COCOA ,2 more properly CACAO, a valuable
See also:dietary substance yielded by the seeds of several small trees belonging to the genus Theobroma, of the natural
See also:order Sterculiaceae . The whole genus, which comprises twelve
See also:species, belongs to the tropical parts of the
See also:American continent; and although the cocoa of commerce is probably the produce of more than one species, by far the greatest and most valuable portion is obtained from Theobroma Cacao . The generic name is derived from Oeos (
See also:god) and Opwµa (
See also:food), and was bestowed by
See also:Linnaeus as an indication of the high appreciation in which he held the beverage prepared from the seeds, which he considered to be a food
See also:fit for the gods . The
See also:common cacao
See also:tree is of low stature, seldom exceeding 25 ft. in height, but it is taller in its native forests than it is in cultivated plantations . The leaves are large, smooth, and glossy, elliptic-oblong and tapering in
See also:form, growing principally at the ends of branches, but sometimes springing directly from the
See also:main trunk . The
See also:flowers are small, and occur in numerous clusters on the main branches and the trunk, a very marked peculiarity which gives the matured fruit the appearance of being artificially attached to the tree . Generally only a single fruit is matured from each cluster of flowers . When ripe the fruit or " pod " is elliptical-ovoid in form, from 7 to 10 in. in length and from 3 to 4 in. in diameter . It has a hard, thick, leathery rind of a
See also:rich purplish-yellow
See also:colour, externally rough and marked with ten very distinct
See also:longitudinal ribs or elevations . The 2 As a
See also:matter of nomenclature it is unfortunate that the corrupt form " cocoa," from a confusion with the coco-
See also:nut (q.v.), has become stereotyped . When introduced early in the 18th century it was as a trisyllable co-co-a, a mispronunciation of cacao or cacoa, the
See also:Spanish adaptation from the Mexican cacauall . interior of the fruit has five cells, in each of which is a
See also:row of from 5 to 12 seeds embedded in a soft delicately
See also:pink acid pulp .
Each fruit thus contains from 20 to 50 or more seeds, which constitute the raw cacao or " cacao beans " of commerce . The tree appears to have been originally a native of the
See also:coast lands of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical South
See also:America as far south as the
See also:basin of the
See also:Amazon; but it can be cultivated in suitable situations within the 25th
See also:parallels of latitude . It flourishes best within the 15th parallels, at elevations ranging from near the
See also:sea-level up to about 2000 f t. in height . It is now cultivated in Mexico,
See also:Nicaragua, Brazil,
See also:Peru, Ecuador, New Granada,
See also:Venezuela, Surinam,
See also:Guiana, and in many of the West
See also:Indian islands, particularly in
See also:San Domingo,
See also:Porto Rico and
See also:Jamaica . Away from America it has been introduced, and is cultivated on a large scale in West Africa,
See also:Ceylon and the Dutch East Indies .
See also:History.—The value of cacao was appreciated in its native
See also:country before the
See also:discovery of America by Europeans . The Spaniards found in use in Mexico a beverage known by the Aztec name of chocolath, from choco (cacao) and
See also:lath (
See also:water) . W . H . Prescott records that the emperor Montezuma of Mexico was " exceedingly fond of it . . . no less than 50 jars or pitchers being prepared for his own daily
See also:consumption; 2000 more were allowed for that of his
See also:household." Bags of cacao containing a specified number of beans were also a recognized form of currency in the country . The product was early introduced into Spain, and thence to other parts of
See also:Europe .
The Public Advertiser (
See also:London) of
See also:June 16, 1657, contains an announcement that " In Bishopgate St., in
See also:Alley, at a Frenchman's
See also:house, is an excellent West India drink, called
See also:chocolate, to be sold, where you may have it ready at any
See also:time, and also unmade at reasonable rates." Chocolate was a very fashionable beverage in the early
See also:part of the 18th century . Cultivated Varieties.—Numerous varieties of the cacao, i.e. of Theobroma Cacao, are recognized in cultivation . According to Dr P . Preuss, who has travelled extensively in the cacao producing countries of the
See also:world studying this
See also:crop, it is impossible to embody in a single table the characteristics of the world's varieties . A
See also:classification is needed for almost each country . In 1882 the Trinidad forms were classified by
See also:Sir D .
See also:Morris . This table was later revised by Mr J . H .
See also:Hart, and more recently Mr R . H .
See also:Lock studied the Ceylon varieties .
As the Ceylon cacaos were obtained mainly from Trinidad, and as Mr Lock's results agree substantially with those of Sir D . Morris, they serve to illustrate the distinguishing characteristics of the West Indian and Ceylon forms . The main divisions are as follows: 1 . Criollo.—Pods relatively thin-walled and soft, rough, pointed at
See also:apex . The seeds or beans are plump and of
See also:pale colour . The ripe pods may be either red (
See also:colorado) or yellow (amarillo) . 2 . Forastero.—Pods relatively thick-walled and hard . The seeds vary in colour from pale to deep
See also:purple . Various varieties are recognized, such as cundeamor, amelonado, liso, calabacillo, differing in shape, colour and character of beans, &c., and of each of these again there may be a colorado and amarillo sub-variety . Of
See also:interest is calabacillo, a variety with a smooth, small pod, and deep629 purple beans . It is considered by some to be sufficiently distinct to form a third type
See also:equivalent to criollo or forastero .
Others again would raise amelonado to the
See also:rank of a distinct type . Of the above calabacillo is the hardiest and yields the least valuable beans; criollo is the most delicate and yields beans of the highest value, whilst forastero is intermediate in both respects . In general pale coloured beans are less bitter and more valuable than purple beans . Both, however, may occur in the same pod . Alligator, or lagarto cacao, is the common name of a variety cultivated in Nicaragua, Guatemala, &c . I.ts pods are distinctly five-angled and beset with irregular, warty protuberances . Some regard it as a distinct species, T. pentagona, but others only as a variety of T . Cacao . Its produce is of high value . T. bicolo-, indigenous to Central America, is another species of some interest . It bears small, hard woody pods about 6 in. long and 3 in. in diameter, with curious
See also:surface markings . The beans possess a fetid odour and a bitter flavour and are known as " tiger cacao." It is not likely to become of
See also:great commercial importance, although consumed locally where found .
" Cacao blanco " and " pataste " are other names for this species . Cultivation and Preparation.—Cacao requires for its successful cultivation a deep, well-watered and yet well-drained
See also:soil, shelter from strong winds, and a thoroughly tropical
See also:climate, with a mean
See also:annual temperature of about 8o° F., a rainfall of from 5o to 100 or more in., and freedom from long droughts .
See also:plants are grown from seed, which may either be sown directly in the positions the future trees are to occupy, varying according to
See also:local circumstances from 6 to 25 ft. apart in all directions, or raised in nurseries and transplanted later . The latter course is desirable when it is necessary to water and other-wise tend the seedlings . However raised, the young plants require to be shaded, and this is usually done by planting bananas,
See also:cassava or other useful crops between the rows of cacao . In some countries, but not in all, permanent shade trees are planted amongst the cacao . Various leguminous trees are commonly used, e.g. the
See also:coral tree (Erythrina spp.) sometimes known as
See also:boil immortel and madre del cacao or
See also:mother of cocoa, Albizzia Lebbek, Pithecolobium Saman, &c . The various
See also:rubber trees have been employed with success .
See also:Wind belts are also necessary in exposed situations . Cacao comes into bearing when about five years old, the small pink flowers and the succeeding large pods being
See also:borne directly on the trunk and main branches . The pods are carefully picked when ripe, broken open, and the slimy mass of contained seeds and their enveloping mucilaginous pulp extracted . The " beans " are next fermented or " sweated," often in special houses constructed for the purpose, or by placing them in heaps and covering with leaves or
See also:earth, or in baskets, barrels, &c., lined with
See also:banana leaves .
See also:fermentation the beans should be stirred once daily or oftener . The time of fermentation varies from one to twelve or even more days . Pale-coloured beans usually require less time than the deep purple and bitter kinds . The method adopted also considerably modifies the time required . The
See also:process of fermenting destroys the mucilage; the seeds lose to some degree their bitter flavour and their colour also changes: the pale criollo seeds, for example, developing a
See also:brown colour . The " fracture " of the beans also characteristically alters . Fermentation is not universally practised; the purple colour and bitter taste of unfermented cacao being wanted in some markets . After the fermentation is completed the beans may or may not be washed, opinion as to the desirability of this process varying in different countries . In any case, however, they have to be dried and cured . When
See also:climatic conditions are favourable this is commonly done by spreading the beans in thin layers on barbecues, or
See also:stone drying floors, or otherwise exposing them to the
See also:sun . Sliding
See also:roofs or other means of rapidly affording shelter are desirable in case of showers, excessive
See also:heat, and also for
See also:protection at
See also:night . Artificial drying is now often resorted to and various patterns of drying houses are in use .
The appearance of the beans may often be improved by " claying," a very slight coating of red earth or
See also:clay being added . Polishing the beans also gives them a brighter appearance, Branch of Cocoa Tree, with Fruit in section, much reduced . removes
See also:mildew, and remnants of dried mucilage, &c . This may be done by " dancing the cacao," i.e. treading a heap with the
See also:bare feet, or by the use of special polishing
See also:machines . The cacao is now ready for shipment, and is usually packed in bags .
See also:burg is the chief
See also:port in the world for cacao . Until quite recently, however, this position was held by Havre, which is now second in Europe . New
See also:York imports about the same amount as Havre . London follows next in importance . Cacao-producing Countries.—In the following table the production in tons (of r000 kilos= 2205 lb) of the
See also:principal producing countries, arranged under continents, is given for 1905 and 1901 . During this
See also:period the
See also:total world's production has increased by about 40 %, as indicated in the
See also:summary below . Study of the table will show where the increase has taken place, but
See also:attention is directed especially to the rapid development in West Africa .
America . 1905 (tons) . 1901 (tons) . Ecuador 21,128 22,896 Brazil 21,091 18,324 Trinidad 20,018 11,943 San Domingo 12,785 6,85o Venezuela 11,700 7,86o Grenada 5,456 4,865 Cuba and Porto Rico 3,000 1,750Haiti . . 2 343 1,950 Surinam . .1,612 3,163 Jamaica 1,484 1,350 French West Indies 1,200 825 St .
See also:Lucia 700 765
See also:Dominica 597 Total, America . 103,114 82,541 Africa . 1905 (tons) . 1901 (tons) . San
See also:Thorne 25,379 16,983 Gold Coast and
See also:Lagos . 5,666 997 Cameroons 1,185 528
See also:Free State .
195 • . Total, Africa . 32,425 18,508
See also:Asia . 3543 1492 5035 3974 800 700 World's Production . 1905 (tons) . 1901 (tons) . Tropical America and West Indies . 103,114 82,541 West Africa . 32,425 18,508 Asia . 5,035 3,974 Other countries 800 700 Total . . 141,374 105,723 Composition.—The relative weights of the various parts of a whole cacao pod are given thus by Prof . J .
See also:Harrison for
See also:British Guiana specimens: — Calabacillo . Forastero . Husk 80.59 89.87 Pulp 7.61 4.23 Cuticles of the beans . 1.77 0.50 Kernels of the beans . 10.03 5.40
See also:I00.00 I00.00 The husk is composed mainly of water and
See also:cellulose woody tissue, with their usual
See also:mineral constituents, and has a low manurial value . The pulp contains sugars which become converted into
See also:alcohol during fermentation . Fibrous elements and water compose about six-tenths of the cuticles, which also contain approximately: albuminoids (6%), alkaloids (2%),
See also:fat (2 %), sugars (6%),
See also:starch (7%), colouring matter (4%), tartaric acid (3%) and small quantities of various mineral constituents . The
See also:average composition of the kernels, according to Payen, is: Per cent . Fat (cacao
See also:butter) 50 Starch . Io Albuminoids 20 Water . I2 Cellulose .
. 2 Mineral matter 4 Theobromine . 2 Colouring matter (cacao-red) trace 100.00 Manufacture of Cocoa and Chocolate.—The beans are cleaned and sorted to remove
See also:foreign bodies of all kinds and also graded into sizes to secure uniformity in roasting . The latter process is carried out in rotating iron drums in which the beans are heated to a temperature of about 260° to 28o° F., and results in developing the aroma, partially converting the starch into dextrin, and eliminating bitter constituents . The beans also dry and their shells become crisp . In the next process the beans are gently crushed and winnowed, whereby the
See also:light shells are removed, and after removal by sifting of the " germs " the beans are
See also:left in the form of the irregular cocoa-nibs occasionally seen in shops . Cocoa-nibs may be infused with water and drunk, but for most
See also:people the beverage is too rich, containing the whole of the cacao-fat or cacao-butter . This fat is extracted from the carefully ground nibs by employing great
See also:hydraulic pressure in heated presses . The fat exudes and solidifies . When fresh it is yellowish-
See also:white, but becomes quite white on keeping . It is very valuable for pharmaceutical purposes and is a constituent of many pomades . With care it can be kept for a long time without going rancid . After the extraction of the fat the resulting mass is ground to a
See also:fine powder when it is ready for use in the ordinary way .
Many preparations on themarket are of course not pure cocoa but contain admixtures of various starchy and other bodies . The shells of the beans separated by the winnowing process contain theobromine, and their infusion with water is sometimes used as a substitute for
See also:coffee, under the name " miserabile." More recently they have been put to
See also:good account as a
See also:cattle food . In the preparation of chocolate the preliminary processes of cleaning, sorting, roasting and removing the shells, and grinding the nibs, are followed as for cocoa . The fat, however, is not extracted, but
See also:sugar, and sometimes other materials also, are added to the ground pasty mass, together with suitable flavouring materials, as for example
See also:vanilla . The greatest care is taken in the process and elaborate grinding and mixing machinery employed . The final result is a semi-liquid mass which is moulded into the
See also:familiar tablets or other forms in which chocolate comes on the market . Cocoa as a beverage has a similar
See also:action to
See also:tea and coffee, inasmuch as the physiological properties of all three are due to the alkaloids and volatile oils they contain . Tea and coffee both contain the
See also:alkaloid caffeine, whilst cocoa contains theobromine . In tea and coffee, however, we only drink an infusion of the leaves or seeds, whilst in cocoa the whole material is taken in a state of very fine suspension, and as the preceding analysis indicates, the cocoa bean, even with the fat extracted, is of high nutritive value . Cacao-consuming Countries.—The principal cacao-consuming countries are indicated below, which gives the imports into the countries named for 1905 . These figures, as also those on production, are taken from Der
See also:Gordian . Tons (loon kilos) .
See also:United States of America 34,958 Germany . 29,663 France . . 21,748 United
See also:Kingdom 21,1(36
See also:Holland . . 19,295 Spain . 6,102
See also:Switzerland 5,218 Belgium 3,019
See also:Austria Hungary 2,668 Russia . 2,230 Denmark 1,125 Carry forward . 147,132 Ceylon . Dutch East Indies . Total, Asia Other countries 1905 (tons) . 1901 (tons) . 2697 1277 Tons (moo kilos.) Brought forward . 147,132 Italy 971 Sweden 900
See also:Canada .
See also:Australia 600 Norway,
See also:Portugal and Finland . 692 Total . 150,995 During
See also:recent years the use of cocoa has increased rapidly in some countries . The following table gives the increase per cent in consumption in 1905 over that in 1901 for the five chief consumers: Per cent . United States . 70 Germany . 61 France . . 21 United Kingdom . . T 1 Holland 34 (A . B . R.; W . G .
COCO DE MER, or DOUBLE
COCOMA, or CUCAMAS
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