CLASSICS and ARABIANPHILOSOPHY) . The doctrines and the
See also:works the works of Aristotle had been transmitted by the 0fArts .
See also:Nestorians to the
See also:Arabs, and among those kept alive by a
See also:tone. succession of philosophers, first in the East and afterwards intheWest . The chief of these, at least so far as regards the influence which they exerted on
See also:medieval philosophy, were
See also:Avempace and Averroes . The unification by the last-mentioned of Aristotle's active intellect in all men, and his consequent denial of individual immortality are well known . The universal human intellect is made by him to proceed from the divine by a series of Neoplatonic emanations . In the course of the 12th century the writings of these men were introduced into France by the Jews of
See also:Andalusia, of
See also:Marseilles and
See also:Montpellier . " These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the
See also:Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other
See also:treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries . There arrived besides by the same channel the glosses of
See also:Theophrastus, of
See also:Simplicius, of
See also:Alexander of Aphrodisias, of Philoponus, annotated in the same sense by the same hands . This was the
See also:rich but dangerous
See also:present made by the Mussulman school to the Christian " (i . 382) . To these must be added the Neoplatonically inspired
See also:Fens Vitae of the Jewish philosopher and poet
See also:Ibn Gabirol (q.v.), or Avicebron .
See also:special command of
See also:Raimund, archbishop of Toledo, the chief of these works were translated from the Arabic through the Castilian into Latin by the archdeacon Dominicus Gonzalvi with the aid of Johannes Avendeath (=
See also:David), a converted
See also:Jew, about 1150 . About the same
See also:time, or not long after, the
See also:Liber de causis became known—a
See also:work destined to have a powerful influence on Scholastic thought, especially in the
See also:period immediately succeeding . Accepted at first as Aristotle's, and actually printed in the first Latin
See also:editions of his works, the
See also:book is in reality an Arabian compilation of Neoplatonic theses . Of a similar character was the pseudo-Aristotelian Theologia which was in circulation at least as early as 1200 . The first effects of this immense acquisition of new material were markedly unsettling on the doctrinal orthodoxy of the time . The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine
See also:doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a
See also:crop of mystical knowledge. heresies . The mystical
See also:pantheism taught at
See also:Paris by Amalrich of Bena (d . 1207; see AMALRIC and MYSTICISM), though based by him upon a revival of Scotus Erigena, was doubtless connected in its origin with the Neoplatonic treatises which now become current . The immanence of
See also:God in all things and His incarnation as the
See also:Holy Spirit in themselves appear to have been the chief doctrines of the Amalricans . They are reported to have said, " Omnia unum, quia quicquid est est Deus." About the same time David of
See also:Dinant, in a book De tomis (rendered by Albertus De divisionibus), taught the identity of God with
See also:matter (or the indivisible principle of bodies) and nous (or the indivisible principle of intelligences)—an extreme
See also:Realism culminating in a materialistic pantheism . If they were diverse, he argued, there must exist above them some higher or
See also:element or being, in which case this would be God, nous, or the
See also:original matter . The spread of the Amalrican doctrine led to fierce persecutions, and the provincial council which met at Paris in 1209 expressly decreed " that neither the books of Aristotle on natural philosophy, nor commentaries on the same, should be read, whether publicly or privately, at Paris." In 1215 this prohibition is renewed in the statutes of the university of Paris, as sanctioned by the papal
See also:legate .
Permission was given to lecture on the logical books, both those which had been known all along and those introduced since 1128, but the
See also:veto upon the Physics is extended to the Metaphysics and the summaries of the Arabian commentators . By 1231, however, the fears of the
See also:church were beginning to be allayed . A bull of
See also:Gregory IX. in that
See also:year makes no mention of any Aristotelian works except the Physics . Finally, in 1254, we find the university officially prescribing how many
See also:hours are to be devoted to the explanation of the
See also:Meta-physics and the
See also:physical treatises of Aristotle . These
See also:dates enable us to measure accurately the stages by which the church accommodated itself to, and as it were took possession of, the Aristotelian philosophy . Growing knowledge of Aristotle's works and the multiplication of
See also:translations enabled students to distinguish the genuine Aristotle from the questionable accompaniments with which he had made his first appearance in Western
See also:Europe . Fresh translations of Aristotle and Averroes had already been made from the Arabic (IIepi-rd 'uta io-ropias from the
See also:Hebrew) by Michael
See also:Scot, and Hermannus Alamannus, at the instance of the emperor
See also:Frederick II.; so that the whole
See also:body of Aristotle's works was at
See also:hand in Latin translations from about 1210 to 1225 . Soon afterwards efforts began to be made to secure more literal translations
See also:direct from the Greek . Robert
See also:Grosseteste (d . 1253) was one of the first to stir in this matter, and he was followed by Albertus
See also:Magnus and
See also:Thomas Aquinas .
See also:Half a century thus sufficed to remove the
See also:ban of the church, and soon Aristotle was recognized on all hands as " the philosopher "
See also:par excellence, the
See also:master of those that know . It even became customary to draw a parallel between him as the praecursor Christi in naturalibus and
See also:John the Baptist, the praecursor Christi in gratuitis .
This unquestioned supremacy was not yielded, however, at the very beginning of the period . The earlier doctors who avail themselves of Aristotle's works, while bowing to his authority implicitly in matters oflogic, are generally found defending a Christianized
See also:Platonism against the doctrine of the Metaphysics . So it is with Alexander of Hales (d . 1245), the first Scholastic who was acquainted with the whole of the Aristotelian works and the Alexander Arabian commentaries upon them . He was more of a of Hates. theologian than a philosopher; and in his chief work, Summa universae theologiae, he simply employs his in- creased philosophical knowledge in the demonstration of theological doctrines . So
See also:great, however, did his achievement seem that he was honoured with the titles of
See also:Doctor irrefragabilis and Theologorum monarcha . Alexander of Hales belonged to the Franciscan
See also:order, and it is worth remarking that it was the mendicant orders Mendicant which now came forward as the protagonists of Christian learning and faith and, as it were, reconquered Aristotle friars . for the church . During the first half of the 13th century, when the university of Paris was plunged in angry feuds with the
See also:municipality, feuds which even led at one time (1229) to the
See also:flight of the students in a body, the friars established teachers in their
See also:con-vents in Paris . After the university had settled its quarrels these continued to teach, and soon became formidable rivals of the secular lecturers . After a severe struggle for academical recognition they were finally admitted to all the privileges of the university by a bull of Alexander IV. in 1253 . The
See also:Franciscans took the lead in this intellectual
See also:movement with Alexander of Hales and
See also:Bonaventura, but the
See also:Dominicans were soon able to boast of two greater names in
See also:Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas .
See also:Duns Scotus and
See also:Occam were both Franciscans . Alexander of Hales was succeeded John of in his
See also:chair of instruction by his
See also:pupil John of Rochelle, Rocheue, who died in 1271 but taught only till 1253 . His
See also:treatise De anima, on which Haureau
See also:lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater
See also:scope now given to psychological discussions . This was a natural result of acquaintance with Aristotle's De anima and the numerous Greek and Arabian commentaries upon it, and it is observable in most of the writers that have still to be mentioned . Even the nature of the universals is no longer discussed from a purely logical or metaphysical point of view, but becomes connected with psychological questions . And, on the whole, the widening of intellectual interests is the chief feature by which the second period of
See also:Scholasticism may be distinguished from the first . In some respects there is more freshness and
See also:interest in i3ener/ the speculations which burst forth so ardently in the end of Gene
See also:aer- the I1th and the first half of the 12th century . Albert and charact istics of Aquinas no doubt stood on a higher level than Anselm second and
See also:Abelard, not merely by their wider range of knowledge period. but also by the intellectual massiveness of their achieve- ments; but it may be questioned whether the earlier writers did not possess a greater force of originality and a keener
See also:talent . Originality was at no time the strong point of the
See also:middle ages, but in the later period it was almost of
See also:necessity buried under the mass of material suddenly thrust upon the age, to be assimilated . On the other hand, the influence of this new material is everywhere evident in the wider range of questions which are discussed by the doctors of the period . Interest is no longer to the same extent concentrated on the one question of the universals . Other questions, says Haureau, are placed on the order of the day—the question of the elements of substance, that of the principle of individuation, that of the origin of the ideas, of the manner of their existence in the human understanding and in the divine thought, as well as various others of equal interest " (i .
420) . Some of these, it may be said, are simply the old Scholastic problem in a different garb; but the ex-tended
See also:horizon of which Haureau speaks is amply proved by mere reference to the treatises of Albert and St Thomas . They there seek to reproduce for their own time all the departments of the Aristotelian
See also:system .
CLASSED GROWTHS OF THE
CLASSIFICATION (Lat. classis, a class, probably fro...
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