See also:term used both popularly and technically in many different senses for that
See also:faculty which decides between right and wrong . In popular usage "
See also:conscience " is generally understood to give intuitively authoritative decisions as regards the moral quality of single actions; this usage implicitly assumes that every
See also:action has an
See also:objective or
See also:intrinsic goodness or badness, which "
See also:con-science " may be said to discern much in the same way as the
See also:sees or the ear hears . Moralists generally, however, are agreed that in all moral judgments of this character there is an implied reference to moral
See also:laws, the validity of which is in some ethical systems the true subject
See also:matter of conscience . The
See also:part played by conscience in relation to general moral laws and particular cases will vary according to the view taken of the character of the general laws . If, on what is called the " jural theory, these laws are regarded as deriving their authority from an
See also:external source, the operation of conscience is so far limited . It may be held to recognize the validity of divine laws, for example; or it may be confined to the deductive
See also:process of applying those laws to particular cases, known as " cases of conscience " (see CASUISTRY) . If, on the other
See also:hand, the general laws are regarded as intuitive, then the discernment of them may be taken as the true
See also:function of conscience . In either theory, conscience may be understood as the active principle in the soul which, in
See also:face of two alternatives, tells a man that he ought to select the one which is in conformity with the moral
See also:law . Apart from the two functions of discerning between right and wrong, and actively predisposing the
See also:agent to moral action, conscience has further a retrospective action whereby remorse falls upon the man who recognizes that he has broken a moral law . See ETHICS; also
See also:JOSEPH; and compare the moral sense "
See also:doctrine of
See also:Shaftesbury . There are certain
See also:special uses of the word " conscience." A Conscience clause is the term given to a special
See also:provision often inserted in an
See also:act of parliament to enable persons having religious scruples to absent themselves from certain services, or to abstain from certain duties, otherwise prescribed by the act . Conscience
See also:money is the name given to a payment voluntarily made by a
See also:person who has evaded his obligations, especially in respect of taxes and the like .
This usage derives from the last function of conscience mentioned above . Conscience Courts were
See also:local courts, established by acts of parliament in
See also:London and various provincial towns, for the recovery of small debts, usually sums under L5 . They were superseded by
See also:county courts (q.v.) .
CONSANGUINITY, or KINDRED
HENDRIK CONSCIENCE (1812-1883)
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