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ROSCOE CONKLING (1829-1888)

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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 951 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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ROSCOE CONKLING (1829-1888), American lawyer and political leader, was born in Albany, New York, on the 3oth of October 1829. He was the son of Alfred Conkling (1789-1874), who was a representative in Congress from New York in 1821–1823, a Federal district judge in 1825–1852, and U.S. minister to Mexico in 1852–1853. Roscoe Conkling was admitted to the bar at Utica, New York, in 1850, was appointed district-attorney of Oneida county in the same year, and soon attained success in the practice of his profession. At first a Whig, he joined the Republican party at its formation, and was a Republican representative in Congress from 1859 to 1863. He refused to follow the financial policy of his party in 1862, and delivered a notable speech against the passage of the Legal Tender Act, which made a certain class of treasury notes receivable for all public and private debts. In this opposition he was joined by his brother, and was thanked by parliament. In 1886 the duke went to India and commanded the Bombay army until 189o, when he returned home. He commanded the southern district from 1890 to 1893, and that of Aldershot from 1893 to 1898. On the departure of Lord Roberts for South Africa the duke succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 9th of January 1900. On attaining his majority in 1871 an annuity of £15,000 was granted to Prince Arthur by parliament, and in 1874 he was created duke of Connaught and Strathearn and earl of Sussex. On the 13th of March 1879 he married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia, third daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, and received an additional annuity of £1o,000. The duke and duchess represented Queen Victoria at the coronation of the tsar Nicholas II. at Moscow in 1896. On the reorganization of the war office and the higher commands in 1904, the duke was appointed to the new office of inspector-general to the forces, from which he retired in 1907, being then given the new post of commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, stationed at Malta, which he held until 1909.
End of Article: ROSCOE CONKLING (1829-1888)
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