See also:act of moving
See also:round; so circumference, or anything encircling or en-circled . The word is particularly known as a
See also:term, signifying the periodical progress of a legal tribunal for the purpose of carrying out the administration of the law in the several provinces of a
See also:country . It has long been applied to the
See also:journey or progress which the
See also:judges have been in the
See also:habit of making through the several counties of England, to hold courts and administer
See also:justice, where recourse could not be had to the
See also:court at
See also:Westminster (see AssrzE) . In England, by sec . 23 of the Judicature Act 1875, power was conferred on the
See also:crown, by
See also:order in council, to make regulations respecting circuits, including the discontinuance of any circuit, and the formation of any new circuit, and the
See also:appointment of the place at which assizes are to be held on any circuit . Under this power an order of council, dated the 5th of
See also:February 1876, was made, whereby the circuit
See also:system was remodelled . A new circuit, called the
See also:North-Eastern circuit, was created, consisting of Newcastle and Durham taken out of the old
See also:Northern circuit, and
See also:York and Leeds taken out of the Midland circuit .
See also:Leicester and Northampton, which had belonged to the Norfolk circuit, were added to the Midland . The Norfolk circuit and the Home circuit were abolished and a new South-Eastern circuit was created, consisting of Huntingdon, Cambridge,
See also:Ipswich, Norwich, Chelmsford, Hertford and Lewes, taken partly out of the old Norfolk circuit and partly out of the Home circuit . The counties of Kent and Surrey were
See also:left out of the circuit system,. the assizes for these counties being held by the judges remaining in
See also:London . Subsequently
See also:Maidstone and
See also:Guildford were
See also:united under the revived name of the Home circuit for the purpose of - the summer and winter assizes, and the assizes in these towns were held by one of the judges of the Western circuit, who, after disposing of the business there, rejoined his colleague in Exeter . In 1849 this arrangement was abolished, and Maid-
See also:stone and Guildford were added to the South-Eastern circuit .
Otherminor changes in the
See also:assize towns were made, which it is unnecessary to particularize .
See also:Birmingham first became a circuit
See also:town in the
See also:year 1884, and the
See also:work there became, by arrangement; the joint
See also:property of the Midland and
See also:Oxford circuits . There are alternative assize towns in the following counties, viz.:—On the Western circuit,
See also:Salisbury and
See also:Devizes for
See also:Wiltshire, and
See also:Wells and Taunton for
See also:Somerset; on the South-Eastern, Ipswich and Bury St
See also:Edmunds for
See also:Suffolk; on the North
See also:Wales circuit,
See also:Welshpool and Newtown for
See also:Montgomery; and on the South Wales circuit,
See also:Cardiff and
See also:Swansea for Glamorgan . - According to the arrangements in force in 1909 there are four assizes in each year . There are two
See also:principal assizes, viz. the winter assizes, beginning in
See also:January, and the summer assizes, beginning at the end of May . At these two assizes criminal and
See also:civil business is disposed of in all the circuits . There are two other assizes, viz. the autumn assizes and the
See also:Easter assizes . The autumn assizes are regulated by acts of 1876 and 1877 (Winter Assizes Acts 1876 and 1877), and orders of council made under the former act . They are held for the whole of England and Wales, but for the purpose of these assizes the work is to a large extent " grouped," so that not every
See also:county has a
See also:separate assize . For example., on the . South-Eastern circuit Huntingdon A condensed record s ompiled by J . W .
See also:Glaisher of Math. ii . 122) is as follows: Date . Computer . No. of No. of Place of Publication . fr. digits fr. digits calcd. correct . 1842 Rutherford . 208 152 Trans .
See also:Roy .
See also:Soc . (London, 1841), p . 283 .
1844 Dase . . . 205 200 Crelle's Journ.
See also:xxvii . 198 . 1847
See also:Clausen . . 250 248 Astron . Nachr.
See also:xxv. col . 207 . 1853 Shanks . . 318 318 Proc . Roy . Soc .
(London, 1853), 273 . 1853 Rutherford 440 440 Ibid . 1853 Shanks . . 530 .. Ibid . 1853 Shanks . . 607 .. W . Shanks, Rectification of the Circle 1853
See also:Richter . 333 330 (London, 1853) . Grunert's Archiv, XXI . 119 .
1854 Richter . . 400 330 Ibid. xxii . 473 . 1854 Richter . 400 400 Ibid.
See also:xxiii . 476 . 1854 Richter . 500 50o Ibid. xxv . 472 . 1873 Shanks . . 707 .. Proc .
Roy . Soc . (London), xxi . By these computers Machin's identity, or identities analogous to it, e.g . it/4 = tan '1+tan ' i +tan ' s (Dase, 1844) X14=4tan 'k—tan 'A+tan '5i (Rutherford), and
See also:Gregory's series were employed.' A much less wise class than the vr-computers of
See also:modern times are the pseudo-circle-squarers, or circle-squarers technically so called, that is to say, persons who, having obtained by illegitimate means a Euclidean construction for the quadrature or a finitely expressible value for it, insist on using faulty reasoning and defective
See also:mathematics to establish their assertions . Such persons have flourished at all times in the
See also:history of mathematics; but the
See also:interest attaching to them is more psychological than mathematical., It is of
See also:recent years that the most important advances in the theory of circle-quadrature have been made . In 1873
See also:Charles Hermite proved that the
See also:base e of the Napierian logarithms cannot be a
See also:root of a rational algebraical equation of any degree .3 To prove the same proposition regarding it is to prove that a Euclidean construction for circle-quadrature is impossible . For in such a constriction every point of the figure is obtained by the intersection of two straight lines, a straight
See also:line and a circle, or two circles; and as this implies that, when a unit of length is introduced, numbers employed, and the problem transformed into one of algebraic
See also:geometry, the equations to be solved can only be of the first or second degree, it follows that the equation to which we must be finally led is a rational equation of even degree . Hermite' did not succeed in his attempt on rr; but in 1882 F . Lindemann, following exactly in Hermite's steps, accomplished the desired result.5 (See also TRIGONOMETRY.) REFERENcEs.—Besides the various writings mentioned, see for the history of the subject F . Radio, Geschichte
See also:des Problems von der Quadratur des Zirkels (1892) ; M . Cantor, Geschichte der Mathemalik (1894-1901) ;
See also:Montucla, Hist. des. math .
See also:Paris, 1758, 2nd ed . 1799—1802); Murhard, Bibliotheca Mathematica, ii . Io6-123 (
See also:Leipzig, 1798) ; Reuss, Repertorium Comment. vii: 42-44 (
See also:Gottingen, 18o8) . For a few approximate geometrical solutions, see Leybourn's Math . Repository, vi . 151-154; Grunert's Archiv, xii . 98, xlix . 3; Nieuw Archief v . Wisk. iv . 200-204 . For experimental determinations of ar, dependent on the theory of probability, see
See also:Mess. of Math. ii . 113, I19; Casopis
See also:pro pistovdni math. a fys. x .
See also:Analyst, ix . 176 . (T .
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