COLUMBUS , acity, a
See also:port of entry, the capital of
See also:Ohio, U.S.A., and the
See also:county-seat of
See also:Franklin county, at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy
See also:rivers, near the
See also:geographical centre of the state, 120 M . N.E. of
See also:Cincinnati, and 138 M . S.S.W. of
See also:Cleveland . Pop . (1890) 88,150; (1900) 125,560, of whom 12,328 were
See also:born and 8201 were negroes; (1910) 181,511 . Columbus is an important railway centre and is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St .
See also:Louis, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania
See also:system), the Baltimore & Ohio, the Ohio Central, the Norfolk & Western, the Hocking Valley, and the Cleveland,
See also:Akron & Columbus (Pennsylvania system)
See also:railways, and by nine interurban electric lines . It occupies a
See also:area of about 17 sq. m., the
See also:principal portion being along the east side of the Scioto in the midst of an extensive plain . High Street, the principal business thoroughfare, is 100 ft. wide, and Broad Street, on which are many of the finest residences, is 120 ft. wide, has four rows of trees, a roadway for heavy vehicles in the
See also:middle, and a driveway for carriages on either side . The principal
See also:building is the state capitol (completed in 1857) in a square of ten acres at the intersection of High and Broad streets . It is built in the
See also:simple Doric
See also:style, of
See also:limestone taken from a
See also:quarry owned by the state, near the city; is 304 ft. long and 184 ft. wide, and has a rotunda 158 ft: high, on the walls of which are the
See also:painting, by
See also:Powell (1823-1879), of O . H .
See also:Perry's victory on Lake
See also:Erie, and portraits of most of the
See also:governors of Ohio . Other prominent structures are the U.S.
See also:government and the judiciary buildings, the latter connected with the capitol by a
See also:stone terrace, the city
See also:hall, the county
See also:house, the union station, the
See also:board of
See also:trade, the soldiers' memorial hall (with a seating capacity of about 4500), and several
See also:office buildings . The city is a favourite
See also:meeting-place for conventions . Among the state institutions in Columbus are the university (see below), the
See also:penitentiary, a state hospital for the insane, the state school for the
See also:blind, and the state institutions for the
See also:education of the
See also:deaf and dumb and for feeble-minded youth . In the capitol grounds are monuments to the memory of Ulysses S .
See also:Grant, Rutherford B . Hayes,
See also:James A .
See also:Garfield, William T . Sherman,
See also:Philip H . Sheridan, Salmon P .
See also:Chase, and Edwin M . Stanton, and a beautiful memorial arch (with sculpture by H .
A . M`Neil) to William
See also:McKinley . The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the
See also:banks of the
See also:river from which it is named, the
See also:Indianola, another amusement resort, and the
See also:United States military
See also:post and recruiting station, which occupies 8o acres laid out like a
See also:park . The state
See also:fair grounds of 115 acres adjoin the city, and there is also a beautiful cemetery of 220 acres . The Ohio State University (non-sectarian and co-educational), opened as the Ohio Agricultural and
See also:College in 1873, and reorganized under its
See also:present name in 1878, is 3 M.
See also:north of the capitol . It includes colleges of arts, philosophy and science, of education (for teachers), of
See also:engineering, of
See also:law, of
See also:pharmacy, of
See also:agriculture and domestic science, and of veterinary
See also:medicine . It occupies a campus of 1so acres, has an adjoining
See also:farm of 325 acres, and 18 buildings devoted to instruction, 2 dormitories, and a library containing (1906) 67,709 volumes, besides excellent museums of geology, zoology, botany and archaeology and
See also:history, the last being owned jointly by the university and by the state archaeological and
See also:historical society . In 1908 the
See also:faculty numbered 175, and the students 2277 . The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is
See also:free in all colleges except the college of law . The government of the university is vested in a board of trustees appointed by the
See also:governor of the state for a
See also:term of seven years . The first
See also:president of the institution (from 1873 to 1881) was the distinguished geologist,
See also:Orton (1829–1899), who was
See also:professor of geology from 1893 to 1899 . Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Semi-nary opened in 183o; college opened as an academy in 185o), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an
See also:art institute .
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a
See also:room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a " travelling library " of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may
See also:borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing
See also:complete sets of
See also:English, Scottish, Irish,
See also:Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906 . Columbus is near the Ohio
See also:coal and iron-
See also:fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest
See also:industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-
See also:shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the
See also:total product value of the
See also:boot and
See also:industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960);
See also:malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and
See also:steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-
See also:margarine . In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $40,435,531, an increase of 16.4% in five years . Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 were various large and important manufactories, including railway shops, foundries, slaughter-houses, ice factories and
See also:brick-yards . In Columbus there is a large market for imported horses . Several large quarries also are adjacent to the city . The waterworks are owned by the
See also:municipality . In 1904–1905 the city built on the Scioto river a concrete storage
See also:dam, having a capacity of 5,000,000,000 gallons, and in 1908 it completed the construction of enormous
See also:works for filtering and softening the
See also:water-supply, and of works for purifying the flow of sewage—the two costing nearly $5,000,000 . The filtering works include 6 lime saturators, 2 mixing or softening tanks, 6 settling basins, 10 mechanical filters and 2 clear-water reservoirs . A large municipal electric-
See also:lighting plant was completed in 1908 . The first permanent settlement within the present limits of the city was established in 1797 on the west
See also:bank of the Scioto, was named Franklinton, and in 1803 was made the county-seat . In 1810 four citizens of Franklinton formed an association to secure the location of the capital on the higher ground of the east bank; in 1812 they were successful and the place was laid out while still a
See also:forest .
Four years later, when the legislature held its first session here, the settlement was incorporated as the
See also:Borough of Columbus . In 1824 the county-seat was removed here from Franklinton; in 1831 the Columbus branch of the Ohio Canal was completed; in 1834 the borough was made a city; by the close of the same
See also:decade the
See also:National Road extending from
See also:Wheeling to
See also:Indianapolis and passing through Columbus was completed; in 1871 most of Franklinton, which was never incorporated, was annexed, and several other annexations followed . See J . H .
See also:Studer, Columbus, Ohio; its History and Resources (Columbus, 1873) ; A . E .
See also:Lee, History of the City of Columbus, Ohio (New
See also:York, 1892) .
COLUMBIUM, or NIOBIUM (symbol Cb or Nb, atomic weig...
COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER [in Spanish CRISTOBAL COLON] ...
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