See also:Swedish extraction, was
See also:born at
See also:Leeuwarden in
See also:Friesland . He received an excellent military and general
See also:education, and at the age of sixteen became a captain in the Dutch army . He took
See also:part in the defence of
See also:Maastricht in 1673 and in the
See also:siege of
See also:Grave in the same
See also:year, where the small mortars (called coehorns) invented by him caused the French garrison considerable trouble (Seydel, Nachrichten fiber Festungskriege,
See also:Leipzig, 1818) . He was made a colonel for his gallant
See also:COELENTERA conduct at the
See also:battle of Seneff (1674), and was
See also:present also at the battles of Cassel (1677) and
See also:Saint Denis (1678) . The circumstances of the
See also:time and the
See also:country turned Coehoorn's
See also:attention to the
See also:art of fortification, and the events of the
See also:late war showed him that existing methods could no longer be relied upon . His first published
See also:work, Versterckinge de Vijfhoeks met alle syne Buytenwerken (Leeuwarden, 1682), at once aroused attention, and involved the author in a lively controversy with a
See also:rival engineer,
See also:Louys Paan (Leeuwarden, 1682, 1683; copies are in the library of the Dutch
See also:ministry of war) . The military authorities were much interested in this, and entrusted Coehoorn with the reconstruction of several fortresses in the
See also:Netherlands . This task he continued throughout his career; and his experience in the work made him the worthy rival of his
See also:great contemporary
See also:Vauban . He formulated his ideas a little later in his chief work, Nieuwe Vestingbouw op en natte of lage horizont, &c . (Leeuwarden, 1685), in which he laid down three " systems," the characteristic feature of which was the multiplicity and great saliency of the
See also:works, which were calculated and in principle are still eminently suited for.
See also:flat and almost marshy sites such as those of the Low Countries . He borrowed many of the details from the works of his Dutch predecessor Freytag, of Albrecht' Diirer, and of the German engineer Speckle, and in general he aimed rather at the adaptation of his principles to the requirements of individual sites than at producing a geometrically and theoretically perfect fortress; and throughout his career he never hesitated to depart from his own rules in dealing with exceptional cases, such as that of
See also:Groningen . Subsequent
See also:editions of Nieuwe Vestingbouw appeared in Dutch (1702, and frequently afterwards),
See also:English (
See also:London, 1705), French (Wesel, 1705), and German (
See also:Dusseldorf, 1709) .
From 1688 to the treaty of
See also:Ryswick Coehoorn served as a brigadier . At the battle of
See also:Fleurus he greatly distinguished himself, and in 1692 he defended Namur, a fortress of his own creation . Namur was taken by Vauban; but the Dutch engineer had his revenge three years later, when the place, on which in the meantime Vauban had lavished his skill, fell to his attack . Coehoorn became
See also:lieutenant-general and inspector-general of the Netherlands fortresses, and the high-German peoples as well as his own countrymen honoured him . He commanded a
See also:corps in the army of the duke of
See also:Marlborough from 1701 to 1703, and in the
See also:constant siege warfare of these
See also:campaigns in the Low Countries his technical skill was of the highest value . The swift reduction of the fortress of
See also:Bonn and the siege of Huy in 1703 were his crowning successes . At the opening of his following
See also:campaign he was on his way to confer with Marlborough when he died of apoplexy at Wijkel on the 17th of
See also:March 1704 . His " first
See also:system " was applied to numerous places in
See also:Holland, notably
See also:Breda and
See also:Bergen-op-Zoom .
See also:Mannheim in Germany was also fortified in this way, while the" secondsystem " was applied to Belgrade and
See also:Temesvar in eastern
See also:Europe . His son, Gosewijn Theodor
See also:van Coehoorn, wrote his
See also:life (re-edited Syperstein, Leeuwarden, 1860) . See also v . Zastrow, Grschichte der bestandigen Befestigung (Leipzig, 1828) ; von Brese-Winiari, Ober Entstehen and Wesen der neueren Befestigungsmethode (1844); Cosseran de Villenoisy, Essai historique sur la fortification (1869); Mandar, Architecture
See also:des forteresses (1801); Krayenhoff, Verhandeling over de erste versterkingsmanier van Coehoorn (
See also:Hague, 1823); Bosscha, Nederlandsche heldend to
See also:Land (Amsterdam, 1838) ; Dewez, Histoire de Belgique (Brussels, 1823) ; Ypey, Narratio de
See also:rebus gestis Mennonis Cohorni (1771); Hennert, Dissertation sur la fortification permanente (1795); Bohms, Griindliche Anleitung zur Kriegsbaukunst (1776) ; .4xiomatas of allgemeene bekentnisse over de Vestinghbouw
See also:door Menno Baron van Coehoorn, Uytgewerkt door E .
See also:Berg (MS. in Dutch Ministry of War) ; Bousmard, Essai general de fortification (1797); also the article FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT .
NICOLAS COEFFETEAU (1574-1623)
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