See also:AULOS . The construction of the
See also:bass clarinet demands the greatest care . The
See also:bore should theoretically be strictly cylindrical throughout its length from mouthpiece to
See also:bell joint; the slightest deviation from mathematical accuracy, such as an undue widening of the bell from the point where it joins the
See also:body to the mouth of the bell, would tend to muffle the
See also:lower notes of the instrument and to destroy correct intonation . The origin of the bass clarinet must be sought in Germany, where Heinrich Grenser of
See also:Dresden, one of the most famous instrument-makers of his
See also:day, made the first bass clarinet in 1793 . The
See also:horn (q.v.) or tenor clarinet, which had reached the height of its popularity, no doubt suggested to Grenser, who was more especially renowned for his excellent fagottos, the possibility of providing for the clarinet a bass of its own . One of these earliest attempts in the
See also:form of a fagotto, stamped " A . Grenser, Dresden," with nine square-flapped brass keys working on knobs, is in the Grossherzogliches Museum at
See also:Darmstadt and was
See also:lent to the Royal Military
See also:London 1890.1 Two other early specimens,' belonging originally to Adolphe
See also:Sax and to M. de Coussemaker, are now respectively preserved in the museums of the Brussels
See also:Conservatoire and of the Berlin Hochschule (Snoeck Collection) . The tubes are of
See also:great thickness and the holes are bored obliquely through the walls . Both
See also:instruments are in A . Attempts were made in Italy to overcome the
See also:mechanical difficulties by making the bore of the bass clarinet
See also:serpentine . A specimen by Nicolas Papalini of
See also:Pavia 3 in the museum of the Brussels Conservatoire has the serpentine bore pierced through two slabs of
See also:wood; the two halves, each forming a vertical section of the instrument, are fitted together with wooden pins . The outside length is only 2 ft .
31 in. and there are nineteen
See also:finger-holes .
See also:Joseph Uhlmann of Vienna 4 constructed a bass clarinet, also termed " bass basset horn," with twenty-three keys and a compass from Bb through four
See also:complete octaves with all chromatic ' See Captain C . R . Day, Descriptive
See also:Catalogue (London, 1891), No . 266, p . 125 . a See Victor Mahillon, Catalogue descriptif, vol. ii . (1896), pp . 224-226, No . 940 . 3 See Captain C . R .
Day, op. cit. p . 123, pl . V . B. and p . 123, No . 262 . ' See Dr Schafhautl's
See also:report on the
See also:Munich exhibition, Bericht der Beurtheilungscommission fiir Musikinstrumente (Munich, 1855), P . 153• semitones . These instruments resemble the saxophones (q.v.), having the bell joint bent up in front and the crook almost at right angles backwards, but the bore of the saxophone is conical . Georg Streitwolf (1779-1837), an ingenious musical instrument-maker of
See also:Gottingen, produced in 1828 a bass clarinet with a compass extending from Ab to F, nineteen keys and a fingering the same as that of the clarinet with but few exceptions . In form it resembled the fagotto and had a crook terminating in a
See also:beak mouthpiece . The Streitwolf bass clarinet was adopted in 1834 by the Prussian
See also:infantry as bass to the wood-
See also:wind .l Streitwolf's first bass clarinets were in C, but later he constructed instruments in Bb as well .
Like the basset horn, Streitwolf's instruments had the four chromatic open keys extending the compass downwards to Bb . The
See also:tone was of very
See also:fine quality . One of these instruments is in the possession of Herr C . Kruspe of
See also:Erfurt,' and another is preserved in the Berlin collection at the Hochschule . It was, however, the successive improvements of Adolphe Sax (
See also:Paris, 1814-1894), working probably from Grenser's and later from Streitwolf's
See also:models, which produced the
See also:modern bass clarinet, and following up the
See also:work of Halary and Buffet in the same
See also:field, he secured its introduction into the orchestra at the
See also:opera . The bass clarinet in C made its first appearance in opera in 1836 in
See also:Act V., where in a fine passage the lower
See also:register of the instrument is displayed to
See also:advantage, and later in Dinorah (Le
See also:pardon de Ploermel) . Two years later (1838) at the theatre of
See also:Modena a bass clarinet by P . Maino of Milan, differing in construction from the Sax
See also:model, was independently introduced into the orchestra ? Wagner employed the bass clarinet in Bb and C in Tristan and Isolde,4 where at the end of Act II. it is used with great effect to characterize the reproachful utterance of
See also:King Mark, thus: —V<`T etc . P f I aim . P (K .
CLARINET, or CLARIONET (Fr. clarinette; Ger. Clarin...
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