Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 531 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CLITUMNUS, a river in Umbria, Italy, which rises from a very abundant spring by the road between the ancient Spoletium and Trebia, 8 m. from the former, 4 M. from the latter, and after a short course through the territory of the latter town joins the Tinia, a tributary of the Tiber. The spring is well described by Pliny (Epist. viii. 8): it was visited by Caligula and by Honorius, and is still picturesque—a clear pool surrounded by poplars and weeping willows. The stream was personified as a god, whose ancient temple lay near the spring, and close by other smaller shrines; the place, therefore, occurs under the name Sacraria (the shrines) as a Roman post station. The building generally known as the Tempio di Clitunno, close to the spring, is, however, an ancient tomb, converted into a Christian church in the early middle ages, the decorative sculptures, which are obviously contemporary with those of S. Salvatore at Spoleto, belonging to the 4th or 6th century according to some authorities, to the 12th according to others. See H. Grisar, Nuovo bullettino di archeologia cristiana (Rome, 1895) i. 127; A. Venturi, Storia dell' erte italiana (Milan, 1904),
End of Article: CLITUMNUS
CAROLINE CLIVE (1801-1873)

Additional information and Comments

Lord Byron, in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, wrote: "But thou, Clitumnus in thy sweetest wave Of the most living crystal that was e'er The haunt of river nymph, to gaze and lave Her limbs where nothing hid them, thou dost rear Thy grassy banks whereon the milk-white steer Grazes; the purest god of gentle waters! And most serene of aspect, and most clear; Surely that stream was unprofaned by slaughters - A mirror and a bath for Beauty's youngest daughters!"
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