See also:shaft and
See also:base, used to carry a
See also:beam or an arch . The earliest example in
See also:wood (2684 B.C.) was that found at Kahun in
See also:Egypt by
See also:Flinders Petrie, which was fluted and stood on a raised base, and in
See also:stone the octagonal shafts of the early
See also:temple at
See also:Deir-el-Bahri (c . 285o) . In the tombs at Beni
See also:Hasan (2723 B.C.) are columns of two kinds, the octagonal or polygonal shaft, and the
See also:reed or
See also:column, the horizontal section of which is a
See also:quatrefoil . This became later the favourite type, but it was made circular on plan . In all these examples the column rests on a stone base . (See also CAPITAL and
See also:ORDER.) The column was employed in
See also:Assyria in small structures only, such as pavilions or porticoes . In
See also:Persia the column, employed to carry
See also:timber superstructures only, was very lofty, being sometimes 12 diameters high; the shaft was fluted, the number of flutes varying from 30 to 52 . The earliest example of the Greek column is that represented in the temple
See also:fresco at
See also:Cnossus (c . 1600 B.C.), of which portions have been found . The columns were in
See also:cypress wood raised on a stone base and tapered downwards.' The same, though to a less degree, is found in the stone semi-detached columns which flank the doorway of the
See also:Tomb of
See also:Agamemnon at
See also:Mycenae; the shafts of these columns were carved with the
See also:chevron design . The earliest Greek columns in stone as isolated features are those of the Temple of
See also:Apollo at Syracuse (early 7th century B.C.), the shafts of which were monoliths, but as a
See also:rule the Greek columns were all built of drums, sometimes as many as ten or twelve .
There was no base to the Doric column, but the shafts were fluted, 20 flutes being the usual number . In the Archaic Temple of
See also:Diana at Ephesus there were 52 flutes . In the later examples of the Ionic order the shaft had 24 flutes . In the
See also:Roman temples the shafts were very often monoliths . Columns were occasionally used as supports for figures or other features . The Naxian column at
See also:Delphi of the Ionic order carried a sphinx . The Romans employed columns in various ways: the Trajan and the Antonine columns carried figures of the two emperors; the columna rostrata (26o B.C.) in the Forum was decorated with the beaks of
See also:ships and was a votive column, the miliaria column marked the centre of Rome from which all distances were measured . In the same way the column in the Place Vendome in
See also:Paris carries a statue of
See also:Napoleon I.; the
See also:monument of the
See also:Fire of
See also:London, a finial with flames sculptured on it; the duke of
See also:York's column (London), a statue of the duke of York . With the exception of the Cretan and Mycenaean, all the shafts of the classic orders tapered from the bottom upwards, and about one-third up the column had an increment,, known as the entasis, to correct an
See also:optical illusion which makes tapering shafts look
See also:concave; the proportions of diameter to height varied with the order employed . Thus, broadly speaking, a Roman Doric column will be eight, a Roman Ionic nine, a Corinthian ' The
See also:tree-trunk used as a column was inverted to retain the
See also:sap; hence the shape . • ten diameters in height . Except in rare cases, the columns of the Romanesque and
See also:Gothic styles were of equal diameter at top and bottom, and had no definite dimensions as regards diameter and height .
They were also grouped together
See also:round piers which are known as clustered piers . When of exceptional
See also:size, as in
See also:Gloucester and Durham cathedrals,
See also:Waltham Abbey and
See also:Tewkesbury, they are generally called " pillars," which was apparently the
See also:term for column . The word columna, employed by
See also:Vitruvius, was introduced into England by the
See also:Italian writers of the Revival . In the
See also:period columns were frequently banded, the bands being concentric with the column as in France, and occasionally richly carved as in Philibert De L'
See also:work at the Tuileries . In England Inigo
See also:Jones introduced similar features, but with square blocks sometimes rusticated, a custcm lately revived in England, but of which there are few examples either in Italy or Spain . The word " column " is used, by
See also:analogy with architecture, for any upright
See also:body or mass, in chemistry, anatomy,
See also:typography, &c . (R . P .
LUCIUS JUNIUS MODERATUS COLUMELLA
COLURE (from Gr. icoXos, shortened, and oupa, tail)...
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