See also:term is applied technically to any circumstance,
See also:action or event which is regarded as the indispensable prerequisite of some other circumstance, action or event . It is also applied generally to the sum of the circumstances in which a
See also:person is situated, and more specifically to favourable or prosperous circumstances; thus a person of
See also:wealth or
See also:birth is described as a person " of
See also:condition," or an athlete as being " in condition," i.e. physically
See also:fit, having gone through the necessary course of preliminary training . In all these senses there is implicit the idea of
See also:limitation or restraint imposed with a view to the attainment of a particular end . (I) In Logic, the term " condition " is closely related to " cause " in so far as it is applied to
See also:prior events, &c., in the
See also:absence of which another event would not take place . It is, however, different from " cause " inasmuch as it has a pre-dominantly negative or passive significance . Hence the adjective " conditional " is applied to propositions in which the truth of the
See also:main statement is made to depend on the truth of another; these propositions are distinguished from categorical propositions, which simply state a fact, as being " composed of two categorical propositions
See also:united by a conjunction," e.g. if A is B, C is D . The second statement (the " consequent ") is restricted or qualified by the first (the " antecedent ") . By some logicians these propositions are classified as (I) Hypothetical, and (2) Disjunctive, and their
See also:function in syllogistic reasoning gives rise to the following
See also:classification of conditional arguments: (a) Constructive hypothetical
See also:syllogism (modus ponens, " affirmative
See also:mood "): If A is B, C is D; but A is B; therefore C is D . (b) Destructive hypothetical syllogism (modus tollens, mood which "removes," i.e. the consequent): if A is B, C is D; but C is not D; therefore A is not B . In (a) the antecedent must be affirmed, .in (b) the consequent must be denied; otherwise'the arguments become fallacious . A second class of conditional arguments are disjunctive syllogisms consisting of (c) the modus ponendo tollens: A is either B or C; but A is B; therefore C is not D; and (d) modus tollendo ponens: A is either B or C; A is not B; therefore A is C .
A more complicated conditional
See also:argument is the dilemma (q.v.).1 The limiting or restrictive significance of " condition " has led to its use in metaphysical theory in contradistinction to the conception of absolute being, the aseitas of the Schoolmen . ' The terminology used above has not been adopted by all logicians . " Conditional " has been used as
See also:equivalent to " hypothetical " in the widest sense (including ' disjunctive ") ; or narrowed down to be synonymous with " conjunctive " (the condition being there more explicit), as a subdivision of " hypothetical." Thus all finite things exist in certain relations not only to all other things but also to thought; in other words, all finite existence is " conditioned." Hence
See also:Sir Wm .
See also:Hamilton speaks of the " philosophy of the unconditioned," i.e. of thought in distinction to things which are determined by thought in relation to other things . An analogous distinction is made (cf . H . W . B .
See also:Joseph, Introduction to Logic, pp . 38o fall.) between the so-called universal lawi of nature and conditional principles, which, though they are regarded as having the force of
See also:law, are yet dependent or derivative, i.e. cannot be treated as universal truths . Such principles hold
See also:good under
See also:present conditions, but other conditions might be imagined under which they would be invalid; they hold good only as corollaries from the
See also:laws of nature under existing conditions . (2) In Law, condition in its general sense is a restraint annexed to a thing, so that by the non-performance the party to it shall receive
See also:prejudice and loss, and by the performance commodity or
See also:advantage .
Conditions may be either: (1) condition in adeed or
See also:express condition, i.e. the condition being expressed in actual words; or (2) condition in law or implied condition, i.e. where, although no condition is actually expressed, the law implies a condition . The word is also used indifferently to mean either the event upon the happening of which some
See also:estate or
See also:obligation is to begin or end, or the
See also:provision or stipulation that the estate or obligation will depend upon the happening of the event . A condition may be of several kinds: (I) a condition precedent, where, for example, an estate is granted to one for
See also:life upon condition that, if the grantee pay the grantor a certain sum on such a
See also:day, he shall have the
See also:simple; (2) a condition subsequent, where, for. example, an estate is granted in fee upon condition that the grantee shall pay a certain sum on a certain day, or that his estate shall cease . Thus a condition precedent gets or gains, while a condition subsequent keeps and continues . A condition may also be affirmative, that is, the doing of an
See also:act; negative, the not doing of an act; restrictive, compulsory, &c . The word is also used adjectivally in the sense set out above, as in the phrases " conditional
See also:legacy," " conditional limitation," " conditional promise," &c.; that is, the Iegacy, the limitation, the promise is to take effect only upon the happening of a certain event .
ETIENNE BONNOT DE CONDILLAC (1715—178o)
CONDITION OF THE ART OF PAINTING IN ITALY BEFORE TH...
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.