See also:Roman states-man and orator . In 92 he defended his
See also:uncle P . Rutilius Rufus, who had been unjustly accused of extortion in
See also:Asia . He was on intimate terms with the tribune M . Livius Drusus, who was murdered in 91, and in the same
See also:year was an unsuccessful
See also:candidate for the tribunate . Shortly afterwards he was prosecuted under the lex
See also:Varia, directed against all who had in any way supported the Italians against Rome, and, in
See also:order to avoid condemnation, went into voluntary
See also:exile . He did not return till 82, during the dictatorship of Sulla . In 75 he was
See also:consul, and excited the hostility of the optimates by carrying a
See also:law that abolished the Sullan disqualification of the tribunes from holding higher magistracies; another law de judiciis privatis, of which nothing is known, was abrogated by his
See also:brother . In 74 Cotta obtained the province of Gaul, and was granted a
See also:triumph for some victory of which we possess no details; but on the very
See also:day before its celebration an old
See also:wound broke out, and he died suddenly . According to
See also:Cicero, P . Sulpicius Rufus and Cotta were the best speakers of the
See also:young men of their
See also:time . Physically incapable of rising to passionate heights of oratory, Cotta's most cases) a small
See also:bronze figure called s&vrls .
See also:discovery (by
See also:Professor Helbig in 1886) of two sets of actual apparatus near
See also:Perugia and various representations on vases help to elucidate the somewhat obscure accounts of the method of playing the
See also:game contained in the scholia and certain
See also:ancient authors who, it must not be forgotten, wrote at a time when the game itself had become obsolete, and cannot therefore be looked to for a trustworthy description of it . The first specimen of the apparatus found at Perugia resembles a candelabrum on a
See also:base, tapering towards the top, with a blunt end, on which the small disk (found near the
See also:rod), which has a hole near the edge and is slightly hollow in the
See also:middle, could be balanced . At about a third of the height of the rod is a large disk with a hole in the centre through which the rod runs; in a socket at the top is a small bronze figure, with right
See also:arm and right
See also:leg uplifted . In the second specimen there is no large disk, and the figure is holding up what is apparently a rhyton or drinking-
See also:horn . According to Prof . Helbig in Mittheilungen
See also:des deutschen archaologischen Instituts (Romische Abtheilung i., 1886) three
See also:games were played with this apparatus: In the first the smaller disk was placed on the top of the rod, and the
See also:object of the player was to dislodge it with a
See also:cast of the
See also:wine, so that it would fall with a clatter on the larger disk below . In the second (as in the third) the bronze figure was used; the smaller disk was placed above the figure, upon which it fell when
See also:hit, and thence on to the larger disk below . In the third, there was no smaller disk; the wine was thrown at the figure, and fell on to the larger disk underneath . Another supposed variety, in which two scales were balanced in such a manner that the
See also:weight of the liquid cast into either scale caused it to dip down and
See also:touch the top of an image placed under each, probably had no real existence, but is due to a confusion of the irX &ara'y with a scale-
See also:pan by reason of its shape . The game appears to have been of Sicilian origin, but it spread through
See also:Greece from
See also:Thessaly to Rhodes, and was especially fashionable at Athens . Dionysius,
See also:Anacreon, Pindar,
See also:Euripides, Aristophanes,
See also:Antiphanes, make frequent and
See also:familiar allusion to the KOTra(3os; but in the writers of the Roman and Alexandrian
See also:period such reference as occurs shows that the fashion had died out . In Latin literature it is almost entirely unknown .
See also:treatise on the subject is C . Sartori's Des Kottabos-Spiel der alten Griechen (1893), in which a full bibliography of ancient and
See also:modern authorities is given .
See also:English readers may be referred to an article by A .
See also:Higgins on "
See also:Recent Discoveries of the Apparatus used in playing the Game of Kottabos " (Archaeologia, li . 1888); see also " Kottabos " in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiguites, and L . Becq de Fouquieres,
See also:Les Jeux des anciens (1873) . 252 successes were chiefly due to his searching investigation of facts; he kept strictly to the essentials of the case and avoided all irrelevant digressions . His
See also:style was pure and
See also:simple . He is introduced by Cicero as an interlocutor in the De oratore and De nature deorum (iii.), as a supporter of the principles of the New Academy . The fragments of Sallust contain the substance of a speech delivered by Cotta in order to
See also:calm the popular anger at a deficient corn-supply . See Cicero, De oratore, iii . 3,
See also:Brutus, 49, 55, 90, 92; Sallust, Hist .
See also:Brag . ;
See also:Bell . Civ. i . 37 . His brother,
See also:Lucius AURELIUS COTTA, when praetor in 70 B.C. brought in a law for the reform of the
See also:jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii . One-third were to be senators, and two-thirds men of equestrian
See also:census, one-
See also:half of whom must have been tribuni aerarii, a
See also:body as to whose functions there is no certain evidence, although in Cicero's time they were reckoned by courtesy amongst the equites . In 66 Cotta and L .
See also:Manlius Torquatus accused the consuls-elect for the following year of
See also:bribery in connexion with the elections; they were condemned, and Cotta and Torquatus chosen in their places . After the suppression of the Catilinarian
See also:conspiracy, Cotta proposed a public thanksgiving for Cicero's services, and after the latter had gone into exile, supported the view that there was no need of a law for his recall, since the law of
See also:Clodius was legally worthless . He subsequently attached himself to Caesar, and it was currently reported that Cotta (who was then quindecimvir) intended to propose that Caesar should receive the title of
See also:king, it being written in the books of
See also:fate that the Parthians could only be defeated by a king . Cotta's intention was not carried out in consequence of the
See also:murder of Caesar, after which he retired from public
See also:life . See Cicero, Orelli's Onomasticon; Sallust, Catiline, 18; Suetonius, Caesar, 79;
See also:Livy, Epit .
97;Veil . Pat. ii . 32; Dio Cassius
See also:xxxvi . 44,
See also:xxxvii . 1 .
BERNHARD VON COTTA (1808—1879)
COTTABUS (Gr. Kb-rra(3os)
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