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CONRAD (d. 955)

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Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 968 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CONRAD (d. 955), surnamed the " Red," duke of Lorraine, was a son of a Franconian count named Werner, who had possessions on both banks of the Rhine. He rendered valuable assistance to the German king Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto the Great, and in 944 was made duke of Lorraine. In 947 he married Otto's daughter Liutgarde (d. 953), and afterwards took a prominent part in the struggle between Louis IV., king of France, and Hugh the Great, duke of Paris. He accompanied his father-in-law to Italy in 951, and when Otto returned to Germany in 952, Conrad remained behind as his representative and signed a treaty with Berengar IL, king of Italy, which brought about an estrangement between the German king and himself. He entered into alliance with his brother-in-law Ludolf, and taking up arms against Otto, seized the person of the king, afterwards resisting successfully an attack on Mainz. He' then ravaged the lands of his enemies in Lorraine; treated with the Magyars for support, but submitted to Otto in June 954, when he was deprived of his duchy, though permitted to retain his hereditary possessions. He was killed on the Lechfeld on the loth of August 955, while fighting loyally for Otto against the Magyars, and was buried at Worms. He left a son Otto, who was the grandfather of the emperor Conrad II. Conrad is greatly lauded for his valour by contemporary writers, and the historian Widukind speaks very highly of his qualities both of mind and of body. See Widukind, " Res gestae Saxonicae," in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. `Scriptures; Band iii. (Hanover and Berlin, 18a6–189a); W. von Giesebreeht, Gdschichte der deutschen Kai3erzeit (Leipzig, 1881) ; R. Kopke and E. Dummler, Jahrbitcher des deutschen Reichs unter Kaiser Otto I. (Leipzig, 1876) ; K. Kistler, Die Ungarnschlachtauf dem Lechfelde (Augsburg, 1884). CONRAD OF MARBURG (c. 1180-1233), German inquisitor, was born probably at Marburg, and received a good education, possibly at the university of Bologna. It is not certain that he belonged to any of the religious orders, although he has been claimed both by the Franciscans and the Dominicans. Early in the 13th century he appears to have won some celebrity as a preacher, and in 1214 was commissioned by Pope Innocent III. to arouse interest in the proposed crusade. After continuing this work for two or three years Conrad vanishes from history until 1226, when he is found occupying a position of influence at the court of Louis IV., landgrave of Thuringia. He became confessor to the landgrave's wife St Elizabeth of Hungary (q.v.), and exercised the landgrave's rights of clerical patronage during his absence on crusade. In 1227 he was employed by Pope Gregory IX. to extirpate heresy in Germany, to denounce the marriage of the clergy, and to visit the monasteries. He carried on the crusade against heretics with great ze21 in Hesse and Thuringia, but especially in the district around the mouth of the Weser inhabited by a people called the Stedinger. In 1233 he accused Henry II., count of Sayn, of heresy, a charge which was indignantly repudiated. An assembly at Mainz of bishops and princes declared Henry innocent, but Conrad demanded that this sentence- should be reversed. This was his last work, for as he rode from Mainz he was murdered near Marburg on the 3oth of July 1233. He left an Epistola ad papam de miraculis Sanctae Elisabethae,' which was first published at Cologne in 1653. Conrad is chiefly known to English readers through Charles Kingsley's Saint's Tragedy, in which he is a prominent character. See E. L. T. Henke, Konrad von Marburg (Marburg, 1861), B. Kaltner, Konrad von Marburg and die Inquisition in Deutschland (Prague, 1882).; A. Hausrath, Der Ketzermeister Konrad von Mar-burg (Leipzig, 1883); J. Beck, Konrad von Marburg (Breslau, 1871).
End of Article: CONRAD (d. 955)
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