c.) in quite a number of Indian languages that have been published by scientific investigators. The Algonkian (e.g. Jones's Fox Texts, 1908), Athabaskan (e.g. Goddard's Hupa Texts, 1904, Matthews's Navaho Legends, 1897, &c.), Caddoan (e.g. Miss A. C. Fletcher's Hako Ceremony, 1900), Chinookan (Boas's Chinook Texts, 1904, and Kathlamet Texts, 1901), Eskimoan (texts in Boas's Eskimo of Baffin Land, &c., 1901, 1908; and Thalbitzer's Eskimo Language, 1904, Barnum's Innuit Grammar, 1901), Haidan (Swanton's Haida Texts, 1905, &c.), Iroquoian (texts in Hale's Iroquois Book of Rites, 1883, and Hewitt's Iroquoian Cosmology, 1899), Lutuamian (texts in Gatschet's Klamath Indians, 1890), Muskogian (texts in Gatschet's Migration Legend of the Creeks, 1884-1888), Salishan (texts in various publications of Boas and Hill-Tout), Siouan (Riggs and Dorsey in various publica-tions), Tsimshian (Boas's Tsimshian Texts, 1902), Wakashan (Boas's Kwakiutl Texts, 1902-1905), &c. The question of the direction of migration of the principal aboriginal stocks north of Mexico has been reopened of late years. Not long ago there seemed to be practical agreement as to the following views. The Eskimo stock had reached its present habitats from a primitive home somewhere in the interior of north-western Canada or Alaska; the general trend of the Athabaskan migrations, and those of the Shoshonian tribes had been south and south-east, the first from somewhere in the interior of north-western Canada, the second from about the latitude of southern British Columbia; the Algonkian tribes had moved south, east and west from a point somewhere between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay; the Iroquoian stock had passed southward and westward from some spot to the north-east of the Great Lakes; the Siouan tribes, from their primitive home in the Carolinas, had migrated westward beyond the Mississippi; some stocks, like the Kitunahan, now found west of the Rocky Mountains, had dwelt formerly in the plains region to the east. Professor Cyrus Thomas, however, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, discussing primary Indian migrations in North America (Congr. intern. d. Amer., Quebec, 1906, i. 189-204), rejects the theory that the Siouan stock originated in the Carolinas, and adopts for them an origin in the region north of Lake Superior, whence he also derives the Iroquoian stock, whose primitive home Dr David Boyle (Ann. Archaeol. Rep. Ontario, 1905, p. 154), the Canadian ethnologist, would place in Kentucky and southern Ohio. Another interesting contribution to this subject is made by Mr P. E. Goddard (Congr. intern. des. Amer., Quebec, 1906, i. 337-358). Contemplating the distribution of the tribes belonging to the Athabaskan stock in three divisions, viz. a northern (continuous and very extensive), a Pacific coast division (scattered through Washington, Oregon, California), and a southern division which occupies a large area in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Texas and Mexico, Mr Goddard suggests that the intrusion of non-Athabaskan peoples into a region once completely in the possession of the Athabaskan stock is the best explanation for the facts as now existing not explicable from assimilation to environment, which has here played a great role. Tt is possible also that a like explanation may hold for the conditions apparent in some other linguistic stocks. Many Indian tribes have been forcibly removed from their own habitats to reservations, or induced to move by missionary efforts, &c. Thus, in the state of Oklahoma are to be found representatives of the following tribes: Apache, Arapaho, Caddo, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Creek, Iowa, Kansa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Miami, Missouri, Modoc, Osage, Oto, Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Quapaw, Sac and Fox, Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Tonkawa, Wichita, Wyandot, &c.; these belong to to different linguistic stocks, whose original habitats were widely distant from one another in many cases. Some of the American-Indian linguistic stocks (those of California especially) hardly know real tribal divisions, but local groups or settlements only; others have many large and important tribes. The tabular alphabetical list given in the following pages contains the names of the more important and more interesting tribes of American aborigines north of Mexico, and of the stocks to which they belong, their situation and population in 1909, the degree of intermixture with whites or negroes, their social, moral and religious condition, state of progress, &c., and also references to the best or the most recent literature concerning them. Up to the date of their publication references to the literature concerning the tribes of the stocks treated will be found in Pilling's bibliographies: Algonquian (1891), Athabascan (1892), Chinookan (1893), Eskimoan (1887), Iroquoian (1888), Muskhogean (1889), Salishan (1893), Siouan (1887) and Wakashan (1894). See also the Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (Washington, 1907--1910); and the sumptuous monograph of E. S. Curtis, The North American Indian (N. Y., vols. i.-xx., 1908), with its remarkable reproduction of Indian types. Migrations of Indian stocks. Tribe. Stock. Situation, Population, &c. Degree of Condition, Progress, &c. nis Intermixture. Authorities.
End of Article: CHUMASHAN
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PHRA PARAMINDR MAHA CHULALONGKORN (1853-1910)
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