CLERKENWELL , a
See also:district on the
See also:north side of the city of
See also:London, England, within. the metropolitan
See also:borough of
See also:Finsbury (q.v.) . It is so called from one of several
See also:wells or springs in this district, near which miracle plays were performed by the
See also:parish clerks of London . This well existed until the
See also:middle of the 19th century . Here was situated a priory, founded in 1100, which
See also:grew to
See also:wealth and fame as the
See also:principal institution in England of the Knights Hospitallers of the
See also:Order of St
See also:John of Jerusalem . Its gateway, erected in 1504, and remaining in St John's Square, served various purposes after the suppression of the monasteries, being, for example, the birthplace of the
See also:Magazine in 1731, and the scene of Dr
See also:work in connexion with that journal . In
See also:modern times the
See also:gatehouse again became associated with the Order, and is the headquarters of the St John's
See also:Ambulance Association . An Early
See also:English crypt remains beneath the neighbouring parish
See also:church of St John, where the notorious deception of the "
See also:Cock Lane Ghost," in which Johnson took great
See also:interest, was exposed . Adjoining the priory was St Mary's
See also:Benedictine nunnery, St
See also:James's church (1792) marking the site, and preserving in its vaults some of the
See also:ancient monuments . In the 17th century Clerkenwell became a fashionable place of residence . A prison erected here at this
See also:period gave place later to the
See also:House of „ „ Detention, notorious as the scene of a Fenian
See also:outrage in 1867, 'The accepted English pronunciation,
See also:clark, is found in when it was sought to
See also:release certain prisoners by blowing up
See also:southern English as early as the 15th century; but
See also:northern dialects still preserve the e sound (” clurk "), which is the
See also:pro- of the
See also:building . Clerkenwell is a centre of the
See also:watch-making and nunciation in
See also:America. s' ,eweller's
See also:industries, long established here; and the Northamptoll were called minor orders, and in 1350 the
See also:privilege was extended to secular as well as to religious clerks; and, finally, the test of being a clerk was the ability to read the opening words of
See also:verse z of Psalm li., hence generally known as the "
See also:neck-verse." Even this requirement was abolished in 1705 . In 1487 it was enacted that every layman, when convicted of a clergyable
See also:felony, should be branded on the thumb, and disabled from claiming the benefit a second
See also:time .
The privilege was extended to peers, even if they could not read, in 1547, and to
See also:women, partially in 1622 and fully in 1692 . The partial exemption claimed by the Church did not apply to the more atrocious crimes, and hence offences came to be divided into clergyable and unclergyable . According to the common practice in England of working out modern improvements through antiquated forms, this exemption was made the means of modifying the severity of the criminal
See also:law . It became the practice to claim and be allowed the benefit of
See also:clergy; and when it was the intention by
See also:statute to make a
See also:crime really punishable with
See also:death, it was awarded " without benefit of clergy." The benefit of clergy was abolished by a statute of 1827, but as this statute did not repeal that of 1547, under which peers were given the privilege, a further statute was passed in 1841 putting peers on the same footing as
See also:commons and clergy . For a full account of benefit of clergy see
See also:Pollock and
See also:History of English Law, vol. i . 424-440; also
See also:Stephen, History of the Criminal Law of England, vol. i.; E .
See also:Friedberg, Corpus
See also:juris canonici (
See also:Leipzig, 1879-1881) .
AGNES MARY CLERKE (1842-1907)
CLERUCHY (Gr. KAripovXia, from KX'gpos, a lot, e'xa...
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