See also:league, or union of
See also:people, or bodies of people . The
See also:term in
See also:political use is generally confined to a permanent union of
See also:sovereign states, for certain
See also:common purposes, e.g. the German
See also:Confederation (Bund), established by the congress of Vienna in 1815, and the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund), a league of certain German states under the
See also:protection of
See also:Napoleon (1806-1813) . The
See also:alliance of the
See also:Powers by which
See also:Europe was governed after 1815 was sometimes, especially by the emperor
See also:Alexander I., called the " Confederation of Europe "; but this expressed rather a pious aspiration than the actual state of affairs . The distinction between Confederation and Federation (see FEDERAL
See also:GOVERNMENT), synonymous in their origin, has been
See also:developed in the political terminology of the
See also:United States . Up to 1789 these were a Confederation; then the word Federation, or Federal Republic, was introduced as implying closer union . This distinction was emphasized during the
See also:Civil War between
See also:North and South, the seceding states forming a Confederation (Confederate States of
See also:America) in opposition to the Federal Union . Confederation thus comes to mean a union of sovereign states in which the stress if laid on the sovereign independence of each constituent
See also:body (cf. the German Staatenbund); Federation implies a union of states in which the stress is laid on the supremacy of the common government (Ger . Bundesstaat) . The distinction is, however, by no means universally observed . The variant " Confederacy," derived through the Anglo-French confederacie, and meaning generally a league or union, whether of states or individuals, was applied in America in the sense of Confederation to the seceding
See also:southern states (see above) . In its political sense, however, confederacy has generally come to mean rather a temporary league of
See also:independent states for certain purposes . As applied to individuals, while " confederation " is used of certain open unions of people for political or other purposes (e.g. the Miners' Confederation), " confederacy " —from its obsolete legal sense of conspiracy—has come frequently to imply a secret bond, a combination for illicit purposes, or of persons whose identity is not disclosed .
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