See also:lord high
See also:constable of England, the lord constable of Scotland, the constables of some royal castles in England, and to certain executive legal officials of inferior
See also:rank in
See also:Great Britain and the
See also:United States . The
See also:history of the constable is closely analogous to that of the marshal (q.v.); for just as the
See also:modern marshals, whatever their rank or
See also:office, are traceable both as to their title and functions to the marescalcus, or
See also:master of the
See also:horse, of the Frankish
See also:kings, so the constable, whether he be a high dignitary of the royal
See also:court or a "
See also:petty constable " in a
See also:village, is derived by a logical
See also:evolution from the
See also:counts of the
See also:stable of the East
See also:Roman Emperors . The
See also:Byzantine comes stabuli (K6 o c
See also:Toll vTa(3kov) was in his origin simply the imperial master of the horse, the
See also:head of the imperial stables, and a great officer of state . From the East the title was borrowed by the Frankish kings, and during the Carolingian epoch a comes stabuli was at the head of the royal
See also:stud, the marshals (marescalci) being under his orders . The office survived and
See also:expanded in France under the Capetian
See also:dynasty; in the 1th century the constable has not only the general superintendence of the royal stud, but an important command in the army—though still under the orders of the
See also:seneschal,—and certain limited
See also:powers of jurisdiction . From this
See also:time onward the office of constable tended, in France, continually to increase in importance . On the abolition of the seneschalship by
See also:Augustus in 1191, the constable succeeded to many of his powers and privileges . Thus in the 13th century he claimed as of right the
See also:privilege of leading the vanguard of the army . Under Philip the
See also:Fair (1268–1314) he begins to be invested with the military
See also:government of certain provinces as
See also:lieutenant of the king (locum tenens regis); and, finally, in the 14th century, owing to the confusion of his high prerogatives as the royal lieutenant with his functions as
See also:con-stable, he is, as constable, recognized as
See also:commander-in-chief of the army . The French kings never allowed the office of constable to become hereditary, and in
See also:January 1627, after the
See also:death of
See also:Francois de Bonne, duc de
See also:Lesdiguieres, the office was suppressed by royal edict .
See also:Napoleon created the office of
See also:grand constable for his
See also:Louis, and that of
See also:vice-constable for Marshal
See also:Berthier, but these were suppressed at the Restoration . The jurisdiction of the constable, known as the connetablie et marechaussee de France, was held in
See also:fee until the abolition of the office of constable, when it became a royal court, without, however, changing its name .
Henceforth it was nominally under the
See also:senior marshal of France, and all marshals had the right of sitting as
See also:judges; but actually it was presided over by the lieutenant general with the lieutenant particulier and the procureur du roi as assessors . At first peripatetic, its seat was ultimately fixed at
See also:Paris, as
See also:part of the organization of the
See also:parlement . Its jurisdiction, which included all military persons and causes, was somewhat vaguely extended to embrace all crimes of violence, &c., committed outside the jurisdiction of the towns; it thus came often into conflict with that of the other royal courts . The office of constable was not confined on the continent to France . The
See also:Gothic kings of Spain had their comites stabuli; so did, later on, the kings of Naples, where the functions of this officer were much the same as in France . The great vassals of the French
See also:crown, moreover, arranging their households on the
See also:model of that of the king, had their constables, whose office tended for the most part to become hereditary . Thus the constableship of the
See also:county of Toulouse was hereditary in the
See also:family of Sabran, that of
See also:Normandy in the
See also:house of Crespin . In England the title of constable was unknown before the
See also:Conquest, though the functions of the office were practically those of the
See also:English staller . In the
See also:laws of
See also:Edward the
See also:Confessor the title constable is mentioned as the French
See also:equivalent for the English heretoga, or military commander (ductor exercitus) . But among the great
See also:officers of the Norman-English court the constable duly makes his appearance as " quartermaster-general of the court and of the army." In England, however, where the office soon became hereditary; the constable never attained the same commanding position as in France, though the military duties attached to his office prevented its sinking into a mere grand
See also:serjeanty . He was not the
See also:superior of the marshal, the functions of the two 'offices being in fact hardly distinguishable . From the first, moreover, the title of constable was not confined to the constable proper, whose office in the reign of
See also:Stephen was made hereditary under the
See also:style of high constable (see LOItD HIGH CONSTABLE); for every command held under the supreme constabularia was designated by this name, and there were constables of troops, of castles, of garrisons and even of
See also:ships (constabularia navigii regis) .
Under the Norman and Angevin kings, then, the title had come to be loosely applied to any high military command . Itsextension to officials exercising
See also:civil jurisdiction is not difficult to account for . In feudal society, based as this was on a military organization, it is easy to see how the military jurisdiction of the constables would tend to encroach on that of the civil magistrates . The origin of the modern chief and petty constables, however, is to be traced to the
See also:Statute of Winchester of 1285, by which the
See also:national militia was organized by a blending of the military
See also:system with the constitution of the shires . Under this
See also:act a chief or high constable was appointed in every
See also:hundred; while in the old tithings and villatae the village
See also:bailiff was generally appointed a petty constable, receiving in addition to his old magisterial functions a new military office . From the time of Edward III. the old title of reeve or tithing-man is lost in that of constable, which represents his character as an officer of the peace as well as of the militia . The high and petty constables continued to be the executive legal officers in the counties until the County
See also:Police Acts of 1839 and 1840 re-organized the county police . In 1842 an important statute was passed enacting that for the future no
See also:appointment of a petty constable, headborough, borsholder, tithing-man, or peace officer of the like description should be made for any
See also:parish at any court leet, except for purposes unconnected with the preservation of the peace, and providing, as a means of increasing the security of persons and
See also:property, for the appointment by justices of the peace in divisional petty sessions of
See also:fit persons or their substitutes to act as constables in the several parishes of England, and giving vestries an optional power of providing paid constables . Under the acts of 1839 and 184o the
See also:establishment of a paid county police force was optional with the justices . With the Police Act of 1856 this optional power became compulsory, and thenceforth the history of the petty constable in England is that of the police . In 1869
See also:provision was made for the abolition of the old office of high constable (the High Con-stables Act 1869) and, as the establishment of an efficient police force rendered the general appointment of parish constables unnecessary, the appointment ceased, subject to the appointment by vestries of paid constables under the chief constable of the county (Parish Constables Act 1872) . See further PoLIcE .
See also:Special constables " are peace officers appointed to act on occasional emergencies when the ordinary police force is thought to be deficient . The appointment of special constables is for the most part regulated by an act of 1831 . In the
See also:absence of
See also:volunteers the office is compulsory, on the appointment of two justices . The lord-lieutenant may also appoint special constables and the statutory exemptions may be disregarded, but voters cannot be made to serve during a
See also:parliamentary election . While in office special constables have all the powers of a
See also:law constable, and in
See also:London those of a 'metropolitan police officer . In the United States, outside the larger towns, the petty constable retains much the same status as in England before the act of 1842 . Hs still has a limited judicial power as conservator of the peace, and often exercises various additional functions, such as that of tax-
See also:collector or overseer of the roads or other duties, as may be decided for him by the community which appoints him . In the old colonial days the office, borrowed from England, was of much importance . The office of high constable existed also in
See also:Philadelphia and New
See also:York, in the latter
See also:town until 1830, and in some towns the title has been retained for the chief of the police force . See Du Cange, Glossarium (ed .
See also:Niort, 1883), s . " Comes Stabuli "; R .
Gneist, Hist. of the Eng . Constitution (trs . London, 1891); W . L .
See also:Lee, Hist. of Police in England (London, I 01); Encycl. of the Laws of England, s . " Constable " (London, 1907); W . Stubbs, Constitutional Hist. of England (
See also:Oxford, 1875–1878) ; A . Luchaire,
See also:des institutions francaises (Paris, 1892) . (W . A .
CONSPIRACY (from Lat. conspirare, literally to brea...
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE (1774-1827)
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