See also:term of rather vague application, embracing all
See also:food preparations of the nature of sweetmeats, pastry, &c., which have
See also:sugar (q.v.) for their basis or
See also:principal ingredient . In this way the
See also:industry may be said to include the preservation of fruits by means of sugar, the manufacture of jams and jellies, the
See also:art of preparing fruit-syrups and pastes, ices, and sweetened beverages, in addition to the various manufactures in which sugar is the more prominent and principal ingredient . In former days the making of sweetmeats was
See also:part of a druggist's business, but in the earlier
See also:half of the 19th century it
See also:developed into a
See also:separate industry in England, and the
See also:Exhibition of 1851 resulted in its spreading to other countries . At the
See also:day France and Germany are prominent in all sorts of confectionery and bon-bons; and the "candy" industry in
See also:America has developed enormously . The simplest
See also:form in which sugar is prepared as a sweet for eating is that of lozenges, which consist of finely ground sugar mixed with dissolved
See also:gum to form a stiff dough . This is rolled into sheets of the desired thickness from which the lozenges are stamped out by appropriate cutters and then allowed to dry and harden in a heated apartment . They are coloured and flavoured with a
See also:great variety of ingredients, which are added in suitable proportions with the dissolved gum . Many kinds of medicated lozenges are also in extensive use, the medicinal ingredients being similarly incorporated with the gum . Hard sweetmeats, comfits or dragees, constitute another important variety of confectionery . To make these a core or centre of some kind is taken, consisting of a small
See also:lozenge, or of some seed or fruit, such as an
See also:caraway, pistachio, &c., and successive layers of sugar are deposited around it till the desired
See also:size is attained . The cores are placed in large copper pans or vessels which are heated by a steam coil or jacket, or by hot air, and which are geared to rotate at an inclined
See also:angle so that their contents are kept constantly in motion, tumbling over each other . From
See also:time to time sugar
See also:syrup is added as they appear to get dry, and after receiving a certain coating they are removed to dry and harden .
After a sufficient number of alternate coatings in the
See also:pan and dryings, the comfits are finished with a coating of thin syrup, which may be coloured if desired . Another extensive class of confectionery is made with sugar boiled at different temperatures, the various degrees of
See also:heating being known as
See also:blow or
See also:ball, crack, caramel, &c . In some cases a little cream of
See also:tartar, or
See also:glucose to the extent of 30% or even more, is used with the sugar . By treatment of this kind the sugar is obtained in a wide range of consistencies, from soft and creamy, as in fondants, to clear and hard, as in
See also:barley sugar . By vigorous and continued
See also:drawing out or " pulling " of boiled sugar while it is in a plastic
See also:condition, the molecular structure of the material is changed, and from being glassy and transparent it becomes opaque, porous and granular in appearance . In this way the preparation known as
See also:rock is manufactured . For
See also:liqueurs, a flavoured syrup is dropped into moulds impressed in dry
See also:starch, when a crust of sugar forms on the outside, the interior remaining liquid . The thickness of this crust is then increased by immersing it in syrup from which more sugar-crystals are deposited upon it, and the sweets may be finished in the comfit-pan already mentioned . Sugar-candy is prepared from solutions of either
See also:brown or refined sugar, to the latter of which
See also:cochineal or other colouring ingredient is frequently added . The solutions, when boiled to a proper degree, are poured into moulds across which pieces of
See also:string are stretched at sufficient intervals . Kept in a chamber heated from 9o° to loo° F., the sugar gradually crystallizes on the strings and the sides of the
See also:mould, and when sufficient has been deposited the remaining liquor is drained off, and the crystals are removed and dried by
See also:heat . Machinery, often of, elaborate character, is now extensively employed in almost all branches ,of the confectionery
See also:trade .
See also:chocolate see that article, also
See also:COCOA .
COUNT FEDERICO CONFALONIERI (1785-1846)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.