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PRINCES OF CONDE

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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 842 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PRINCES OF CONDE. The French title of prince of Conde, assumed from the ancient town of Conde-sur-l'Escaut, was borne by a branch of the house of Bourbon. The first who assumed it was the famous Huguenot leader, Louis de Bourbon (see below), the fifth son of Charles de Bourbon, duke of Vendome. His son, Henry, prince of Conde (15522-1588), also belonged to the Huguenot party. Fleeing to Germany he raised a small army with which in 1575 he joined Alencon. He became leader of the Huguenots, but after several years' fighting was taken prisoner of war. Not long after he died of poison, administered, according 3 Bracton, De Legibus, lib. iii. tract. ii. c. 28, § 1, and lib. iv. tract. vi. c. 8, § 4. 4 F. Pollock and F. W. Maitland, Hist. of English Law, 2nd ed. vol. ii. p. 37o. In the case of Richard de Anesty, decided by papal rescript in 1148, " a marriage solemnly celebrated in church, a marriage of which a child had been born, was set aside as null in favour of an earlier marriage constituted by a mere exchange of consenting words " (ibid. p. 367; cf. the similar decretal of Alexander III. on p. 371). The great medieval canon lawyer hyndwood illustrates the difficulty of distinguishing, even as late as the middle of the 15th century, between concubinage and a clandestine, though legal, marriage. He falls back on the definition of an earlier canonist that if the woman eats out of the same dish with the man, and if he takes her to church, she may be presumed to be his wife; if, however, he sends her to draw water and dresses her in vile clothing, she is probably a concubine (Provinciale, ed. Oxon. 1679, p. to, s.v. concubinarios). 5 It may be gathered from the Dominican C. L. Richard's Analysis Conciliorum (vol. ii., 1778) that there were more than 110 such complaints in councils and synods between the years 1009 and 1528. Dr Rashdall ( Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 691, note) points out that a master of the university of Prague, in 1499, complained openly to the authorities against a bachelor for assaulting his concubine. to the belief of his contemporaries, by his wife, Catherine de la Tremouille. This event, among others, awoke strong suspicions as to the legitimacy of his heir and namesake, Henry, prince of Conde (1588-1646). King Henry IV., however, did not take advantage of the scandal. In 1609 he caused the prince of Conde to marry Charlotte de Montmorency, whom shortly after Conde was obliged to save from the king's persistent gallantry by a hasty flight, first to Spain and then to Italy. On the death of Henry, Conde returned to France, and intrigued against the regent, Marie de' Medici; but he was seized, and imprisoned for three years (1616-1619). There was at that time before the court a plea for his divorce from his wife, but she now devoted herself to enliven his' captivity at the cost of her own liberty. During the rest of his life Conde was a faithful servant of the king. He strove to blot out the memory of the Huguenot connexions of his house by affecting the greatest zeal against Protestants. His old ambition changed into a desire for the safe aggrandizement of his family, which he magnificently achieved, and with that end he bowed before Richelieu, whose niece he forced his son to marry. His son Louis, the great Conde, is separately noticed below. The next in succession was Henry Jules, prince of Conde (1643-1709), the son of the great Conde and of Clemence de Maine, niece of Richelieu. He fought with distinction under his father in Franche-Comte and the Low Countries; but he was heartless, avaricious and undoubtedly insane. The end of his life was marked by singular hypochondriacal fancies. He believed at one time that he was dead, and refused to eat till some of his attendants dressed in sheets set him the example. His grandson, Louis Henry, duke of Bourbon (1692-1740), Louis XV.'s minister, did not assume the title of prince of Conde which properly belonged to him. The son of the duke of Bourbon, Louis Joseph, prince of Conde (1736-1818), of ter receivinga good education, distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War, and most of all by his victory at Johannisberg. As governor of Burgundy he did much to improve the industries and means of communication of that province. At the Revolution he took up arms in behalf of the king, became commander of the " army of Conde," and fought In conjunction with the Austrians till the peace of Campo Founio in 1797, being during the last year in the pay of England. He then served the emperor of Russia in Poland, and after that (1800) returned into the pay of England, and fought in Bavaria. In 1800 Conde arrived in England, where he resided for several years. On the restoration of Louis XVIII. he returned to France. He died in Paris in 1818. He wrote Essai sur la vie du grand Conde (1798).
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