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CONSTANTINE IV

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V06, Page 991 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CONSTANTINE IV. Pogonatus (the " bearded "), son of Constans II., was emperor from 668 to 685. After his father's death he set out for Sicily, where an Armenian named Mizizius had been declared emperor. Having defeated and put the usurper to death, he returned to the capital. For six years (672—677) the Arabs under the caliph Moawiya (see CALIPHATE) besieged Constantinople, but the ravages caused amongst them by the so-called " Greek fire," heavy losses by land and sea, and the inroads of the Christian Mardaites (or Maronites, q.v.) of Mount Lebanon, obliged Moawiya to make peace and agree to pay tribute for thirty years. The attacks of the Slays and Avars upon Thessalonica were heroically repulsed by the inhabitants. But Constantine, exhausted by the war with the Arabs, was unable to prevent the Bulgars, a tribe of Finno-Ugrian race, from crossing the Danube and settling in the district where their name still survives. The Bulgarian kingdom was established under its first king Isperich in 679. The tribute paid by the Arabs was used to purchase the good will of the new settlers. In order to restore peace in the church, Constantine summoned an ecumenical council (the sixth) at Constantinople, which held its sittings from the 7th of November 68o to the 16th of September 681. The result was the condemnation of the Monothelites and a recognition of the doctrine that two wills, neither opposed nor intermingled, were united in the person of Christ, in accordance with his twofold nature (see under CONSTANTINOPLE, COUNCILS OF).
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