COASTING , usually calledtobogganing (q.v.) in
See also:Europe, the
See also:sport of sliding down
See also:snow or ice-covered hills or artificial inclines upon
See also:hand-sleds, or sledges, provided with runners shod with iron or
See also:steel . It is uncertain whether the first
See also:American sleds were copied from the
See also:Indian toboggans, but no sled without runners was known in the
See also:United States before 1870, except to the woodsmen of the
See also:Canadian border . American
See also:laws have greatly restricted, and in most places prohibited, the practice, once
See also:common, of coasting on the highways; and the sport is mainly confined to open hills and artificial inclines or chutes . Two forms of hand-sled are usual in
See also:America, the
See also:original " clipper " type, built low with long, pointed sides, originally shod with iron but since 185o with
See also:round steel runners; and the
See also:short " girls' sled," with high
See also:skeleton sides, usually
See also:flat shod . There is also the "
See also:double-runner," or " bob-sled," formed of two clipper sleds joined by a
See also:board and steered by
See also:ropes, a
See also:wheel or a
See also:bar, and seating from four to ten persons . In Scandinavia several kinds of sled are common, but that of the fishermen, by means of which they transport their catch over the frozen fjords, is the one used in coasting, a sport especially popular in the neighbourhood of
See also:Christiania, where there are courses nearly 3 M. in length . This sled is from 4 to 6 ft. long, with skeleton sides about 7 in. high, and generally holds three persons . It is steered by two long sticks trailing behind . On the ice the fisherman propels his sled by means of two short picks . The general
See also:Norwegian name for sledge is skij¢lker, the
See also:form being a kind of toboggan provided with broad wooden runners resembling the ski (q.v.) . In
See also:northern Sweden and Finland the commonest form of single sled is the Sparkstottinger, built high at the back, the coaster
See also:standing up and steering by means of two handles projecting from the sides . Coasting in its highest development maybe seen in
See also:Switzerland, at the fashionable winter resorts of the Engadine, where it is called tobogganing .
See also:regular races there were organized by
See also:John Addington
See also:Symonds, who instituted an
See also:annual contest for a
See also:cup, open to all comers, over the steep
See also:post-road from
See also:Davos to Klosters, the finest natural
See also:coast in Switzerland, the sled used being the primitive native Schlittli or Handschlitten, a
See also:miniature copy of the
See also:horse-sledge . Soon afterwardsfollowed the construction of
See also:great artificial runs, the most famous being the " Cresta " at St
See also:Moritz, begun in 1884, which is about 1350 yds. in length, its dangerous curves banked up like those of a bicycle track . On this the annual "
See also:National " championship is contested, the winner's
See also:time being the shortest aggregate of three heats . In 1885 and the following
See also:year the native Schlittli remained in use, the rider sitting upright facing the
See also:goal, and steering either with the heels or with short picks . In 1887 the first American clipper sled was introduced by L . P .
See also:Child, who easily won the championship for that year on it . The sled now used by the contestants is a development of the American type, built of steel and skeleton in form . With it a
See also:speed of over 70 M. an
See also:hour has been attained . The coaster lies flat upon it and steers with his feet, shod with spiked shoes, to render braking easier, and helped with his gloved hands . The " double-runner " has also been introduced into Switzerland under the name of " bob-
See also:sleigh." See Ice Sports, in the Isthmian Library,
See also:London (1901) ; Tobogganing at St Moritz, by T . A .
See also:Cook (London, 1896) .
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