See also:form about one-
See also:fourth of the population of the
See also:government of Kazan, and live in scattered communities throughout the governments of
See also:Orenburg and
See also:Perm . They have been identified with the Burtasses of the Arab geographers, and many authorities think they are the descendants of the
See also:ancient Bolgars . In general they physically resemble the Finns, being
See also:flat-featured and
See also:light-eyed, but they have been affected by long association with the Tatar
See also:element . In
See also:dress they are thoroughly Russianized, and they are nominally Christians, though they cling to many of the Old Shamanistic practices . They number some
See also:half a million . Their language belongs to the Tatar or
See also:group, but has been strongly influenced by the Finno-Ugrian idioms spoken round it . See Schott, De Lingua Tschuwaschorum (Berlin, 1841) . CIALDINI, ENRICO (1811-1892),
See also:Italian soldier, politician and diplomatist, was
See also:born at Castelvetro, in
See also:Modena, on the loth of
See also:August 181 r . In 1831 he took
See also:part ' in the insurrection at Modena, fleeing afterwards to
See also:Paris, whence he proceeded to Spain to fight against the Carlists . Returning to Italy in 1848, he commanded a regiment at the
See also:battle of
See also:Novara: In 1859 he organized the Alpine
See also:Brigade, fought at Palestro at the
See also:head of the 4th Division, and in the following
See also:year invaded the
See also:Marches, won the battle of Castelfidardo, took Ancona, and subsequently directed the
See also:siege of
See also:Gaeta . For these services he was created duke of Gaeta by the
See also:king, and was assigned a pension of xo,000 lire by parliament .
In 1861 his intervention envenomed theCavour-
See also:Garibaldi dispute, royal
See also:mediation alone preventing a duel between him and Garibaldi . Placed in command of the troops sent to oppose the Garibaldian expedition of 1862, he defeated Garibaldi at
See also:Aspromonte . Between 1862 and 1866 he held the position of
See also:lieutenant-royal at Naples, and in 1864 was created senator . On the outbreak of the war of 1866 he resumed command of an army
See also:corps, but dissensions between him and La Marmora prejudiced the issue of the
See also:campaign and contributed to the defeat of
See also:Custozza . After the war he refused the command of the General
See also:Staff, which he wished to render
See also:independent of the war
See also:office . In 1867 he attempted unsuccessfully to form a
See also:cabinet sufficiently strong to prevent the threatened Garibaldian incursion into the papal states, and two years later failed in a similar attempt, through disagreement with Lanza concerning the army estimates . On the 3rd of August 187o he pleaded in favour of Italian intervention in aid of France, a circumstance which enhanced his influence when in
See also:July 1876 he replaced
See also:Nigra as
See also:ambassador to the French Republic . This position he held until 1882, when he resigned on account of the publication by Mancini of a despatch in which he had complained of arrogant treatment by M . Waddington . He died at Leghorn, on the 8th of
See also:September 1892 . (H . W .
CHUTP (Fr. for " fall," of water or the like; prono...
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