See also:English criminal
See also:law . Benefit of
See also:clergy began with the claim on the
See also:part of the ecclesiastical authorities in the 12th century that every clericus should be exempt from the jurisdiction of the temporal courts and be subject to the spiritual courts alone . The issue of the conflict was that the
See also:common law courts abandoned the extreme punishment of
See also:death assigned to some offences when the
See also:person convicted was a clericus, and tqe
See also:church was obliged to accept the compromise and let a secondary punishment be inflicted . The
See also:term " clerk " or clericus always included a large number of persons in what was still further extended to include laymen who performed duties in cathedrals, churches, &c., e.g. the choirmen, who were designated "
See also:lay clerks." Of these lay clerks or choirmen there was always one whose
See also:duty it was to be constantly
See also:present at every service, to sing or say the responses as the
See also:leader or representative of the laity . His duties were gradually enlarged to include the care of the church and precincts, assisting at baptisms, marriages, &c., and he thus became the precursor of the later
See also:parish clerk . In a somewhat similar sense we find bible clerk, singing clerk, &c . The use of the word " clerk " to denote a person ordained to the
See also:ministry is now mainly legal or 'formal . The word also
See also:developed in a different sense . In
See also:medieval times the pursuit of letters and general learning was confined to the clergy, and as they were practically the only persons who could read and write all notarial and secretarial
See also:work was discharged by them, so that in
See also:time the word was used with
See also:special reference to secretaries, notaries,
See also:accountants or even mere penmen . This special meaning developed into what is now one of the ordinary senses of the word . We find, accordingly, the term applied to those
See also:officers of courts, corporations, &c., whose duty consists in keeping records,
See also:correspondence, and generally managing business, as clerk of the market, clerk of the
See also:petty bag, clerk of the peace,
See also:town clerk, &c . Similarly, a clerk also means any one who in a subordinate position is engaged in writing, making entries, ordinary correspondence, or similar " clerkly " work .
See also:United States the word means also an assistant in a commercial
See also:house, a
See also:retail salesman .
CLERK 1 (from A.S. cleric or clerc, which, with the...
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