See also:common to all the
See also:special sciences and to knowledge in general, consisting in the collection under a common name of a number of
See also:objects which are alike in one or more respects . The process consists in observing the objects and abstracting from their various qualities that characteristic which they have in common . This characteristic constitutes the definition of the " class " to which they are regarded as belonging . It is this process by which we arrive first at "
See also:species" and then at " genus," i.e. at all scientific generalization . Individual things, regarded as such, constitute a mere aggregate, unconnected with one another, and so far unexplained; scientific knowledge consists in systematic
See also:classification . Thus if we observe the heavenly bodies individually we can state merely that they have been observed to have certain motions through the
See also:sky, that they are luminous, and the like . If, however, we compare them one with another, we discover that, whereas all partake in the general
See also:movement of the heavens, some have a movement of their own . Thus we arrive at a
See also:system of classification according to motion, by which fixed stars are differentiated from
See also:planets . A further classification according to other criteria gives us stars of the first magnitude and stars of the second magnitude, and so forth . We thus arrive at a systematic understanding expressed in
See also:laws by the application of which accurate forecasts of
See also:celestial phenomena can be made . Classification in the strict logical sense consists in discovering the casual interrelation of natural objects; it thus differs from what is often called " artificial " classification, which is the preparation, e.g. of
See also:statistics for particular purposes, administrative and the like . Of the systems of classification adopted in
See also:physical science, only one requires treatment here, namely, the classification of Latin pronunciation .
the sciences as a whole, a problem which has from the
See also:time of Aristotle attracted considerable
See also:attention . Its
See also:object is to delimit the
See also:spheres of influence of the
See also:positive sciences and show how they are mutually related . Of such attempts three are specially noteworthy, those of
See also:Bacon, Auguste Comte and
See also:Spencer . Bacon's classification is based on the subjective criterion of the various faculties which are specially concerned . He thus distinguished
See also:History (natural,
See also:literary, ecclesiastical) as the province of memory, Philosophy (including
See also:Theology) as that of reason, and
See also:Poetry, Fables and the like, as that of
See also:imagination . This classification was made the basis of the Encyclopedie . Comte adopted an entirely different system based on an
See also:objective criterion . Having first enunciated the theory that all science passes through three stages, theological,
See also:meta-physical and positive, he neglects the two first, and divides the last according to the " things to be classified," in view of their real
See also:affinity and natural connexions, into six, in
See also:order of decreasing generality and increasing complexity—mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, physiology and
See also:biology (including psychology), and
See also:sociology . This he conceives to be not only the logical, but also the
See also:historical, order of development, from the abstract and purely deductive to the concrete and inductive) . Sociology is thus the highest, most complex, and. most positive of the sciences . Herbert Spencer, condemning this division as both incomplete and theoretically unsound, adopted a three-
See also:fold division into (1) abstract science (including logic and
See also:mathematics) dealing with the universal forms under which all knowledge of phenomena is possible, (2) abstract-concrete science (including
See also:mechanics, chemistry, physics), dealing with the elements of phenomena themselves, i.e. laws of forces as deducible from the persistence of forces, and (3) concrete science (e.g. astronomy, biology, sociology), dealing with " phenomena themselves in their totalities," the universal laws of the continuous redistribution of
See also:Matter and Motion,
See also:Evolution and Dissolution . Beside the above three systems several others deserve brief mention .
See also:Greece at the
See also:dawn of systematic thought the physical sciences were few in number; none the less philosophers were not agreed as to their true relation . The Platonic school adopted a triple classification, physics, ethics and dialectics; Aristotle's system was more complicated, nor do we know precisely how he subdivided his three
See also:main classes, theoretical,
See also:practical and poetical (i.e. technical, having to do with irotl7Qis, creative) . The second class covered ethics and politics, the latter of which was often regarded by Aristotle as including ethics; the third includes the useful and the imitative sciences; the first includes
See also:metaphysics and physics . As regards pure logic Aristotle sometimes seems to include it with metaphysics and physics, sometimes to regard it as ancillary to all the sciences .
See also:Hobbes (
See also:Leviathan) drew up an elaborate paradigm of the sciences, the first stage of which was a dichotomy into " Naturall Philosophy " (" consequences from the accidents of bodies naturall ") and " Politiques and Civill Philosophy " (" consequences from accidents of Politique bodies ") . The former by successive subdivisions is reduced to eighteen special sciences; the latter is subdivided into the rights and duties of
See also:powers, and those of the subject .
See also:Jeremy Bentham and A . M . Ampere both drew up elaborate systems based on the principle of dichotomy, and beginning from the distinction of mind and
See also:body . Bentham invented an artificial terminology which is rather curious than valuable . The science of the body was Somatology, that of the mind Pneumatology . The former include Posology (science of quantity, mathematics) and Poiology (science of quality); Posology includes Morphoscopic (
See also:geometry) and Alegomorphic(arithmetic) .
See further Bentham's Chrestomathia and
See also:works quoted under BENTHAM, JEREMY . Carl
See also:Wundt criticized most of these systems as taking too little account of the real facts, and preferred a classification based on the standpoint of the various sciences towards their subject-matter . His system may, therefore, be described as conceptional . It distinguishes philosophy, which deals with facts in their widest-
See also:CLAUDE, J . universal relations, from the special sciences, which consider facts in the
See also:light of a particular relation or set of relations . All these systems have a certain value, and are interesting as throwing light on the views of those who invented them . It will be seen, however, that none can
See also:lay claim to unique validity . The fundamenta divisionis, though in themselves more or less logical, are quite arbitrarily chosen, generally as being germane to a preconceived philosophical or scientific theory .
CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERS OF
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.