See also:Clement of Rome, or CLEMENS
See also:ROMANUS (fim c . A.D . 96), was one of the "Apostolic Fathers," and in the lists of bishops of Rome is given the third or
See also:fourth place—Peter,
See also:Linus, (
See also:Anencletus), Clement . There is no ground for identifying him with the Clement of Phil. iv . 3 . He may have been a freedman of T . Flavius Clemens, who was
See also:consul with his
See also:cousin, the Emperor Demitian, in A.D . 95 . A 9th-century tradition says he was martyred in the
See also:Crimea in 102; earlier authorities say he died a natural
See also:death; he is commemorated on the 23rd of
See also:November . In The Shepherd of Hernias (q.v.) (Vis . Ir. iv . 3) mention is made of one Clement whose
See also:office it is to communicate with other churches, and this
See also:function agrees well with what we find in the
See also:letter to the
See also:church at Corinth by which Clement is best known .
Whilst being on our guard against
See also:reading later ideas into the title"
See also:bishop " as applied to Clement, there is no reason to doubt that he was one of the chief personalities in the Christian community at Rome, where since the
See also:time of Paul the
See also:house congregations (Rom. xvi.) had been
See also:united into one church officered by presbyters and deacons (Clem . 4o-42) . The letter in question was occasioned by a dispute in the church of Corinth, which had led to the ejection of several presbyters from their office . It does not contain Clement's name, but is addressed by " the Church of
See also:God which sojourneth in Rome to the Church of God which sojourneth in Corinth." But there is no reason for doubting the universal tradition which ascribes it to Clement, or the generally accepted date, c . A.D . 96 . No claim is made by the
See also:Roman Church to interfere on. any ground of
See also:rank; yet it is noteworthy that in the earliest document outside the
See also:canon which we can securely date, the church in the imperial city comes forward as a peacemaker to compose the troubles of a church in
See also:Greece . Nothing is known of the cause of the discontent; no moral offence is charged against the presbyters, and their dismissal is regarded by Clement as high-handed and unjustifiable, and as a revolt of the younger members of the community against the elder . After a laudatory account of the past conduct of the Corinthian Church, he enters upon a denunciation of vices and a praise of virtues, and illustrates his various topics by copious citations from the Old Testament scriptures . Thus he paves the way for his tardy rebuke of
See also:present disorders, which he reserves until two-thirds of his
See also:epistle is completed . Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches twice the length of the Epistle to the
See also:Hebrews . Many of his general exhortations are but very indirectly connected with the
See also:practical issue to which the epistle is directed, and it is very probable that he was
See also:drawing largely upon the homiletical material with which he was accustomed to edify his
See also:fellow-Christians at Rome .
This view receives some support from thelong liturgical prayer at the close, which almost certainly represents the intercession used in the Roman eucharists . But we must not allow such a theory to
See also:blind us to the true wisdom with which the writer defers his censure . He knows that the roots of the
See also:quarrel lie in a wrong
See also:condition of the church's
See also:life . His general exhortations, courteously expressed in the first
See also:person plural, are directed towards a wide reformation of
See also:manners . If the wrong spirit can be exorcised, there is hope that the quarrel will end in a general
See also:desire for reconciliation . The most permanent
See also:interest of the epistle lies in the conception of the grounds on which the Christian
See also:ministry rests according to the view of a prominent teacher before the 1st century has closed . The orderliness of nature is appealed to as expressing the mind of its Creator . The orderliness of Old Testament worship bears a like witness; everything is duly fixed by God; high priests, priests and
See also:Levites, and the
See also:people in the people's place . Similarly in the Christian
See also:dispensation all is in
See also:order due . " The apostles preached the
See also:gospel to us from the
See also:Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ was sent from God . Christ then is from God, and the apostles from Christ . . .
. They appointed their first-fruits, having tested them by the Spirit, as bishops and deacons of those who should believe . . . . Our apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife about the name of the bishop's office . For this cause therefore, having received perfect foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid, and after-wards gave a further
See also:injunction (Elnvojx, v has now the further evidence of the Latin legem) that, if these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed to their ministry .. . It will be no small sin in us if we eject from the bishop'soffice those who have offered the gifts blamelessly and holily " (cc. xlii. xliv.) . Clement's familiarity with the Old Testament points to his being a Christian of long
See also:standing rather than a
See also:recent convert . We learn from his letter (i . 7) that the church at Rome, though suffering persecution, was firmly held together by faith and love, and was exhibiting its unity in an orderly worship . The epistle was publicly read from time to time at Corinth, and by the 4th century this usage had spread to other churches . We even find it attached to the famous Alexandrian MS . (Codex A) of the New Testament, but this does not imply that it ever reached canonical rank . For the mass of early Christian literature that was gradually attached to his name see CLEMENTINE LITERATURE .
The epistle was published in 1633 byPatrick
See also:Young from
See also:Cod . Alexandrinus. in which a
See also:leaf near the end was missing, so that the
See also:great prayer (cc. lv.-lxiv.) remained unknown . In 18i5 (six years after J . J3 . Lightfoot's first edition)
See also:Bryennius (q.v.) published a
See also:complete text from the MS. in Constantinople (dated 1055), from which in 1883 he gave us the Didache . In 1876 R . L . Bensly found a complete
See also:Syriac text in a MS. recently obtained by the University library at Cambridge . Lightfoot made use of these new materials in an Appendix (11897); his second edition, on which he had been at
See also:work at the time of his death, came out in 189o . This must remain the standard edition, notwithstanding Dom Morin's most interesting
See also:discovery of a Latin version (1894), which was probably made in the 3rd century, and is a valuable addition to the authorities for the text . Its evidence is used in a small edition of the epistle by R . Knopf (
See also:Leipzig, 1899) .
See also W .
See also:Wrede, Untersuchungen zum ersten Clemensbrief (1891), and the other literature cited in Herzog-
See also:Hawk's Realencyklopddie, vol. iv . (A . J . G.; J . A .
CLEMENT (Lat. Clemens, i.e. merciful; Gr. K)4gs)
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