See also:VAR began
See also:Lee had no resource but to try and
See also:escape to the south-west in
See also:order to join
See also:Johnston . The western
See also:movement was covered by a furious sortie from the lines of
See also:Petersburg, which was repulsed with heavy loss .
See also:felt that this was a mere feint to
See also:screen some other move, and instantly carried the Army of the
See also:Potomac to the westward, leaving a
See also:bare screen of troops in his lines . On the 29th of
See also:March the movement began, followed in rapid succession by the combats of
See also:Oak Road and
See also:House and Sheridan's
See also:great victory of Five Forks . At the same
See also:time the VI .
See also:Corps at last carried the Petersburg lines by
See also:storm . Thereupon Lee and
See also:Longstreet evacuated the Peters-
See also:burg and
See also:Richmond lines and began their retreat . Their men were practically starving, though their rearguard showed a brave front . The remnant of
See also:Ewell's corps was cut off at Sailor's Creek, and when Sheridan got ahead of the Confederates while Grant furiously pressed them in the
See also:rear, surrender was inevitable (
See also:April 8) . On the 9th the gallant remnant of the Army of
See also:northern Virginia laid down its arms at Appomattox Court House, and the Confederacy came to an end . Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Durham Station on the 26th, and soon afterwards all the remaining Confederate soldiers followed their example . So ended the gigantic struggle, as to the conduct of which it is only necessary to quote, with a more general application, the envoi of a Federal historian, " It has not seemed necessary to me to attempt a eulogy of the Army of the Potomac or the Army of northern Virginia." The general terms of surrender were that the
See also:Con-federates should give up all material, and sign a parole not to take up arms again .
There were no manifestations of
See also:triumph or exultation on the
See also:part of the victors, the lot of the vanquished was made as easy as possible, and after a
See also:short time the armies melted into the mass of the
See also:people without disturbance or disorder . A general amnesty proclaimed by the
See also:president of the
See also:United States on the, 29th of May was the formal ending of the Civil War . 35• Character of the War.—No undisciplined levies could have fought as did the armies on both sides .
See also:Grave faults the men had, from the
See also:regular's point of view . They required humouring, and their march discipline was very elastic . But in
See also:battle the " thinking bayonets " resolutely obeyed orders, even though it were to attack a Marye's
See also:Hill, or a " Bloody
See also:Angle," for they had under-taken their task and would carry it through unflinchingly . So much may be said of both armies . The great
See also:advantage of the Confederate—an advantage which he had in a less degree as against the hardier and
See also:country-bred Federal of the west—was that he was a
See also:hunter and rider
See also:born and bred, an excellent shot, and still not infrequently settled his quarrels by the duel . The
See also:town-bred soldier of the eastern states was a thoughtful
See also:citizen who was determined to do his
See also:duty, but he had far less natural aptitude for war than his enemy from the Carolinas or his comrade from
See also:Illinois or Kansas . At the same time the more varied conditions of urban
See also:life made him more adaptable to changes of
See also:climate and of occupation than the " Southron." Irish brigades served on both sides and shot each other to pieces as at Fredericks-burg . They had the reputation of being excellent soldiers . The German divisions, on the other
See also:hand, were rarely as
See also:good as the
See also:rest .
The leading of these men was in the hands, as a
See also:rule, of regular or ex-regular
See also:officers, who made many mistakes in their handling of large masses, but had been taught at West Point and on the
See also:Indian frontier to command men in danger, and administer them in
See also:camp . The volunteer officers rarely led more than a division . When given high command at once they usually failed, but the best of them
See also:rose gradually to the
See also:superior ranks;
See also:Logan, for instance, became an army
See also:Sickles, Terry and others corps commanders .
See also:Cleburne, one of the best division commanders of the South, had been a
See also:corporal in the
See also:British army .
See also:Meagher, the
See also:leader of the " Irish
See also:brigade " at Fredericksburg, was the
See also:young orator of the " United Irishmen." But Lee, the Johnstons, McClellan, Grant and Sherman had all served in the old army . Most of them were young men in 1861 .
See also:Stuart was twenty-eight, Sheridan
See also:thirty, Grant and
See also:Jackson under
See also:forty, while some of the subordinate generals were actually fresh from West Point . 36 .
See also:Strategy and Tactics.--The roughness of much of the country gave a
See also:tone to the strategy of the combatants . Roads were untrustworthy,
See also:rivers swelled suddenly, advance and retreat were conditioned and compelled, especially in the case of the
See also:ill-equipped Confederates, by the exigencies of
See also:food supply . Long forward strides of the
See also:Napoleonic type were rarely attempted; " changes of
See also:base " were indeed made across country, and over considerable distances, as by Sherman in 1864, but ordinarily either the base and the
See also:objective were connected by
See also:rail or
See also:water, or else every forward step was, after the manner of
See also:Marlborough's time, organized as a
See also:campaign . Hence
See also:field fortifications played an unusually prominent part, time and material being available as a rule for
See also:works of solid construction .
In isolated instances of more rapid campaigning—e.g .
See also:Antietam and Gettysburg—they were of subordinate importance . The attack and defence of these entrenchments led to
See also:tactical phenomena of unusual
See also:interest .
See also:Cavalry could not bring about the decision in such country, and sought a field for its restless activity elsewhere .
See also:Artillery had fallen, technically, far behind the
See also:arm, and in
See also:face of long-range
See also:fire could not annihilate the hostile
See also:line with case-shot fire as in the days of
See also:Napoleon . In a battle such as
See also:Chancellorsville or the
See also:Wilderness guns were almost valueless, since there was little open space in which they might be used . It thus fell to the infantry to attack and defend with its own weapons, and the defence was, locally, almost inexpugnable behind its tall breastworks . One line of works could be stormed, but there were almost always two or three retrenchments behind . The attacking infantry, who found it necessary to
See also:cross a fire-swept zone 1000 yds. broad, had to be used resolutely in masses, line following line, and each carrying forward the wrecks of its predecessor . Partial attacks were invariably costly failures . The use of masses was never put in practice more sternly than by Grant in 1864 . At the same time, as has been said, the cavalry arm found plenty of
See also:work .
The horses were not trained for
See also:shock-tactics, nor did the country offer charging
See also:room, and though melees of mounted men engaging with sword and
See also:pistol were not infrequent, the usual method of fighting was dismounted fire
See also:action, which was practised with uncommon skill by the troopers on both sides . The far-ranging strategic "
See also:raid " was a notable feature of the war; freely employed by both sides, it was sometimes harmful, more usually profitable, especially to the South, by reason of the captures in material, the information acquired and the alarm and confusion created . These raids, and the more ordinary screening work, were never executed more brilliantly than by Lee's great cavalry general, " Jeb " Stuart, in Virginia, but the Federal generals, Pleasonton and Sheridan, did excellent work in the east, as also Wheeler and Forrest on the Confederate,
See also:Wilson and Grierson on the Federal, side in the west . The technical services, in which the
See also:mechanical skill and ingenuity of the
See also:American had full
See also:developed remarkable efficiency . Whether it was desired to build a railway
See also:bridge, disable a
See also:locomotive or cut a canal, the
See also:engineers were always ready with some happy expedient . On one occasion an infantry division of 8000 men repaired 102
See also:miles of railway and built 182 bridges in 40 days,
See also:forging their own tools and using
See also:local resources . Many novelties, too, such as the field telegraph, balloons and signalling, were employed . 37 . The Union and Confederate Navies.—The
See also:naval war had been likewise fruitful of lessons for the future . Though wooden
See also:ships were still largely employed, the ironclad even then had begun to take a commanding place, and the sailing
See also:ship at last disappeared from naval warfare . Mines, torpedoes and sub-
See also:marines were all employed, and with the " Monitor " may fairly be said to have begun the application of mechanical science to the uses of naval war . The Federal
See also:navy was enormously
See also:expanded .
See also:hundred and thirteen steamers were brought into the service . Sloops of an excellent type were built for work on the high seas, of which the celebrated "Kearsarge" was one .
See also:Gun-boats were constructed so fast that they were called " ninety-
See also:day gunboats."
See also:Special reversible
See also:paddle steamers (called
See also:double-enders) were designed for service in the inlets and estuaries, and sixty-six ironclads were built and employed during the four years .
See also:river steamers were armed with heavy guns and protected by
See also:bales, &c., and some fast cruisers were constructed for ocean work, one of them actually reaching the high
See also:speed of 17.75 M. per
See also:hour . The existing Federal navy of 1861 already included some large and powerful
See also:modern vessels, such as the "
See also:Minnesota " and " Powhatan." To oppose them the Confederates, limited as they were for means, managed to construct various ironclads, and to improvise a considerable
See also:fleet of minor vessels, and, though a fighting navy never assembled under a Confederate
See also:flag-officer, the
See also:Southern warships found another more damaging and more profitable
See also:scope for their activity . It has been said that the blockade of the Confederate
See also:coast became in the end practically impenetrable, and that every attempt of the Confederate naval forces to break out was checked at once by crushing numerical preponderance . The exciting and profitable occupation of blockade-
See also:running led to countless small fights off the various harbours, and sometimes the United States navy had to fight a more serious action when some new "
See also:rebel " ironclad emerged from her
See also:harbour, inlet or sound . 38 . Fort
See also:Fisher.—Many of the greater combats in which the navy was engaged on the coast and inland have been referred to above, and the fightingbefore
See also:Charleston, New
See also:Mobile and
See also:Vicksburg is described in separate articles . One of the heaviest of the battles was fought at Fort Fisher in 1864 . This place guarded the approaches to
See also:North Carolina . Troops under
See also:Butler and a large fleet under
See also:Porter were destined for this enterprise .
An incendiaryvessel was exploded close to the works without effect on the 23rd-24th of
See also:December, and the ships engaged on the 24th . The next day the troops were disembarked, only to be called off of ter a partial assault . Butler then withdrew, and Porter was informed on the 31st that " a competent force properly commanded " would be sent out . On the 8th of
See also:January 1865 General Terry arrived with the
See also:land forces, and the
See also:armada arrived off Fisher on the 12th . On the 13th, 6000 men were landed, covered by the guns of the fleet, and, after Porter had subjected the works to a terrific
See also:bombardment, Fisher was brilliantly carried by storm on the 15th . Reinforcements arriving, the whole force then marched inland to meet Sherman . 39 . Other Naval Actions.—Apart from this, and other actions referred to, two incidents of the coast war
See also:call for notice—the career of the "
See also:Albemarle " and the duel between the "
See also:Atlanta " and the "
See also:Weehawken." The ironclad ram " Albemarle," built at
See also:Ferry on the
See also:Roanoke river, had done considerable damage to the Federal vessels which, since Burnside's expedition to Newberne, had cruised in Albemarle Sound, and in 1864 a force of double-enders and gunboats, under Captain Melancton
See also:Smith, U.S.N., was given the special task of destroying the rebel ram . A naval battle was fought on the 5th of May 1864, in which the double-ender " Sassacus " most gallantly rammed the " Albemarle " and was disabled alongside her, and Smith's vessel and others, unarmoured as they were, fought the ram at close quarters . After this the ironclad retired upstream, where she was eventually destroyed in the most daring manner by a
See also:crew under
See also:Lieutenant W . B . Cushing .
Making his way up the Roanoke as far asPlymouth he there sank the ironclad at her
See also:wharf by exploding a spar-
See also:torpedo (
See also:October 27) . On the 17th of
See also:June 1863 after a brief action the monitor" Weehawken " captured the Confederate ironclad " Atlanta " in Wassaw Sound, South Carolina . This duel resembled in its attendant circumstances the famous fight of the " Chesapeake " and the " Shannon." Captain
See also:Rodgers, like Broke, was one of the best officers, and the " Weehawken," like the "Shannon," was known as one of the smartest ships in the service . Five heavy accurate shots from the Federal's turret guns crushed the enemy in a few minutes . 40 . The Commerce-Destroyers.—Letters of marque were issued to Confederate privateers as early as April 1861, and Federal commerce at once began to suffer . When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into
See also:port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced bycommerce-destroying pure and
See also:simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy . Captain
See also:Raphael Semmes of the C.S.S . "Sumter" made a successful cruise on the high seas, and before she was abandoned at
See also:Gibraltar had made seventeen prizes . Unable to build at home, the Confederates sought warships abroad, evading the obligations of
See also:neutrality by various ingenious expedients . The "
See also:Florida " (built at Liverpool in 1861-1862) crossed the
See also:Atlantic, refitted at Mobile, escaped the blockaders, and fulfilled the instructions which, as her captain said, "
See also:left much to the discretion but more to the
See also:torch." She was captured by the U.S.S . " Wachusett " in the neutral harbour of
See also:Bahia (October 7, 1862) .
The most successful of the
See also:foreign-built cruisers was the famous "
See also:Alabama," commanded by Semmes and built at Liverpool . In the course of her career she burned or brought into port seventy prizes, fought and sank the U.S.S . " Hatteras " off
See also:Galveston, and was finally sunk by the U.S.S . " Kearsarge," Captain
See also:Winslow, off
See also:Cherbourg (June 19, 1864) . The career of another promising cruiser, the "
See also:Nashville," was summarily ended by the Federal monitor " Montauk " (
See also:February 28, 1863) . The "
See also:Shenandoah" was burning Union whalers in the
See also:Sea when the war came to an end . None of the various rams " built abroad for the " rebel "
See also:government ever came into action . The difficulties of coaling and the obligations of neutrality hampered these commerce-destroyers as much as the Federal vessels that were
See also:chasing them, but, in spite of drawbacks, the guerre de course was the most successful warlike operation undertaken by the Confederacy . The
See also:mercantile marine of the United States was almost driven off the high seas by the terror of these destructive cruisers . 41 . Cost of the War.—The
See also:total loss of life in the Union forces during the four years of war was 359,528, and of the many thousands discharged from the services as disabled or otherwise unfit, a large number died in consequence of injuries or disease incurred in the army . The estimate of 560,000 in all may be taken as approximately correct .
The same number is given as that of the Southern losses, which of course fell upon a much smallerpopulation . The war
See also:expenditure of the Federal government has been estimated at $3,400,000,000; the very large sums devoted to the
See also:pensions of widows, disabled men, &c., are not included in this amount (
See also:Dodge) . In 1879 an estimate made of all Federal war expenses up to that date, including pension charges, interest on loans, &c., showed a total of $6,190,000,000 (Dewey,
See also:History of the United States) . work is the Records of the Union and Confederate Navies (1894– ); The
See also:Rebellion Record (1862-1868), edited by F . W .
See also:Moore, a contemporary collection, has been superseded to a great extent by the official records, but is still valuable as a collection of unofficial documents of all kinds . Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1887–1889) is a series of papers, covering the whole war, written by the prominent commanders of both sides . The sixteen volumes of the
See also:Campaigns of the Civil War (1881–1882) and the Navy in the Civil War (1883) (written by various authors) are of very unequal merit, but several of the volumes are indispensable to the study of the Civil War . Of general works the following are the best :—Comte de
See also:Paris, History of the Civil War in
See also:America, translated from the French (1875–1888) ; Horace Greeley, The American Conflict (1864–1866) ; J . Scheibert, Der Biirgerkrieg i. d . Nordam . Freistaaten (Berlin, 1874) ;
See also:Wood and Edmonds, Civil War in the United States (
See also:London, 19o5); T .
A . Dodge,
See also:Eye View of our Civil War (revised edition, 1887) ; E . A .
See also:Pollard, A Southern History of the War (1866) . The con-temporary accounts mentioned should be studied with caution . Of critical works, J . C .
See also:Ropes, The
See also:Story of the Civil War (1894-1898); G . F . R .
See also:Henderson, Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War (London, 1898) and The Science of War, chapters viii. and ix . (London, 1905) ; C .
See also:Chesney, Essays in Military Biography (1874) ; Freytag-Loringhoven, Studien fiber Kriegfuhrung, 5861-5865 (Berlin, 1901-1903), are the most important . Publications of the Military
See also:Historical Society of Massachusetts (vols. i.-x., 1881 onwards) also comprise critical accounts of nearly all the important campaigns . A critical account of the Virginian operations and the Chickamauga campaign is Gen . E . P .
See also:Alexander's Military
See also:Memoirs of a Confederate (1906) . C . R .
See also:Chronological and Alphabetical Record of the Great Civil War (
See also:Milwaukee, 1904) may be mentioned as a work of reference . A fairly
See also:complete bibliography will be found in J . N .
Larned, Literature of American History (Boston, 1902), and useful lists in Ropes, op. cit., and in the Cambridge Modern History, vol. vii. p . 812 . For
See also:biographies, memoirs and general works, see the lists appended to the various
See also:biographical articles and to the articles UNITED STATES and CONFEDERATE STATES . (C . F .
CIVIDALE DEL FRIULI (anc. Forum Iulii)
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