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JUSTIN CLINCHANT (1820-1881)

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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 527 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JUSTIN CLINCHANT (1820-1881), French soldier, entered the army from St Cyr in 1841. From 1847 to 1852 he was employed in the Algerian campaigns, and in 1854 and 1855 in the Crimea. At the assault on the Malakoff (Sept. 8th, 1855) he greatly distinguished himself at the head of a battalion.. During the 1859 campaign he won promotion to the rank of lieut.-colonel, and as a colonel he served in the Mexican War. He was made general of brigade in 1866, and led a brigade of the Army of the Rhine in 1870. His troops were amongst those shut up in Metz, and he passed into captivity, but soon escaped. The government of national defence made him general of division and put him at the head of the loth corps of the Army of the East. He was under Bourbaki during the campaign of the Jura, and when Bourbaki attempted to commit suicide he succeeded to the command (Jan. 23rd, 1871), only to be driven with 84,000 men over the Swiss frontier at Pontarlier. In 1871 Clinchant commanded the 5th corps operating against the Commune. He was military governor of Paris when he died in 1881. CLINIC: CLINICAL (Gr. alai?, a bed), an adjective strictly connoting association with the bedside, and so used in ecclesiology of baptism of the sick or dying, but more particularly in medicine to characterize its aspect as associated with practice on the living patient. Thus clinical experience is opposed to what is learnt from laboratory research or theoretical considerations. The substantive " clinic " is technically employed for a medical school or class where instruction is given in practical work as illustrated by the examination and treatment of actual cases of disease.
End of Article: JUSTIN CLINCHANT (1820-1881)
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