CLIFFORD , the name of a famous
See also:family and
See also:barony, taken from the
See also:village of Clifford in
See also:Herefordshire, although the family were mainly associated with the
See also:north of England . Robert de Clifford (c . 1275-1314), a son of Roger de Clifford (d . 1282), inherited the estates of his grandfather, Roger de Clifford, in 1286; then he obtained through his
See also:part of the extensive
See also:land of the Viponts, and thus became one of the most powerful barons of his age . A prominent soldier during the reigns of
See also:Edward I. and Edward II., Clifford was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1299, won
See also:great renown at the
See also:siege of Carlaverock
See also:Castle in 1300, and after taking part in the
See also:movement against Edward II.'s favourite, Piers
See also:GaveSton, was killed at
See also:Bannockburn . His son Roger, the 2nd baron (1299-1322), shared in the
See also:rebellion of
See also:earl of
See also:Lancaster, and was probably executed at
See also:York on the 23rd of
See also:March 1322 . Robert's
See also:grandson Roger, the 5th baron (1333-1389), and the latter's son Thomas, the 6th baron (c . 1363-c . 1391), served the English
See also:kings on the Scottish
See also:borders and elsewhere . The same is true of Thomas, the 8th baron (1414-1455), who was killed at the first
See also:battle of St Albans in May 1455 . Thomas's son
See also:John, the 9th baron (c . 1435-1461), was more famous .
See also:Wars of the
See also:Roses he fought for
See also:Henry VI., earning by his cruelties the name of the "
See also:butcher "; after thebattle of Wakefield in 1460 he murdered Edmund, earl of
See also:Rutland, son of
See also:Richard, duke of York, exclaiming, according to the chronicler Edward
See also:Hall, " By
See also:blood thy
See also:father slew mine; and so will I do thee and all thy
See also:Shakespeare refers to this incident in
See also:King Henry VI., and also represents Clifford as taking part in the
See also:murder of York . It is, however, practically certain that York was slain during the battle, and not afterwards like his son . Clifford was killed at Ferrybridge on the 28th of March 1461, and was afterwards attainted . His
See also:young son Henry, the loth baron (c . 1454-1523), lived disguised as a shepherd for some years, hence he is sometimes called the " shepherd
See also:lord." On the accession of Henry VII. the
See also:attainder was reversed and,he received his father's estates . He spent a large part of his
See also:time at Barden in
See also:Lancashire, being interested in astronomy and
See also:astrology . Occasionally, however, he visited
See also:London, and he fought at the battle of
See also:Flodden in 1513 . This lord, who died on the 23rd of
See also:April 1523, is celebrated by Words-worth in the poems " The
See also:white doe of Rylstone " and "
See also:Song at the feast of Brougham Castle." Henry, the rlth baron, was created earl of
See also:Cumberland in 1525, and from this time until the extinction of the title in 1643 the
See also:line of the Cliffords was associated with the earldom of Cumberland (q.v.) . Richard Clifford,
See also:bishop of
See also:Worcester and London under Henry IV. and Henry V., was probably a member of this family . This prelate, who was very active at the council of
See also:Constance, died on the loth of
See also:August 1421 . On the
See also:death of
See also:George, 3rd earl of Cumberland, in 16o5, the barony of Clifford, separated from the earldom, was claimed by his daughter Anne, countess of Dorset, Pembroke and
See also:Montgomery; and in 1628 a new barony of Clifford was created in favour of Henry, afterwards 5th and last earl of Cumberland . After Anne's death in 1676 the claim to the older barony passed to her daughter
See also:Margaret (d .
1676), wife of John Tuf ton, and earl of
See also:Thanet, and her descendants, whose title was definitely recognized in 1691 . After the Tuftons the barony was held with intervening abeyances by the Southwells and the Russells, and to this latter family the
See also:present Lord De Clifford belongs.' When the last earl of Cumberland died in 1643 the newer barony of Clifford passed to his daughter
See also:Elizabeth, wife of Richard Boyle, -2nd earl of
See also:Cork, and from the Boyles it passed to the Cavendishes, falling into
See also:abeyance on the death of
See also:Cavendish, 6th duke of Devonshire, in 1858 . The barony of Clifford of Lanesborough was held by the Boyles from 1644 to 1753, and the Devonshire branch of the family still holds the barony of Clifford of Chudleigh, which was created in 1672 . See G . E . C(okayne),
See also:Peerage (1887-1898) ; and T . D .
See also:History of Craven (1877) .
1ST BARON THOMAS CLIFFOIID CLIFFORD OF CHUDLEIGH (1...
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