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Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 723 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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COUNCIL OF.) From the abdication of Gregory XII. to the election of Martin V., the Apostolic See was vacant; and the council, newly convened and authorized by the legitimate pope vacancy,' before his resignation, conducted the government of the Holy the Church. After the condemnation and burning of see. John Huss (q.v.), the reformation of the Church, both in its head and members, claimed the main attention of the fathers of the council. Among the many difficulties which beset the question, not the least obvious was the length of time during which the Church must remain without a ruler, if—as Sigismund and the German nation demanded—the papal election were deferred till the completion of the internal reforms. The result was decided by the policy of the cardinals, who since May 1417 had openly devoted their whole energies to the acceleration of that election; and union was preserved by means of a compromise arranged by Bishop Henry of Winchester, the uncle of the English king. The terms of the agreement were that a synodal decree should give an absolute assurance that the work of reformation would be taken in hand immediately after the election; reforms, on which all the nations were already united, were to be published before the election; and the mode of the papal election itself was to be determined by deputies. When the last-named condition had been fulfilled on the 28th of October the conclave began, on the 8th of November 1417, in the Kaufhaus of Constance; and, no later than St Martin's day, the cardinal-deacon Oddo Colonna was elected Pope Martin V. With the accession of Martin V. unity was at last restored to the Church, and contemporary Christendom gave Herein v., way to transports of joy. Any secular power—a 1417-1431. bitter opponent of the papacy admits—would have succumbed in the schism: but so wonderful was the organization of the spiritual empire, and so indestructible the conception of the papacy itself, that this (the deepest of all cleavages) served only to prove its indivisibility (Gregorovius, Geschichte Roms vi.). Martin V. appeared to possess every quality which could enable him to represent the universal Church with strength and dignity. In order to maintain his independence, he energetically repudiated all proposals that he should establish his residence in France or Germany, and once more took up his abode in Rome. On the 3oth of September 1420 he made his entry into the almost completely ruinous town. To repair the ravages of neglect, and, more especially, to restore the decayed churches, Martin at once expended large sums; while, later, he engaged famous artists, like Gentile da Fabriano and Masaccio, and encouraged all forms of art by every means within his power. Numerous humanists were appointed to the Chancery, and the Romans were loud in their praise of the papal regime. But he was not content with laying the foundations for the renovation of the Eternal City: he was the architect who rebuilt the papal monarchy, which the schism had reduced to the verge of dissolution. To this difficult problem he brought remarkable skill and aptness, energy and ability. His temporal sovereignty he attempted to strengthen through his family connexions, and magnificent provision in general was made for the members of his house. Nor was the activity of Martin V. less successful in political than in ecclesiastical reform, which latter included the combating of the Fraticelli, the amendment of the clergy, the encouragement of pity by the regulation of feast-days, the recommendation of increased devotion to the sacrament of the altar, and the strengthening of the conception of the Church by the great jubilee of 1423. At the same time the crowning reward of his labours was the effacing of the last traces of the schism. He prosecuted successfully the conflict with the adherents of Benedict XIII., who, till the day of his death' clung to the remnants of his usurped authority (see BENEDICT XIII.). An attempt on the part of Alphonso V. of Aragon to renew the schism failed; and, in 1429, the Spaniard was compelled to give up his anti-pope, Clement VIII. Count John of Armagnac, whom Martin had excommunicated as a protector of schismatics, was also driven to make submission. Martin rendered the greatest service by his admission of a whole series of distinguished men into the College of Cardinals; but he was less fortunate in his struggles against Hussitism. His death took place on the loth of February 1431, and the inscription on his grave—still preserved in the Lateran church—styles him " the felicity of his age" (temporum suorum felicity). The Colonna pope was followed by the strict, moral and pious Gabriel Condulmaro, under the title of Eugenius IV. BngeniusIV.His pontificate was not altogether happy. At the very 1431-1447 first, his violent and premature measures against the 'mime Colonna family, which had received such unbounded council of favour from his predecessor, embroiled him in a Beset sanguinary feud. Far worse, however, were the conflicts which Eugenius had to support against the Council of Basel—already dissolved on the 18th of December 1431. At the beginning, indeed, a reconciliation between the pope and council was effected by Sigismund who, on the 31st of May 1433, was crowned emperor at Rome. But, as early as the 29th of May 1434 a revolution broke out in Rome, which, on the 4th of June, drove the pope in, flight to Florence; where he was obliged to remain, while Giovanni Vitelleschi restored order in the papal state. The migration of Eugenius IV. to Florence was of extreme importance; for this town was the real home of the new art, and the intellectual focus of all the humanistic movements in Italy. At Florence the pope came into closer contact with the humanists, and to this circumstance is due the gradual dominance which they attained in the Roman Curia—a dominance which, both in itself, and even more because of the frankly pagan leanings of many in that party, was bound to awaken serious misgivings. The Italian troubles, which had entailed the exile of Eugenius IV., were still insignificant in comparison with those conjured up by the fanatics of the Council in Basel. The decrees enacted by that body made deep inroads on the rights of the Holy See; and the conflict increased in violence. On the 31st of July 1437 the fathers of Basel summoned Eugenius IV. to appear before their tribunal. The pope retorted on the 18th of September by transferring the scene of the council to Ferrara—afterwards to Florence. There, in July 1439, the union with the Greeks was effected: but it remained simply a paper agreement. On the 25th of June 1439 the synod—which had already pronounced sentence of heresy on Eugenius IV., by reason of his obstinate disobedience to the assembly of the Church—formally deposed him; and, on the 5th of November, a rival pontiff was elected in the person of the Felix V. ambitious Amadeus of Savoy, who now took the Antipope. title of Felix V. (See BASEL, COUNCIL OF, and FELIx V.) Thus the assembly of Christendom at Basel had resulted, not in the reformation of the Church, but in a new schism! •This, in fact, was an inevitable sequel to the attempt to overthrow the monarchical constitution of the Church. The anti-pope----the last in the history of the papacy —made no headway, although the council invested him with the power of levying annates to a greater extent than had ever been claimed by the Roman Curia. The crime of this new schism was soon to be expiated by its perpetrators. The disinclination of sovereigns and peoples to a division, of the disastrous consequences of which the West had only lately had plentiful experiences, was so pronounced that 1 May 23, 1423: vide the Chronicle of Martin de Alpartil, edited by Ehrle (1906. XX. ?3the violent proceeding of the Basel fathers alienated from them the sympathies of nearly all who, till then, had leaned to their side. While the prestige of the schismatics waned, Eugenius IV, gained new friends; and on the 28th of September 1443 his reconciliation with Alphonso of Naples enabled him to return to Rome. In consequence of the absence of the pope, the Eternal City was once more little better than a ruin; and the work of restoration was immediately begun by Eugenius. During the chaos of the schism, France and Germany had adopted a semi-schismatic attitude: the former by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (June 7, 1438); the latter by a declaration of neutrality in March 1438. The efforts of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini brought matters into a channel more favourable to the Holy See; and an understanding with Germany was reached. This consummation was soon followed by the death of Eugenius (Feb. 23, 1447). No apter estimate of his character can be found than the words of Aeneas Silvius himself: "He was a great-hearted man; but his chief error was that he was a stranger to moderation, and regulated his actions, not by his ability, but by his wishes." From the charge of nepotism he was entirely exempt; and, to the present day, the purity of his life has never been impugned even by the voice of faction. He was a father to the poor and sick, in the highest sense of the word; and he left behind him an enduring monument in his amendment and regeneration, first of the religious orders, then of the clergy. Again, the patronage which he showed to art and artists was of the greatest importance. All that could be done in that cause, during this stormy epoch, was done by Eugenius. It was by his commission that Filarete prepared the still-extant bronzework of St Peter's, and the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament in the Vatican was painted by Fiesole., On the, death of Eugenius IV. the situation was menacing enough, but, to the surprise and joy of all, Tomaso Parentucelli, cardinal of Bologna, was elected without disturbance, as Pope Nicholas V. With him the Christian Renaissance Nchoiss V ascended the papal throne. He was the son of a 14474455. physician from Sarzana, who was not too well endowed with the gifts of fortune; and the boy, with all his talents, could only prosecute his studies at great personal sacrifices. He was possessed of a deep-seated enthusiasm for science and art, of a sincerely pious and idealistic temperament, and of an ardent love for the Church. After his ordination, his great learning and stainless life led him to office after office in the Church, each higher and more influential than the last. Not only did he love the studies of the humanist, but he himself was a Christian humanist. Yet among all his far-reaching plans for the encouragement of art and science, Nicholas V. had always the well-being of the Church primarily in view; and the highest goal of his pontificate, which inaugurated the Maecenatian era of the popedom, was to ennoble that Church by the works of intellect and art. It is astonishing to contemplate how much he achieved, during his brief reign, in the cause of the Renaissance in both art and literature. True, his designs were even greater, but his term of government was too short to allow of their actual execution. A simply gigantic plan was drawn out, with the assistance of the celebrated Alberti, for the reconstruction of the Leonine City, the Vatican and St Peter's. The rebuilding of the last-named was rendered advisable by the precarious condition of the structure, but stopped short in the early stages. In the Vatican, however, Fiesole completed the noble frescoes, from the lives of St Stephen and St Lawrence, which are still preserved to us. Nicholas, again, lent the protection and encouragement of his powerful arm to science as well as art, till the papal court became a veritable domain of the Muses. He supported all scientific enterprises with unlimited generosity, and the most famous savants of all countries flocked to Rome. Yet it is surprising—and scarcely excusable—that Nicholas, while selecting the men whom he considered necessary for his literary work, passed over much which ought to have aroused grave suspicion in his mind. Thus the active humanistic life, called into existence by the enthusiasm of the pope, was not without its dark side. Quite apart from the fact that II Rome became the scene of a chronique scandaleuse among these scholars, there was something unnatural in the predominance of the humanists in the Curia. The fostering care of the science-loving pope extended also to the field of ecclesiastical literature; and the greatest importance attaches to the energy he developed as a collector of manuscripts and books. His agents travelled as far as Prussia, and even into the East. All this activity served to enrich the Vatican library, the foundation of which is for Nicholas V. an abiding title to fame. In political and ecclesiastical affairs he similarly manifested great vigour; and his extraordinarily pacific disposition did more than anything else towards diminishing the difficulties with which he had to contend on his entry upon office. An agreement was very quickly concluded with King Alphonso of Naples. In the Empire the affairs of the Church were ameliorated—though not so quickly—by the Concordat of Vienna (1448). The Council of Basel was compelled to dissolve, and the anti-pope Felix V. to abdicate: and, though even after the termination of the synod men like Jacob of Juterbogk (q.v.) were found to champion ecclesiastical parliamentarianism and the more advanced ideas of Basel, they were confronted, on the other hand, by an array of redoubtable controversialists, who entered the lists to defend, both in speech and writing, the privileges of the Apostolic See. Among these, Torquemada, Rodericus Sancius de Arevalo, Capistrano and Piero del Monte were especially active for the restoration of the papacy. Fortunate as Nicholas was in the haute politique of the Church, he was equally so in his efforts to re-establish and maintain peace in Rome and the papal state. In Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, Bosnia and Croatia—even in Cyprus itself —he was zealous for the peace of the Church. The long-hoped cessation of civil war within the Church had now come, and Nicholas considered that the event could Jubilee of not better be celebrated than by the proclamation of 1450. a universal jubilee—an announcement which evoked a thrill of joy in the whole of Christendom. A special point of attaction in this jubilee of 1450 was the canonization of Bernardino of Siena; and, in spite of the plague which broke out in Rome, the celebrations ran a brilliant course. It was the wish of the pope that the jubilee should be followed by a revival of religious life in all Christian countries. To put this project into execution, the Church opened her " treasuries of grace," connected with the jubilee dispensation, for the peculiar benefit of those nations that had suffered most from the turmoils of the last few decades, or were prevented from visiting the Eternal City. Nicholas of Cusa was nominated legate for Germany, and began the work of reformation by travelling through every province in Germany dispensing blessings. It was under Nicholas V. that the last imperial coronation was solemnized at Rome. There is a touch of tragedy in the fact that, in the following year, the pope saw his temporal sovereignty—even his life—threatened by a conspiracy hatched among the adherents of the pseudo-humanism. The prime mover in the plot, Stefano Porcaro, was executed. Nicholas had scarcely recovered from the shock, when news came of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks; and his efforts to unite the Christian powers against the Moslem failed. This darkened the evening of his life, and he died in the night of the 24-25th of March 1455. From the universal standpoint of history the significance of Nicholas's pontificate lies in the fact that he put himself at the head of the artistic and literary Renaissance. By this means he introduced a new epoch in the history of the papacy and of civilization: Rome, the centre of ecclesiastical life, was now to become the centre of literature and art. The short reign of the Spaniard, Alphonso de Borgia, as Pope Calixtus III., is- almost completely filled by his heroic cauxtusltt.,efforts to arm Christendom for the common defence 1455.1458. against Islam. Unfortunately all the warnings and admonitions of the pope fell on deaf ears, though he himself parted with his mitre and plate in order to equip a fleet against the Turks: The Mahommedans, indeed, were severely punished at Belgrade (1456), and in the sea- fight of Metelino (1457): but the indolence of the European princes, who failed to push home the victory, rendered the success abortive. Bitterly disillusioned, Calixtus died on the 14th of August 1458. His memory would be stainless but for the deep shadow cast on it by the advancement which he conferred upon his relatives. When Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini was elected pope as Pius II. the papal throne was ascended by a man whose name was famous as poet, historian, humanist and statesman, p1as 1/ , and whose far-seeing eye and exact knowledge of 1458-1464. affairs seemed peculiarly to fit him for his position. On the other hand, the troubled and not impeccable past of the new pontiff was bound to excite some misgiving; while, 'at the same time, severe bodily suffering had brought old age on a man of but 53 years. In spite of his infirmity and the brief duration of his reign, Pius II. accomplished much for the restoration of the prestige and authority of the Holy See. His indefatigable activity on behalf of Western civilization, now threatened with extinction by the Ottomans, excites admiration and adds an undying lustre to his memory. If we except the Eastern question, Pius II. was principally exercised by the opposition to papal authority which was gaining ground in Germany and France. In the former country the movement was headed by the worldly archbishop-elector Diether of Mainz ;1 in the latter by Louis XI., who played the autocrat in ecclesiastical matters. In full consciousness of his high-priestly dignity he set his face against these and all similar attempts; and his zeal and firmness in defending the authority and rights of the Holy See against the attacks of the conciliar and national parties within the Church deserve double recognition, in view of the eminently difficult circumstances of that period. Nor did he shrink from excursions in the direction of reform, now become an imperative necessity. His attempt to reunite Bohemia with the Church was destined to failure; but the one great aim of the pope during his whole reign was the organization of a gigantic crusade—a project which showed a correct appreciation of the danger with which the Church and the West in general were menaced by the Crescent. It is profoundly affecting to contemplate this man, a mere wreck from gout, shrinking from no fatigue, no labour, and no personal sacrifices; disregarding the obstacles and difficulties thrown in his way by cardinals and temporal princes, whose fatal infatuation refused to see the peril which hung above them all; recurring time after time, with all his intellect and energy, to the realization of his scheme; and finally adopting the high-hearted resolve of placing himself at the head of the crusade. Tortured by bodily, and still more by mental suffering, the old pope reached Ancona. There he was struck down by fever; and on the 15th of August 1464 death had released him from all his afflictions—a tragic close which has thrown a halo round his memory. In the sphere of art he left an enduring monument in the Renaissance town of Pienza which he built. The humanist Pius II. was succeeded by a splendour-loving Venetian, Pietro Barbo, the nephew of Eugenius IV., who is known as Pope Paul II. With his accession the situation altered; for he no longer made the Turkish P/464a/1L-/4, 71. War the centre of his whole activity, as both his immediate predecessors had done. Nevertheless, he was far from indifferent to the Ottoman danger. Paul took energetic measures against the principle of the absolute supremacy of the state as maintained by the Venetians and by Louis XI. of France; while in Bohemia he ordered the deposition of George Podebrad (Dec. 1466). The widely diffused view that this pope was an enemy of science and culture is unfounded. It may be traced back to Platina, who, resenting his arrest, avenged himself by a biographical caricature. What the pope actually sought to combat by his dissolution of the Roman Academy Diether von Isenburg (1412-1463), second son of Count Diether of Isenburg-Budingen; rector of the university of Erfurt, 1434; archbishop of Mainz, 1459. He led the movement for a reform of the Empire and the opposition to the papal encroachments, sup-porting the theory of church government enunciated at Constance and Basel and condemned in Pius II.'s bull Execrabilis.—IED.] was simply the non-Christian tendency of the Renaissance, standing as it did on a purely pagan basis—" the stench of heathendom," as Dante described it. In other respects Paul II. encouraged men of learning and the art of printing, and built the magnificent palace of San Marco, in which he established a noble collection of artistic treasures. The long pontificate of the Franciscan Francesco della Rovere,. under the title of Pope Sixtus IV., displays striking contrasts of light and shade; and with him, begins x144 84.., 1471-1484. the series of the so-called " political popes." It (4 remains a lamentable fact that Sixtus IV. frequently subordinated the Father of Christendom to the Italian prince, that he passed all bounds in the preferment of his own family, and in many ways deviated into all too worldly courses. The decay of ecclesiastical discipline grew to alarming proportions under Sixtus. During his reign crying abuses continued and grew in spite of certain reforms. The nepotism in which the pope indulged is especially inexcusable. His feud with Lorenzo de' Medici culminated in the Pazzi conspiracy, the tragic sequel to which was the assassination of Giuliano de' Medici (April 26, 1478). That the pope himself was guiltless of any share in that atrocious deed is beyond dispute; but it is deeply to be regretted that his name plays a part in the history of this conspiracy. Sixtus was far from blind to the Turkish peril, but here also he was hampered by the indifference of the secular powers. Again, the close of his reign was marked by the wars against Ferrara and Naples, and subsequently against Venice and the Colonnas; and these drove the question of a crusade completely into the background. In the affairs of the Church he favoured the mendicant orders, and declared against the cruel and unjust proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition. His nominations to the cardinalate were not happy. The College of Cardinals, and the Curia in general, grew more and more infected with worldliness during his pontificate. On the other side, however, the pope did splendid service to art and science, while to men of letters he allowed incredible freedom. The Vatican library was enriched and thrown open for public use, Platina—the historian of the popes—receiving the post of librarian. The city of Rome was transfigured. At the papal order there arose the Ponte Sisto, the hospital of San Spirito, Santa Maria del popolo, Santa Maria delta pace, and finally the Sistine Chapel, for the decoration of which the most famous Tuscan and Umbrian artists were summoned to Rome. This fresco-cycle, with its numerous allusions to contemporary history, is still preserved, and forms the noblest monument of the Rovere pope. The reign of Innocent VIII. is mainly occupied by his troubles with the faithless Ferdinand of Naples. These sprang from his Innocent participation in the War of the Barons; but to this VIII.,1484- the pope was absolutely compelled. Innocent's bull 1492. concerning witchcraft (Dec. 5, 1484) has brought upon him many attacks. But this bull contains no sort of dogmatic decision on the nature of sorcery. The very form of the bull, which merely sums up the various items of information that had reached the pope, is enough to prove that the decree was not intended to bind anyone to belief in such things. Moreover the bull contained no essentially new, regulations as to witchcraft. It is absurd to make this document responsible for the introduction of the bloody persecution of witches; for, according to the Saclzsenspiegel, the civil law already punished sorcery with death. The action of Innocent VIII. was simply limited to defining the jurisdiction of the inquisitors with regard to magic. The bull merely authorized, in cases of sorcery, the procedure of the canonical inquisition, which was conducted exclusively by spiritual judges and differed entirely from that of the later witch-trials. Even if the bull encouraged the persecution of witches, in so far as it encouraged the inquisitors to take earnest action, there is still no valid ground for the accusation that Innocent VIII. introduced the trial of witches and must bear the responsibility for the terrible misery which was afterwards brought on humanity by that institution. During the last three decades of the 15th century the Roman Curia, and the College of Cardinals in particular, became increasingly worldly. This explains how on the Alexander death of Innocent VIII. (July 25, 1492), simoniacal vi., 1492-intrigues succeeded in procuring the election of 1503. Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, a man of the most abandoned morals, who did not change his mode of life when he ascended the throne as Pope Alexander VI. The beginning of his reign was not unpromising; but all too soon that nepotism began which attained its height under this Spanish pope, and dominated his whole pontificate. A long series of scandals resulted. The cardinals opposed to Alexander, headed by Giuliano della Rovere, found protection and support with Charles VIII. of France, who laid claim to Naples. In prosecution of this design the king appeared in Italy in the autumn of 1494, pursued his triumphant march through Lombardy and Tuscany, and, on the 31st of December, entered Rome. Charles had the word reform perpetually on his lips; but it could deceive none who were acquainted with the man. At first he threatened Alexander with deposition: but on the 15th of January 1495 an agreement was concluded between pope and king. While the French were marching on Naples there arose a hostile coalition which compelled them to beat a hasty retreat —the Holy League of March 1495. All their conquests were lost; and the pope now determined to chastise the Orsini family, whose treachery had thrown him into the hands of the French. The project miscarried, and on the 25th of January 1497 the papal forces were defeated. In June occurred the mysterious assassination of the duke of Gandia, which appeared for a while to mark the turning-point in Alexander's life. For some time he entertained serious thoughts of reformation; but the matter was first postponed and then forgotten. The last state now became worse than the first, as Alexander fell more and more under the spell of the infamous Cesare Borgia. One scandal followed hard on the other, and opposition naturally sprang up. Unfortunately, Savonarola, the head of that opposition, transgressed all bounds in his well-meant zeal. He refused to yield the pope that obedience to which he was doubly pledged as a priest and the member of an order. Even after his excommunication (May 12, 1497) he continued to exercise the functions of his office, under the shelter of the secular arm. In the end he demanded a council for the deposition of the pope. His fall soon followed, when he had lost all ground in Florence; and his execution on the 23rd of May 1498 freed Alexander from a formidable enemy (see SAVONAnOLA). From the Catholic standpoint Savonarola must certainly be condemned: mainly because he completely forgot the doctrine of the Church that the sinful and vicious life of superiors, including the pope, is not competent to abrogate their jurisdiction. After the death of Charles VIII. Alexander entered into an agreement and alliance with his successor Louis XII. The fruits of this compact were reaped by Cesare Borgia, who resigned his cardinal's hat, became duke of Valentinois, annihilated the minor nobles of the papal state, and made himself the true dictator of Rome. His soaring plans were destroyed by the death of Alexander VI., who met his end on the 18th of August 1503 by the Roman fever—not by poison. The only bright pages in the dark chapter of Alexander's popedom are his efforts on behalf of the Turkish War (1499-1502), his activity for the diffusion of Christianity in America, and his judicial awards (May 3-4, 1493) on the question of the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal, by which he avoided a bloody war. It is folly to speak of a donation of lands which did not belong to the pope, or to maintain that the freedom of the Americans was extinguished by the decision of Alexander VI. The expression " donation " simply referred to what had already been won under just title: the decree contained a deed of gift, but it was an adjustment between the powers concerned and the other European princes, not a parcelling out of the New World and its inhabitants. The monarchs on whom the privilegium was conferred received a right of priority with respect to the provinces first discovered by them. Precisely as to-day inventions are guarded by patents, and literary and artistic creations by the law of copyright, so, at that period, the papal ball and the protection of the Roman Church were an effective means for ensuring that a country should reap where she had sown and should maintain the territory she had discovered and conquered by arduous efforts; while other claimants, with predatory designs, were warned back by the ecclesiastical censorship. In the Vatican the memory of Alexander VI. is still perpetuated by the Appartamenta Borgia, decorated by Pinturicchio with magnificent frescoes, and since restored by Leo XIII. The short reign of the noble Pius III. (Sept. 22–Oct. 18, 1503) witnessed the violent end of Cesare Borgia's dominion. As early as the 1st of November Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere was elected by the conclave as Julius II. He was one of those personalities in which everything transcends the ordinary scale. He was endowed with great force of will, indomitable courage, extra- ordinary acumen, heroic constancy and a discrimi-Julius nating instinct for everything beautiful. A nature 1503-1513. formed on great broad lines—a man of spontaneous impulses carrying away others as he himself was carried away, a genuine Latin in the whole of his being—he belongs to those imposing figures of the Italian Renaissance whose character is summarized in contemporary literature by the word terribile, which is best translated "extraordinary" or " magnificent." As cardinal Julius II. had been the adversary of Alexander VI., as pope he stood equally in diametrical opposition to his predecessor. The Borgia's foremost thought had been for his family; Julius devoted his effort to the Church and the papacy. His chief idea was to revive the world-dominion of the popedom, but first to secure the independence and prestige of the Holy See on the basis of a firmly established and independent territorial sovereignty. Thus two problems presented themselves: the restoration of the papal state, which had been reduced to chaos by the Borgias; and the liberation of the Holy See from the onerous dependence on France—in other words, the expulsion of the French " barbarians " from Italy. His solution of the first problem entitles Julius II. to rank with Innocent III. and Cardinal Albornoz as the third founder of the papal state. His active prosecution of the second task made the Rovere pope, in the eyes of Italian patriots, the hero of the century. At the beginning of the struggle Julius had to endure many a hard blow; but his courage never failed—or, at most, but for a moment—even after the French victory at Ravenna, on Easter Sunday 1512. In the end the Swiss saved the Holy See; and, when Julius died the power of France had been broken in Italy, although the power of Spain had taken its place. The conflict with France led to a schism in the College of Cardinals, which resulted in the conciliabulum of Pisa. Julius adroitly checkmated the cardinals by convening a general council, which was held ;n the Lateran. This assembly was also designed to deal with the question of reform, when the pope was summoned from this world (Feb. 20–21, 1513). Of his ecclesiastical achievements the bull against simony at papal elections deserves the most honourable mention. Again, by his restoration of the papal state, after the frightful era of the Borgias, Julius became the saviour of the papal power. But this does not exhaust his significance; he was, at the same time, the renewer of the papal Maecenate in the domain of art. It is to his lasting praise that he took into his service the three greatest artistic geniuses of the time—Bramante, Michelangelo and Raphael—and entrusted them with congenial tasks. Bramante drew out the plan for the new cathedral of St Peter and the reconstruction of the Vatican. On the 18th of April 1506 the foundation-stone of the new St Peter's was laid; 120 years later, on the 18th of November 1626, Urban VIII. consecrated the new cathedral of the world, on which twenty popes had laboured, in conjunction with the first architects of the day, modifying in many points the grandioseoriginal design of Bramante, and receiving the contributions of every Christian land. St Peter's, indeed, is a monument of the history of art, not merely within these 120 years from the zenith of the Renaissance till the transition into Baroque—from Bramante, The new Raphael, Michelangelo, to Maderna and Bernini— stPeter's but down to the 19th century, in which Canova and the and Thorwaldsen erected there the last great papal 'Vatican. monuments. But a still more striking period of art is represented by the Vatican, with its antique collections, the Sistine and the Stanze. Here, too, we are everywhere confronted with the name of Julius II. It was he who inaugurated the collection of ancient statues in the Belvedere, and caused the wonderful roof of the Sistine Chapel to be painted by Michelangelo (cf. Steinmann, Die sixtin. Kapelle II., 1905). Simultaneously, on the commission of the pope, Raphael decorated the Vatican with frescoes glorifying the Church and the papacy. In the Camera della Segnatura he depicted the four intellectual powers—theology, philosophy, poetry and law. In the Stanza d'Eliodoro Julius II. was visibly extolled as the Head of the Church, sure at all times of the aid of Heaven?. As so often occurs in the history of the papacy, Julius II. was followed by a man of an entirely different type—Leo X. Though not yet 37 years of age, Giovanni de' Medici, Leo x., distinguished for his generosity, mildness and 1513-1521. courtesy, was elevated to the pontifical chair by the adroit manoeuvres of the younger cardinals. His policy—though officially he declared his intention of following in the steps of his predecessor—was at first extremely reserved. His ambition was to play the role of peacemaker, and his conciliatory policy achieved many successes. Thus, in the very first year of his reign, he removed the schism which had broken out under Julius II. As a statesman Leo X. often walked by very crooked paths; but the reproach that he allowed his policy to be swayed exclusively by his family interests is unjustified. It may be admitted that he clung to his native Florence and to his family with warm affection; but the really decisive factor which governed his attitude throughout was his anxiety for the temporal and spiritual independence of the Holy See. The conquest of Milan by the French led to a personal interview at Bologna, where the " Concordat " with France was concluded. This document annulled the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, with its schismatic tendencies, but at the same time confirmed the preponderating influence of the king upon the Gallican Church—a concession which in spite of its many dubious aspects at least made the sovereign the natural defender of the Church and gave him the strongest motive for remaining Catholic. The war for the duchy of Urbino (1516–17) entailed disastrous consequences, as from it dates the complete disorganization of papal finance. It was, moreover, a contributing cause of the conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci,2 the suppression of which was followed (July, 1517) by the creation of 31 new cardinals in one day. This—the greatest of recorded creations—turned the scale once and for all in favour of the papal authority and against the cardinals. The efforts of Leo to promote a crusade, which fall mainly in the years 1517 and 1518, deserve all recognition, but very various opinions have been held as to the attitude of the pope towards the Imperial election consequent on the death of Maximilian I. The fundamental motive for his proceedings at that period was not nepotistic tendencies—which doubtless played their part, but only a secondary one—but his anxiety for the moral and temporal independence of the Holy See. For this reason Leo, from the very first, entertained no genuine desire for the selection either of Charles V. or Francis I. of France. By playing off one against the other he succeeded in holding both in suspense, and induced them to conclude agreements safeguarding the pope and the Medici. Of the two, 1 The closer connexion of these frescoes with contemporary history was first elucidated by Pastor, in his Geschichte der Papste, vol. iii., which also contains the most complete account of the reign of this the second Rovere pope.—[En.[ 2 Alfonso Petrucci (d. 1517), a Sienese. He was degraded from the cardinalate by Leo X.—[Eo.l Plus III., 1503. the French king appeared the less dangerous, and the result was that Leo championed his cause with all his energies. Not till the eleventh hour, when the election of the Habsburg, to whom he was entirely opposed, was seen to be certain did he give way. He thus at least avoided an open rupture with the new emperor—a rupture which would have been all the more perilous on account of the religious revolution now imminent in Germany. There the great secession from Rome was brought about by Martin Luther; but, in spite of his striking personality, the upheaval which was destined to shatter the unity of the Western Church was not his undivided work. True, he was the most powerful agent in the destruction of the existing order; but, in reality, he merely put the match to a pile of inflammable materials which had been collecting for centuries (see REFOiRMATION). A main cause of the cleavage in Germany was the position of ecclesiastical affairs, which—though by no means hopeless—yet stood in urgent need of emendation, and, combined with this, the deeply resented financial system of the Curia. Thus Luther assumed the leadership of a national opposition, and appeared as the champion who was to under-take the much-needed reform of abuses which clamoured for redress. The occasion for the schism was given by the conflict with regard to indulgences, in the course of which Luther was not content to attack actual grievances, but assailed the Catholic doctrine itself. In June 1518 the canonical proceedings against Luther were begun in Rome; but, owing to political influences, only slow progress was made. It was not till the 15th of June 1520 that his new theology was condemned by the bull Exsurge, and Luther himself threatened with excommunication—a penalty which was only enforced owing to his refusal to submit, on the 3rd of January 1521. The state of Germany, together with the unwise behaviour of Francis I., compelled Leo X. to side with Charles V. against the French king; and the united forces of the empire and papacy had achieved the most brilliant success in upper Italy, when Leo died unexpectedly, on the 1st of December 1521. The character of the first Medician pope shows a peculiar mixture of noble and ignoble qualities. With an insatiable love of pleasure he combined a certain external piety and a magnificent generosity in his charities. His financial administration was disastrous, and led simply to bankruptcy. On music, hunting, expensive feasts and theatrical performances money was squandered, while, with unexampled optimism the pope was blind to the deadly earnestness of the times. Leo's name is generally associated with the idea of the Medicean era as a golden age of science and art. This conception is only partially justified. The reputation of a greater Maecenas—ascribed to him by his eulogists—dwindles before a sober, critical contemplation, and his undeniable merits are by no means equal to those which fame has assigned to him. The love of science and literature, which animated the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, frequently took the shape of literary dilettantism. In many respects the brilliance of this long and often vaunted Maecenate of Leo X. is more apparent than real. There are times when it irresistibly conveys the impression of dazzling fireworks of which nothing remains but the memory. The genuine significance of Leo lies rather in the stimulus which he gave. From this point of view his deserts are undoubtedly great; and for that reason he possesses an indefeasible right to a certain share in the renown of the papacy as a civilizing agent of the highest rank. As a patron of art Leo occupies a more exalted plane. In this domain the first place must be assigned to the splendid achievements of Raphael, whom the pope entrusted with new and comprehensive commissions—the Stanza dell' incendio, the Logge, and the tapestry-cartoons, the originals of the last named being now in London. But, though illuminated by the rays of art, and loaded with the exuberant panegyrics of humanists and poets, the reign of the first Medicean pontiff, by its unbounded devotion to purely secular tendencies and its comparative neglect of the Church herself proved disastrous for the See of St Peter. By a wonderful dispensation the successor to this scion of the Medici was Adrian VI.—a man who saw his noblest task, not in an artistic Maecenate, nor in the prosecution Adri of political designs, 1522a.10523': but in the reform of the Church in all its members. Careless of the glories of Renaissance art, a stranger to all worldly instincts, the earnest Netherlander inscribed on his banner the healing of the moral ulcers, the restoration of unity to the Church—especially in Germany—and the preservation of the West from the Turkish danger. How clearly he read the causes of religious decadence, how deeply he himself was convinced of the need of trenchant reform, is best shown by his instructions to Chieregati, his nuncio to Germany, in which he laid the axe to the root of the tree with unheard-of freedom. Unfortunately, it was all in vain. Luther and his adherents overwhelmed the noble pope with unmeasured abuse. The two great rivals, Francis I. and Charles V., were deaf to his admonitions to make common cause against the Turks. The intrigues of Cardinal Soderini led, to a breach with France and drove Adrian into the arms of the Imperial league. Soon afterwards, on the 14th of September 1523, he died. Long misunderstood and slandered, Adrian VI., the last German pope, is now by all parties ranked among the most revered and most worthy of the popes. No one now denies that he was one of those exceptional men, who without self-seeking spend their lives in the service of a cause and fight bravely against the stream of corruption. Even though, in his all too brief pontificate, he failed to attain any definite results, he at least fulfilled the first condition of any cure by laying bare the seat of disease, gave an important impetus to the cause of the reform of the Church, and laid down the principles on which this was afterwards carried through. His activity, in fact, will always remain one of the brightest chapters in the history of the papacy. Under Leo X. Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, the cousin of that pope, had already exercised a decisive influence upon Catholic policy; and the tiara now fell to his lot. Clement Clement VII.—so the new pontiff styled himself—was soon vrl., 1523-to discover the weight of the crown which he had 1534. gained. The international situation was the most difficult imaginable, and altogether beyond the powers of the timorous, vacillating and irresolute Medician pope. His determination to stand aloof from the great duel between Francis I. and Charles V. failed him at the first trial. He had not enough courage and perspicacity to await in patience the result of the race between France and Germany for the duchy of Milan—a contest which was decided at Pavia (Feb. 24, 1525). The haughty victors found Clement on the side of their opponent, and he was forced into an alliance with the emperor (April 1, 1525). The overweening arrogance of the Spaniards soon drove the pope back into the ranks of their enemies. On the 22nd of May 1526 Clement acceded to the League of Cognac, and joined the Italians in their struggle against the Spanish supremacy. This step he was destined bitterly to repent. The tempest descended on the pope and on Rome with a violence which cannot be paralleled, even in the days of Alaric and Genseric, or of the Norman Robert Guiscard. On the 6th of May 1527 the Eternal City was stormed by the Imperial troops and subjected to appalling devastation in the famous sack. Clement was detained for seven months a prisoner in the castle of St Angelo. He then went into exile at Orvieto and Viterbo, and only on the 6th of October 1528 returned to his desolate residence. After the fall of the French dominion in Italy he made his peace with the emperor at Barcelona (June 29, 1529); in return for which he received the assistance of Charles in re-establishing the rule of the Medici in Florence. During the Italian turmoil the schism in Germany had made such alarming progress that it now proved impossible to bridge the chasm. With regard to the question of a council the pope was so obsessed by doubts and fears that he was unable to advance a single step; nor, till the day of his death could he break off his pitiful vacillation between Charles V. and Francis I. While large portions of Germany were lost to the Church the revolt from Rome proceeded apace in Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries. To add to the disasters, the divorce of Henry VIII. led to the English schism. Whether another head of the Church could have prevented the defection of England is of course an idle question. But Clement VII. was far from possessing the qualities which would have enabled him to show a bold front to the ambitious Cardinal Wolsey and the masterful and passionate Henry VIII. At the death of Clement (Sept. 25, 1534), the complete disruption of the Church seemed inevitable. When all seemed lost salvation was near. Even in the reign of the two Medici popes the way which was to lead to better things had been silently paved within the Church. Under Leo X. himself there had been formed in Rome, in the Oratory of the Divine Love, a body of excellent men of strictly Catholic sentiments. It was by members of this Oratory—especially St Gaetano di Tiene, Carafa (later Paul IV.), and the great bishop of Verona, Giberti—that the foundations of the Catholic reformation were laid. Under Clement VII. the establishment of new religious orders—Theatines, Somascians, Barnabites and Capuchins—had sown the seeds of a new life in the ancient Church. The harvest was reaped during the long pontificate of the Farnese pope, Paul III. With his accession Pa°Idevotion to religion and the Church began to regain I534-I549. their old mastery. True, Paul III. was not a representative of the Catholic reformation, in the full sense of the words. In many points, especially his great nepotism—witness the promotion of the worthless Pier Luigi Farnesehe remained, even as pope, a true child of the Renaissance period in which he had risen to greatness. Nevertheless he possessed the necessary adaptability and acumen to enable him to do justice to the demands of the new age, which imperatively demanded that the interests of the Church should be the first consideration. Thus, in the course of his long reign he did valuable work in the cause of the Catholic reformation and prepared the way for the Catholic restoration. It was he who regenerated the College of Cardinals by leavening it with men of ability, who took in hand the reform of the Curia, confirmed the Jesuit Order, and finally brought the Council of Trent into existence (Sessions I.–X. of the council, first period, 1545–1549). In order to check the progress of Protestantism in Italy Paul III. founded the Congregation of the Inquisition (1542). Political differences, and the transference of the council to Bologna in 1547, brought the pope into sharp collision with the emperor, who now attempted by means of the Interim to regulate the religious affairs of Germany according to his wishes —but in vain. The disobedience of his favourite Ottavio hastened the death of the old pope (Nov. 10, 1549). Under the Farnese pope art enjoyed an Indian summer. The most important work for which he was responsible is the " Last Judgment " of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel. In 1547 Michelangelo was further entrusted with the superintendence of the reconstruction of St Peter's. He utilized his power by rejecting the innovations of Antonio da Sangallo, saved the plan of Bramante, and left behind him sufficient drawings to serve the completion of the famous cupola. Titian painted Paul's portrait, and Guglielmo della Porta cast the bronze statue which now adorns his grave in St Peter's. After a protracted conclave Giovanni Maria del Monte was elected, on the 7th of February 1550, as Pope Julius III. He /alias III , submitted to the emperor's demands and again con-1550-I555. vened the council (Sessions XI.–XVI., second period), but was obliged to suspend it on the 22nd of April 1552, in consequence of the war between Charles V. and Maurice of Saxony. From this time onwards the pope failed to exhibit requisite energy. In his beautiful villa before the Porta del Popolo he sought to banish political and ecclesiastical anxieties from his mind. Yet even now he was not wholly inactive. The religious affairs of England especially engaged his attention; and the nomination of Cardinal Pole as his legate to that country, on the death of Edward VI. (1553), was an extremely adroit step. That the measure was fruitless was not the fault of Julius III., who died on the 23rd of March 1555. The feeble regime of Julius had made it evident that a pope of another type was necessary if the papal see were to preserve the moral and political influence which it had regained under Paul III. On the loth of April 1555, after a conclave which lasted five days, the reform party secured /MarL/c5ell55us . the election of the distinguished Marcellus II. Unfortunately, on the 1st of May, an attack of apoplexy cut short the life of this pope, who seemed peculiarly adapted for the reformation of the Church. On the 23rd of May 1555 Gian Pietro Carafa, the strictest of the strict, was elected as his successor, under the title of Paul IV. Though already 79 years of age, he was animated by the fiery zeal of youth, and he employed the most drastic methods for executing the necessary reforms ant combating the advance of Protestantism. Always an opponent _."v , 1555-1559. of the Spaniards, Paul IV., in the most violent and impolitic fashion, declared against the Habsburgs. The conflict with the Colonna was soon followed by the war with Spain, which, in spite of the French alliance, ended so disastrously, in 1557, that the pope henceforward devoted himself exclusively to' ecclesiastical affairs. The sequel was the end of the nepotism and the relentless prosecution of reform within the Church. Protestantism was successfully eradicated in Italy; but the pope failed to prevent the secession of England. After his death the rigour of the Inquisition gave rise to an insurrection in Rome. The Venetian ambassador says of Paul IV. that, although all feared his strictness, all venerated his learning and wisdom. The reaction against the iron administration of Paul IV. explains the fact that, after his decease, a more worldly-minded pope was again elected in the person of Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici—Pius IV. P55911565 In striking contrast to his predecessor he favoured the Habsburg. A suit was instituted against the Carafa; and Cardinal Caraf a was even executed. To his own relatives, however, Pius IV. accorded no great influence, the advancement of his distinguished nephew, Carlo Borromeo (q.v.)' being singularly fortunate for the Church. The most important act of his reign was the reassembling of the Council of Trent (Sessions XVII.–XXV., third period, 1562–1563). It was an impressive moment, when, on the 4th of December 1563, the great ecumenical synod of the Church came to a close. Till the last it was obliged to contend with the most formidable difficulties: yet it succeeded in effecting many notable reforms and in illuminating and crystallizing the distinctive doctrines of Catholicism. The breach with the Protestant Reformation was now final, and all Catholics felt themselves once more united and brought into intimate connexion with the centre of unity at Rome (see TRENT, COUNCIL or). The three great successors of Pius IV. inaugurate the heroic age of the Catholic reformation and restoration. All three were of humble extraction, and sprang from the people in the full sense of the phrase. Pius V., P/as 1566-/572. formerly Michele Ghisleri and a member of the Dominican Order observed even as pope the strictest rules of the brotherhood, and was already regarded as a saint by his contemporaries. For Rome, in especial, he completed the task of reform. The Curia, once so corrupt, was completely metamorphosed, and once more became a rallying point for men of stainless character, so that it produced a profound impression even on non-Catholics; while the original methods of St Philip Neri had a profound influence on the reform of popular morals. In the rest of Italy also Pius V. put into execution the reformatory decrees of Trent. In 1566 he gave publicity to the Tridentine catechism; in 1568 he introduced the amended Roman breviary; everywhere he insisted on strict monastic discipline, and the compulsory residence of bishops within their sees. At the same period Carlo Borromeo made his diocese of Milan the model of a reformed bishopric. The pope supported Mary Stuart with money; his troops assisted Charles IX. of France. against the Huguenots; and he lent his aid to Philip II. against the Calvinists of the Netherlands. But his greatest joy was that he succeeded where Pius II. had failed, despite all his efforts, by bringing to a head an enterprise against the Turks—then masters of the Mediterranean. He negotiated an alliance between the Venetians and Spaniards, contributed ships and soldiers, and secured the election of Don John of Austria to the supreme command. He was privileged to survive the victory of the Christians at Lepanto; but on the 1st of May in the following year he died, as piously as he had lived. The last pope to be canonized, his pontificate marks the zenith of the Catholic reformation. The renewed vigour which this internal reformation had infused into the Church was now manifest in its external effects; and Pius V., the pope of reform, was followed by the popes of the Catholic restoration. These, without intermitting the work of reformation, endeavoured by every means to further the outward expansion of Catholicism. On the one hand missions were despatched to America, India, China and Japan: on the other, a strenuous attempt was made to reannex the conquests of Protestantism. In a word, the age of the Catholic restoration was beginning—a movement which has been misnamed the counter Reformation. In this period, the newly created religious orders were the right arm of the papacy, especially the Jesuits and the Capuchins. In place of the earlier supineness, the battle was now joined all along the line. Every-where, in Germany and France, in Switzerland and the Low Countries, in Poland and Hungary, efforts were made to check the current of Protestantism and to re-establish the orthodox faith. This activity extended to wider and wider. areas, and enterprises were even set on foot to regain England, Sweden and Russia for the Church. This universal outburst of energy for the restoration of Catholicism, which only came to a standstill in the middle of the 17th century, found one of its C,pgry most zealous promotors in Ugo Boncompagnixui., Pope Gregory XIII. Though not of an ascetic 1572-1585. nature, he followed unswervingly in the path of his predecessors by consecrating his energies to the translation of the reformatory decrees into practice. At the same time he showed himself anxious to further the cause of ecclesiastical instruction and Catholic science. He created a special Congregation to deal with episcopal affairs, and organized the Congregation of the Index, instituted by Pius V. On behalf of the diffusion of Catholicism throughout the world he spared no efforts; and wherever he was able he supported the great restoration. He was especially active in the erection and encouragement of educational institutions. In Rome he founded the splendid College of the Jesuits; and he patronized the Collegium Germanicum of St Ignatius; while, at the same time, he found means for the endowment of English and Irish colleges. In fact, his generosity for the cause of education was so unbounded that he found himself in financial difficulties. Gregory did good service, moreover, by his reform of the calendar which bears his name, by his emended edition of the Corpus juris canonici and by the creation of nunciatures. That he celebrated the night of St Bartholomew was due to the fact, that, according to his information, the step was a last resort to ensure the preservation of the royal family and the Catholic religion from the attacks of the revolutionary Huguenots. In his political enterprises he was less fortunate. He proved unable to devise a common plan of action on the part of the Catholic princes against Elizabeth of England and the Turks; while he was also powerless to check the spread of brigandage in the papal state. On the death of Gregory XIII., Felice Peretti, cardinal of Montalto, a member of the Franciscan order, ascended the Apostolic throne as Sixtus V. (April 1585-August sixths 1585-1.5990 0. 159o). His first task was the extirpation of the 1585-1 bandits and the restoration of order within the papal state. In the course of a year the drastic measures of this born ruler made this state the safest country in Europe. He introduced a strictly ordered administration, encouraged the sciences, and enlarged the Vatican library, housing it in a ;splendid building erected for the purpose in the Vatican itself. He was an active patron of agriculture and commerce: he eveninterested himself in the draining of the Pontine marshes. The financial system he almost completely reorganized. With a boldness worthy of Julius II., he devised the most gigantic schemes for the annihilation of the Turkish Empire and the conquest of Egypt and Palestine. Elizabeth of England he wished to restore to the Roman obedience either by conversion or by force; but these projects were shattered by the destruction of the Spanish Armada. Down to his death the pope kept a vigilant eye on the troubles in France. Here his great object was to save France for the Catholic religion, and, as far as possible, to secure her position as a power of the first rank. To this fundamental axiom of his policy he remained faithful throughout all vicissitudes. In Rome itself Sixtus displayed extraordinary activity. The Pincian, the Esquiline, and the south-easterly part of the Caelian hills received essentially their present form by the creation of the Via Sistina, Felice, delle Quattro Fontane, di Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, &c.; by the buildings at Sta Maria Maggiore, the Villa Montalto, the reconstruction of the Lateran, and the aqueduct of the Felice, which partially utilized the Alexandrina and cost upwards of 300,000 scudi. The erection of the obelisks of the Vatican, the Lateran, the Piazza del Popolo and the square behind the tribune of Sta Maria Maggiore lent a lustre to Rome which no other city in the world could rival. The columns of Trajan and Antoninus were restored and bedecked with gilded statues of the Apostles; nor was this the only case in which the high-minded pope made the monuments of antiquity subservient to Christian ideas. His principal architect was Domenico Fontana, who, in conjunction with Guglielmo della Porta, completed the uniquely beautiful cupola of St Peter's which had already been designed by Michelangelo in a detailed model. In Santa Maria Maggiore the pope erected the noble Sistine Chapel, in which he was laid to rest. Indeed, the monumental character of Rome dates from this era. The organizing activity of Sixtus V. was not, however, restricted to the Eternal City, but extended to the whole administration of the Church. The number of cardinals was fixed at seventy—six bishops, fifty priests and fourteen deacons. In 1588 followed the new regulations with respect to the Roman Congregations, which hence-forth were to be fifteen in number. Thus the pope laid the foundations of that wonderful and silent engine of universal government by which Rome still rules the Catholics of every land on the face of the globe. When we reflect that all this was achieved in a single pontificate of but five years' duration, the energy of Sixtus V. appears simply astounding. He was, without doubt, by far the most important of the post-Tridentine popes, and his latest biographer might well say that he died overweighted with services to the Church and to humanity. (L. v. P.) IV: Period from 1590 to 1870. The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (1) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization. 1. 1590-1648. The keynote of the counter Reformation had been struck by the popes who immediately preceded this period. They sought to reconquer Europe for the Roman Catholic Church. In the overthrow of the Spanish Armada they had already received a great defeat; with the Peace of Westphalia the Catholic advance was baffled. Sixtus V. was succeeded in rapid succession by three popes: Urban VII., who died on the 27th of September 1590, after a papacy of only 12 days; Gregory XIV. (Dec. 1590 to Oct. 1591); Innocent IX. (Oct. to Dec. 1591). The first noteworthy pontiff of the period was Clement VIII„ who gained a vast advantage by allying the papacy with the rising power of France. Since 1559 the popes had clement been without exception in favour of Spain, which, vu,., firmly possessed of Milan on the north and of Naples 1592d60s. on the south, held the States of the Church as in a vice, and thereby dominated the politics of the peninsula. After Henry IV. had taken Paris at the price of a mass, it became possible for the popes to play off the Bourbons against the Habsburgs; but the transfer of favour was made so gradually that the opposition of the papacy to Spain did not become open till just before Clement VIII. passed off the stage. His successor, Leo XI., undisguisedly French in sympathy, reigned but twenty-seven days—a sorry return for the 300,000 Leo X/., 1605. ducats which his election is rumoured to have cost Henry IV. Under Paul V. Rome was successful in some minor negotiations with Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples; but Venice, under the leadership of Paolo Sarpi (q.v.), proved unbending under ban and interdict: the state defiantly upheld its sovereign rights, kept most of the clergy at their posts, and expelled the recalcitrant Jesuits. When peace was arranged through French mediation in 1607 the papacy had lost greatly in prestige: it was evident that the once terrible interdict was antiquated, wherefore it has never since been employed against the entire territory of a state. During the second and third decades of the 17th century the most coveted bit of Italian soil was the Valtelline. If Spain could gain this Alpine valley her territories would touch those of Austria, so that the Habsburgs north of the Alps could send troops to the aid of their Spanish cousins against Venice, and Spain in turn could help to subdue the Protestant princes of Ger- many in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). From the Grisons, who favoured France and Venice, Spain seized the Valtelline in 162o, incidentally uprooting heresy there by the massacre of six hundred Protestants. Paul V. repeatedly lamented that he was unable to oppose such Spanish aggressions without extend- ing protection to heretics. This scruple was, however, not shared by his successor, Gregory XV., who secured GregoryXV., the consent of the powers to the occupation of the 1621-1623. Valtelline by papal troops, a diplomatic victory destined, however, to lead ere long to humiliation. Gregory's brief but notable pontificate marks nevertheless the high- tide of the counter Reformation. Not for generations had the prospects for the ultimate annihilation of Protestantism been brighter. In the Empire the collapse of the Bohemian revolt led ultimately to the merciless repression of the Evangelicals The in Bohemia (1627), and in the hereditary lands of Counter. Austria (1628), as well as to the transference of the Reformation. electoral dignity from the Calvinistic elector of the Palatinate to the staunchly Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria. In France the Huguenots were shorn of almost all their military power, a process completed by the fall of La Rochelle in 1628. In Holland the expiration of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621 forced the Dutch Protestants once more to gird on the sword. England, meanwhile, was isolated from her co-religionists. King James I., who had coquetted twenty years previously with Clement VIII., and then had avenged the Gunpowder Plot (1605) by the most stringent regulation of his Roman Catholic subjects, was now dazzled by the project of the Spanish marriage. The royal dupe was the last man in the world to check the advance of the papacy. That service to Protestantism was performed by Catholic powers jealous of the preponderance of the Habsburgs. In view of these antipathies the treaty of 1627 between France, Spain and the pope is but an episode: instructive, however, in that the project, originated apparently by the pope, provided that England should be dismembered, and that Ireland should be treated as a papal fief. The true tendency of affairs manifested itself in 1629, when the emperor Ferdinand II. (1619-1637), at the zenith of his fortunes, forced the Protestant princes of Germany to restore to the Roman hierarchy all the ecclesiastical territories they had secularized during the past seventy-four years. Then France, freed from the fear of domestic enemies, arose to help the heretics to harry the house of Habsburg. Arranging a truce between Poland and Sweden, she unleashed Gustavus Adolphus. Thus by diplomacy as well as by force of arms Catholic France made possible the continuedexistence of a Protestant Germany, and helped to create the balance of power between Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed within the Empire, that, crystallized in the Peace of Westphalia, fixed the religious boundaries of central Europe for upwards of two centuries. If it was Richelieu and not the pope who was the real arbiter of destinies from 1624 to 1642, Urban VIII. was usually content. In Italy he supported France against Spain in the Urban VIII., controversy over the succession to Mantua (1627--1623-1644. 1631). In the Empire he manifested his antipathy to the overshadowing Habsburgs by plotting for a time to carry the next imperial election in favour of Bavaria. He is said to have rejoiced privately over Swedish victories, and certainly it was unerring instinct which told him that the great European conflict was no longer religious but dynastic. Anti-Spanish to the core, he became the greatest papal militarist since Julius II.; but Tuscany, Modena and Venice checkmated him in his ambitious attempt to conquer the duchy of Parma. Like most of the papal armies of the last three centuries, Urban's troops, distinguished themselves by wretched strategy, cowardice in rank and file, and a Fabian avoidance of fighting which, discreet as it may be in the field of diplomacy, has invariably failed to save Rome on the field of battle. The States of the Church were enlarged during this period by the reversion of two important fiefs—namely, Ferrara (1598) and Urbino (1631). Increase of territory, `so far The papal from filling the papal treasury, but postponed for states. the moment the progressive pauperization of the people. After annexation, the city of Ferrara sank rapidly from her perhaps artificial prosperity to the dead level, losing two-thirds of her population in the process. The financial difficulties of Italy were due to many causes, notably to a shifting of trade routes; but those of the papal states seem caused chiefly by misgovernment. Militarism may account for much of the tremendous deficit under Urban VIII.; but the real cancer was nepotism. The disease was inherent in the body politic. Each pope, confronted by the spectre of Nepotism. feudal anarchy, felt he could rely truly only on those utterly dependent on himself; consequently he raised his own relations to wealth and influence. This method had helped the House of Valois to consolidate its power; but what was tonic for a dynasty was death to a state whose headship was elective. The relations of one pope became the enemies of the next; and each pontiff governed at the expense of his successors. Under Clement VIII. the Aldobrandini, more splendidly under Paul V. the Borghesi, with canny haste under the short-lived Gregory XV. the Lodovisi, with unparalleled rapacity Urban's Barberini enriched themselves from a chronically depleted treasury. To raise money offices were systematically sold, and issue after issue of the two kinds of monti-securities, which may be roughly described as government bonds and as life annuities, was marketed at ruinous rates. More than a score of years after the Barberini had dropped the reins of power Alexander VII. said they alone had burdened the state with the payment of 483,000 scudi of annual interest, a tremendous item in a budget where the income was perhaps but 2,000,000. For a while interest charges consumed 85 % of the income of the government. Skilful refunding postponed the day of evil, but cash on hand was too often a temptation to plunder. The financial woes of the next period, which is one of decline, were largely the legacy of this age of glory. The common people, as always, had to pay. The farming of exorbitant taxes, coupled as it was too often with dishonest concessions to the tax farmer, made the over-burdened peasantry drink the doubly bitter cup of exploitation and injustice. Economic distress increased the number of highway robberies, these in turn lamed commercial intercourse. The tale of these glories, with their attendant woes, does not exhaust the history of the papacy. Not as diplomatists, not as governors, but as successive heads of a spiritual kingdom, did the popes win their grandest triumphs. At a time when the non-Catholic theologians were chiefly small fry, bent on Paul v., 1605-1621. petty or sulphurous polemics, great Jesuit teachers like Bellarmine (d. 1621) laid siege to the very foundations of the controver- Protestant citadel. These thinkers performed for siaiand the unity of the faith in France and in the Missionary Catholic states of Germany services of transcendent Triumphs. merit, exceeding far in importance those of their flourishing allies, the Inquisitions of Spain, Italy, and of the Spanish Netherlands (see INQuISITION). But the most fundamental spiritual progress of the papacy was made by its devoted missionaries. While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France. Though many of the spectacular triumphs of the cross in Asia and Africa proved to be evanescent, nevertheless South America stands the impressive memorial of the greatest forward movement in the history of the papacy: a solidly Roman continent. 2. 1648-1789. From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate govern-mental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority. From slow beginnings these factors kept gaining momentum until they compassed the overthrow of the mighty order of the Jesuits, and culminated in the revolutionary spoliation of the Church. At the election of Innocent X. (1644-1655) the favour of the Curia was transferred from France, where it had rested for over forty years, to the House of Habsburg, where it remained, save for the brief reign of Clement IX. (1667-1669), for half a century. The era of tension with France coincides with the earlier years of Louis. XIV. (1643-1715); its main causes were the Jansenist and the Gallican controversies (see JANSENISM and GALLICANISM). The French crown was willing to sacrifice the Jansenists, who disturbed that dead level of uniformity so grateful to autocrats; but Gallicanism touched its very prerogatives, and was Jansen"' a point of honour which could never be abandoned and Qallicanism. outright. The regalia controversy, which broke - out in 1673, led up to the classic declaration of the Gallican clergy of 1682; and, when aggravated by a conflict over the immunity of the palace of the French ambassador at Rome, resulted in 1688 in the suspension of diplomatic relations with Innocent XI., the imprisonment of the papal nuncio, and the seizure of Avignon and the Venaissin. So pronounced an enemy of French preponderance did Innocent become that he approved the League of Augsburg, and was not sorry to see the Catholic James II., whom he considered a tool of Louis, thrust from the throne of England by the Protestant William of Orange. Fear of the coalition, however, led the Grand Monarch to make peace with Innocent XII. (1601-1700). The good relations with France were but a truce, for the Bourbon powers became so mighty in the 18th century that they practically ignored the territorial interests of the papacy. Thus Clement XI. (1700—1721), who espoused the losing Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession, saw his nuncio excluded from the negotiations leading to the Peace of Utrecht, while the lay signatories disposed of Sicily in defiance of his alleged overlordship. Similarly Clement XII. (1730—1740) looked on impotently when the sudden Bourbon conquest of Naples in the War of the Polish Succession set at nought his claims to feudal sovereignty, and established Tannucci as minister of justice, a position in which for forty-three years he regulated the relations of church and estate after a method most repugnant to Rome. No better fared Clement's medieval rights to Parma; nor could the sagacious and popular Benedict XIV. (1740—1758), who refused to press obsolete claims, either keep the foreign armies in the War of the Austrian Succession from trespassing on the States of the Church or prevent the ignoring at the Peace of Aix-la- Chapelle of the papal overlordship over Parma and Piacenza. In fact, since the doctrinaire protest of Innocent X. against the. Peace of Westphalia, at almost every important settlement of European boundaries the popes had been ignored or other-wise snubbed. Not for two centuries had the political prestige of the papacy been lower. Moreover, a feeling of revulsion against the Jesuits was sweeping over western Europe: they were accused of being the incarnation of the most baneful principles, political, intellectual, moral; and though Clement XIII. (1958-1769) protected them against the pressure of the Bourbon courts, his successor Clement XIV. Suppression (1769-1774) was forced in 1773 to disband the oetu Jesui ts. army of the Black Pope (see JESUITS). The sacri- fice of these trusted soldiers failed however to sate the thirst of the new age. Pius VI. (1795-1799), was treated with scant respect by his neighbours. Naples refused him tribute; Joseph II. of Austria politely but resolutely introduced fundamental Gallican reforms (" Josephism "); in x786 at the Synod of Pistoia (q.v.) Joseph's brother Leopold urged similar principles on Tuscany, while in Germany the very archbishops were conspiring by the Punctation of Ems to aggrandize themselves like true Febronians, at the expense of the pope (see FEBRONIANIsM). These aggressions of monarchy and the episcopate were rendered vain, outside the Habsburg dominions, by the revolution; and to the Habsburg dominions the clerical revolution of 1790 caused the loss of what is to-day Belgium. However, the deluge which shattered the opposition to Rome in the great national churches submerged for a time the papacy itself. - In the States of the Church, during the first part of the period the outstanding feature in the history of the Temporal Power is the overthrow of nepotism; in the second, a dull conflict with debt. The chief enemies of nepotism were Alexander VII. (1655-1667), who dignified the secretaryship of state and gave it its present pre-eminence by refusing to deliver it up to one of his relations; and Innocent XII. (1691-1700), whose bull Romanum decet pontificem ordered that no pope should make more than one nephew cardinal, and should not grant him an income over twelve thousand scudi. Thus by 1700 nepotistic plunder had practically ceased, and with the exception of the magnificent peculations of Cardinal Coscia under Benedict XIII. (1724-1730), the central administration of finance has been usually considered honest. Nepotism, however, still left its scars upon the body politic, shown in the progressive decay of agriculture in the Campagna, causing Rome to starve in the midst of fertile but unfilled nepotistic latifundia. The fight against the legacy of debt was slower and more dreary. One pope, Innocent XI. (1676-1789), threatened at first with bankruptcy, managed to leave a surplus; but this condition, the product of severe economy and oppressive taxation, could not be maintained. In the 18th century it became necessary to resort to fiscal measures which were often harmful. Thus Clement XI., at war with Austria in 1708, debased the currency; Clement XII. (173o-1740) issued paper money and set up a government lottery, excommunicating all subjects who put their money into the lotteries of Genoa or Naples; Benedict XIV. (1740-1758) found stamped paper a failure; and Clement XIII. (1758-1769) made a forced loan. The stoppage of payments from Bourbon countries during the Jesuit struggle brought the annual deficit to nearly 500,000 scudi. Under Pius VI. (1775-1799) the emission of paper money, followed by an unsuccessful attempt to market government securities, produced a panic. By 1783 the taxes had been farmed for years in advance and the treasury was in desperate straits. Retrenchment often cut to the bone; wise reforms shattered on the inexperience or corruption of officials. Grand attempts to increase the national wealth usually cost the government more in fixed charges of interest than they yielded in rentals or taxes. The States of the Church, like France, were on the brink of bankruptcy. From this disgrace they were saved by a more imminent catastrophe—the Revolution. Foreign Relations. The States of the Church. 714 The revolt against spiritual authority belongs rather to the history of modern thought than to that of the papacy. The Intellectual Renaissance and Protestantism had their effect in movement producing that Enlightenment which swept over against the western Europe in the 18th century. Although Papacy. Descartes died in 165o in the communion of the Church, his philosophy contained seeds of revolt; and the sensualism of Locke, popularized in Italy by Genovesi, pre-pared the way for revolution. In an age when Voltaire preached toleration and the great penologist Beccaria attacked the death-penalty and torture, in the States of the Church heretics were still liable to torture, the relapsed to capital punishment; and in a backward country like Spain the single reign of Philip V. (1700-1746) had witnessed the burning of over a thousand heretics. If ecclesiastical authority fostered what was commonly regarded as intolerant obscurantism, to be enlightened meant to be prepared in spirit for that reform which soon developed into the Revolution. 3. 1789-1814. In the decade previous to the outbreak of the French Revolution the foreign policy of Pius VI. had been The Papacy directed chiefly against decentralization, while his and the chief aim at home was to avoid bankruptcy by in- Revolution. creasing his income. From 1789 on the French situation absorbed his attention. France, like the States of the Church, was facing financial ruin; but France did what the government of priests could not: namely, saved the day by the confiscation and sale of ecclesiastical property. It was not the aim of the Constituent Assembly to pauperize or annihilate the Church; it purposed to reorganize it on a juster basis. These reforms, embodied in the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, were part of the new Fundamental Law of the kingdom. The majority of the priests and bishops refused to swear assent to what they held to be an invasion of the divine right of the hierarchy, and after some months of unfortunate indecision Pius VI. (1775-1799) formally condemned it. Thence- forward France treated the papacy as an inimical power. The sullen toleration of the non-juring priests changed into sanguinary persecution. The harrying was halted in 1795; and soon after the directory had been succeeded by the consulate, the Catholic religion was re-established by the concordat of 18o1. From 1990 on, however, the rising power of France had been directed against Rome. In September 1791 France annexed Avignon and the Venaissin, thus removing for ever that territorial pawn with whose threatened ioss the French monarchs had for centuries disciplined their popes. In 1793 Hugon de Bassville (q.v.), a diplomatic agent of France, was murdered at Rome, a deed not avenged until the Italian victories of Bonaparte. In the peace of Tolentino (Feb. 1797) the pope surrendered his claims to Avignon, the Venaissin, Bologna, Ferrara and the Romagna; he also promised to disband his worthless army, to yield up certain treasures of art, and to pay a large indemnity. Bona- parte believed that after these losses the temporal power would collapse of its own weight; but so peaceful a solution was not to be. During republican agitation at Rome the French general Duphot was killed, a French army advanced on the city, and carried the aged pontiff a prisoner of war to Valence in Pis vm, 0 18Dauphine, where he died on the 29th of August 1 18004823. 799• His successor Pius VII., elected at Venice on the 14th of the following March, soon entered Rome and began his reign auspiciously by appointing as secretary of state Ercole Consalvi (q.v.), the greatest papal diplomatist of the 19th century. The political juncture was favourable for a reconciliation with France. In the concordat of 1801 the papacy concordat of 1801. recognized the validity of the sales of Church property, and still further reduced the number of dioceses; it provided that the government should appoint and support the archbishops and bishops, but that the pope should confirm them; and France recognized the temporal power, though shorn of Ferrara, Bologna and the Romagna. The supplementary Organic Articles of April 1802, however, centralized the administration of the Church in the hands of the First Consul; and some of these one-sided regulations[1S9o-1870 were considered by Rome to be minute and oppressive; nevertheless, the Napoleonic arrangements remained in force, with but brief exceptions, till the year 1905. The indignation of the pope and his advisers was not deep enough to prevent the ratification in 1803 of a somewhat similar concordat for the Italian Republic. In 1804 Pius consented to anoint Napoleon emperor, thus casting over a conquered crown the halo of legitimacy. The era of good feeling was, however, soon ended by friction, which arose at a number of points. At length, in 1809, Napoleon annexed the papal states; and Pius, who excommunicated the invaders of his territory, was removed to France. The captive was, however, by no means powerless; by refusing canonical institution to the French bishops he involved the ecclesiastical system of Napoleon in inextricable confusion. After the return from Moscow the emperor negotiated with his prisoner a new and more exacting concordat, but two months later the repentant pope abrogated this treaty and declared all the official acts of the new French bishops to be invalid. By this time Napoleon was tottering to his fall; shortly before the catastrophe of Elba he allowed the pope to return to the States of the Church. Pius entered Rome amid great rejoicing on the 24th of May 1814, a day which marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the papacy. In September of the same year, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reconstituted the Society of Jesus. Though the relations with France dominated the papal policy during the revolutionary period, the affairs of Germany received no small share of attention. The peace of Luneville (1801) established the French boundary at the Rhine; and the German princes who thereby lost lands west of the river were indemnified by the secularization of ecclesiastical secutariza territories to the east. The scheme of readjust- tions of ment, known as the Enactment of the Delegates of 1803. the Empire (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) of 1803, secularized practically all the ecclesiastical states of Germany. Thus at one stroke there was broken the age-long direct political power of the hierarchy in the Holy Roman Empire; and the ultimate heir of the bulk of these lands was Protestant Prussia. 4. 1814-1870. The foreign policy of the papacy so long as conducted by Consalvi, or in his spirit, was supremely successful. From 1814 to 183o Europe witnessed the restoration The Papacy of legitimate monarchy. The once exiled dynasties and the conscientiously re-established the legitimate Church,Restoratton. and both conservative powers made common cause against revolutionary tendencies. Throughout Europe the governing classes regarded this " union of throne and altar " as axiomatic. For the pope, as eldest legitimate sovereign and protagonist against the Revolution, Consalvi obtained from the Congress of Vienna the restitution of the States of the Church in practically their full extent. By concluding concordats with all the important Catholic powers save Austria he made it possible to crush Jansenism, Febronianism and Gallicanism. By bulls of circumscription, issued after consultation with various Protestant states of Germany, he rearranged their Catholic dioceses and readjusted ecclesiastical incomes. By unfailing tact he gained the good will of Great Britain, where before him no cardinal had set foot for two centuries, and secured that friendly understanding between the British government and the Vatican which has since proved so valuable to Rome. After Consalvi's retirement, Leo XII. (1823-1829) continued his policy and secured further advantageous concordats. In the sixteen months' reign of Pius VIII. (1829-1830) came the achievement of Catholic emancipation in England and the Revolution of 1830; and the pope departed from the principle of legitimacy by recognizing Louis Philippe as king of the French. The pontificate of Gregory XVI. (1831-1846) was singularly infelicitous. The controversy with Prussia about the education of children of whose parents but one was Roman Catholic led to the imprisonment of Droste-Vischering, archbishop of Cologne, and later of Dunin, archbishop of Gnesen-Posen; but the accession of the royal romanticist Frederick William IV. in 1840 brought a pacific reversal of the Prussian policy, sometimes judged more benevolent than wise. In France agitation was directed chiefly against the Jesuits, active in the movement to displace ancient local catechisms and liturgies by the Roman texts, to enroll the laity in Roman confraternities, and to in-duce the bishops to visit Rome more frequently. To check this ultramontane propaganda the government secured from the papacy in 1845 the promise to close the Jesuit houses and novitiates in France. In Italy, however, lay the chief obstacles to the success of all papal undertakings. The revolution of 1830, though somewhat tardily felt in the States of the Church, compelled Gregory to rest his rule on foreign bayonets. In return he was obliged to lend an ear to the proposals of France, and above all to those of Austria. This meant opposition to all schemes for the unification of Italy. In 1815 the Italian peninsula had been divided into seven small states. Besides the government of the pope there were three kingdoms: Sardinia, Lombardo-Venetia and Naples; and three duchies: Parma, Modena, Tuscany. To these regions the Napoleonic regime had given a certain measure of unity; but Metternich, dominant after 1815, held Italy to be merely a geographical term. To its unification Austria was the chief obstacle; she owned Lombardo-Venetia; she controlled the three duchies, whose rulers were Austrian princes; and she upheld the autocracy of the king of Naples and that of the pope against all revolutionary movements. To the Italian patriot the papacy seemed in league with the oppressor. The pope sacrificed the national aspirations of his subjects to his inter-national relations as head of the Church; and he sacrificed their craving for liberty to the alliance with autocracy on which rested the continued existence of the temporal power. The dual position of the pope, as supreme head of the Church on earth and as a minor Italian prince, was destined to break down through its inherent contradiction; it was the task of Pius IX. to postpone the catastrophe. The reign of Pius IX. falls into three distinct parts. Until driven from Rome by the republican agitation of 1848 he was a popular idol, open to liberal political views. From Pius IX., his return in 185o to 187o he was the reactionary I846—I878. ruler —of territories menaced by the movement for Italian unity, and sustained only by French bayonets; yet he was interested primarily in pointing out to an often incredulous world that most of the vaunted, intellectual and religious progress of the loth century was but pestilent error; properly to be condemned by himself as the infallible vicegerent of God. The third division of his career, from the loss of the temporal power to his death, inaugurates a new period for the papacy. At the outset of his reign he faced a crisis. It was clear that he could not continue the repressive tactics of his predecessor. The papacy Italy and Europe were astir with the Liberal agitation, and Italian which in 1848 culminated in the series of revolutions unity. by which the settlement of 1815 was destined to be profoundly modified. Liberal churchmen in Italy, while rejecting Mazzini's dream of a republic, had evolved projects for attaining national unity while preserving the temporal power. The exiled abbe Vincenzo Gioberti championed an Italian confederacy under the presidency of the pope; hand in hand with the unity of the nation should go the unity of the faith. In allusion to medieval partisans of the papacy this theory was dubbed Neo-Guelphism. Towards such a solution Pius IX. was at first not unfavourably inclined, but the revolution of 1848 cured him of his Liberal leanings: In November of that year he fled in disguise from his capital to Gaeta, in the kingdom of Naples, and when French arms had made feasible his restoration to Rome in April 185o he returned in a temper of stubborn resistance to all reform; henceforth he was no longer open to the influence of men of the type of Rossi or Rosminf, but took the inspiration of his policy from Cardinal Antonelli and the Jesuits. The same pope who had signalized his accession by carrying out a certain number of Liberal reforms set his name in 1864 to the famous Syllabus, which was in effect a declaration of war by the papacy against the leading principles of modern civilization (see SYLLABUS). As from 1849 to 1870 the fate of the papacy was determined not so much by domestic conditions, which, save for certain slight ameliorations, were those of the preceding reigns, as by foreign politics, it is necessary to consider the relations of Rome with each of the powers in turn; and in so doing one must trace not merely the negotiations of kings and popes, but must seek to understand also the aims' of parliamentary parties, which from 1848 on increasingly determine ecclesiastical legislation. The chief ally of the papacy from 1849 to 1870 was France. The policy which made Louis Napoleon dictator forced him into mortal conflict with the republican parties; and Louis Napo. the price of the parliamentary support of the Catholic loon and the majority was high. Even before Napoleon's elec- papacy. tion as president, Falloux, the Catholic leader, had promised to secure intervention in favour of the dispossessed pope. Napoleon, however, could not forget that as a young man he himself had vainly fought to obtain from Gregory XVI. those liberties which Pius IX. still refused to grant; he therefore essayed diplomacy, not arms. Nevertheless, to forestall the rescue of the pope by Austrian troops, he sent, in August 1849, an army corps under Oudinot to Civita Vecchia. By heading off reactionary Austria Napoleon hoped to conciliate the French Liberals; by helping the pope, to satisfy the Catholics; by concessions to be wrung both from Pius and from the Roman triumvirs, to achieve a bloodless victory. As neither party yielded, Oudinot listened to his Catholic advisers, attacked Rome, with which the French Republic was technically at peace—and was roundly repulsed by Garibaldi. To relieve their inglorious predicament the ministry hurried the Liberal diplomatist, Ferdinand de Lesseps, to Rome to prevent further conflict. At the moment when Lesseps had secured the signing of a treaty with the Roman Republic permitting peaceful occupation of the city by the French army, he was peremptorily recalled and Oudinot was as unexpectedly ordered to take the city by storm. This amazing reversal of policy was procured by the intrigues of Catholic diplomatists and German French Jesuits, conveyed to Paris by Prince de la Tour capture of d'Auvergne. For the honour of the army and the Rome. Church republican France thereupon destroyed the Roman republic. Napoleon lost 1200 in dead and wounded, actually secured not a single reform on which he had insisted, and drew, upon himself the fateful obligation to mount perpetual guard over the Vatican. As the catspaw of clerical reaction he had also to acquiesce in that " Roman campaign at home " that resulted in the Falloux Act of 1850, which in the name of liberty of education put the university in bondage Napoleon lfh to the archbishops, militated against lay teachers and the in secondary and primary schools, and set them Papacy. under clerical control, made it ominously easy for members of religious congregations to become instructors of youth, and cut the nerve of the communal school system. That education was delivered up to the Church was partly the result of the terror inspired in the middle classes by the socialistic upheavals of 1848. The bourgeoisie sought the support of the clergy, and irreligion became as unfashionable among them as it had been among the nobility after 1793. Religion was thought to be part of a fashionable education, and the training of girls came almost exclusively into the hands of the religious orders and congregations. So long as the alliance of the autocratic empire and the clergy lasted (1852-1860), intellectual reaction reigned; the university professorships of history and philosophy were suppressed. This alliance of the empire with the clergy was shaken by the Italian War of 1859, which resulted in the loss by the pope of two-thirds of his territories. Napoleon was evidently returning to the traditions of his youth, and in the September Convention of 1864 it looked as if he would abandon Rome to its manifest destiny. This solution was spoiled by the impatience of Garibaldi and the supineness of the Romans them-selves. In 1867 Napoleon made himself once more guardian of the Holy See; but the wonders wrought by the new French chassepots at the battle of Mentana cost the friendship of Italy. Thereafter Napoleon was blindly staggering to his fall. He aimed at honour in upholding the pope, in driving the Austrian tyrant from Italy, in attacking Prussia. The Austrian support on which he relied confidently in 187o proved delusive, for he could obtain nothing from Austria unless he had Italy with him, and nothing from Italy without the evacuation of Rome. Even after the war with Prussia had actually broken out he refused Italian aid at the price of the abandonment of the city, a step which he nevertheless reversed hurriedly twenty days too late. With Napoleon fell the temporal power; but the French hierarchy still kept his gifts in the shape of the congregations, the pro-Catholic colonial policy, and a certain control of education. Of these privileges the Church was to be deprived a generation later. The Third Republic can never forget that it was to the support of the temporal sovereignty of the pope that Napoleon III. owed his empire and France her deepest humiliation. On the withdrawal of the French garrison Rome was occupied by the troops of Victor Emmanuel. This monarch had always Italian pa. been a thorn in the side of the papacy. Under him cupatton of Sardinia had adopted the Siccardi Laws of 185o, Rome. which had taken away the right of asylum and the jurisdiction of the Church over its own clergy. His reputation for sacrilege, increased five years later by the abolition of many monasteries, became notorious when the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861) took away all the dominions of the pope except the patrimony of Peter, thereby reducing the papal provinces from twenty to five, and their population from over 3,000,000 to about 685,000. This act was followed in 1867 by the confiscation of church property, and on the loth of September 1870 by the triumphant seizure of Rome. If France was the right arm and Italy the scourge of the papacy under Pius IX., the Spanish-speaking countries were its The papacy obedient tools. Torn by civil wars, their harassed and the rulers sought papal recognition at a cost which Spanish more experienced governments would have refused. States. Thus Isabella II. of Spain in the concordat of 1851 confirmed the exclusive privileges of the Roman religion and gave the control of all education to the Church; but after the Revolution of 1868 Spain departed for the first time from the principle of the unity of the faith by establishing liberty of worship, which was, however, a dead letter. On the Spanish model concordats were arranged with various Central and South American republics, perhaps the most ironclad being that concluded with Ecuador in 1862 (abrogated 1878). Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by Concordat clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic with and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even Austria, after 1814. Austria, for instance, although long lam' the political mainstay of the papacy, had never abandoned the broad lines of ecclesiastical policy laid down by Joseph II.; but the young Francis Joseph, seeking the aid of Rome in curbing heterogeneous nationalities, in 1855 negotiated a concordat whose paragraphs regarding the censorship, education and marriage were far-reaching. It was, moreover, the first document of the sort in which a first-class power recognized that the rights of the Church are based upon " divine institution and canon law," not upon governmental concession. Violated by the Liberal constitution of 1867, which granted religious liberty, depotentiated by laws setting up lay jurisdiction over matrimonial cases and state control of education, it was abrogated . in 187o by Austria, who alleged that the proclamation of papal infallibility had so altered the status of one of the contracting parties that the agreement was void. Passing over Portugal, the remaining European state which is Roman Catholic is Belgium. Torn from Austria by the Belgium. clerical revolution of 1790, after many vicissitudes it was united in 1815 with Holland and placed under the rule of the Protestant William I., king of the United Nether- lands. The constitutional guarantee of religious liberty had from the outset been resisted by the powerful and resolute priest- hood, supported by numerous sympathizers among the nobility. As the arbitrary king alienated the Liberal Catholics, who were still more or less under the spell of the. French Revolution, the Catholic provinces took advantage of the upheavals of 1830 to form the independent kingdom of Belgium. Its Fundamental Law of 1831, conceived in the spirit of the English Whigs, and later imitated in the European countries, granted liberty of worship and of education. Strangely enough, this liberty meant increase of power for the Clericals; for besides putting an end to stringent state interference in the education of future priests, it made possible a free and far-reaching Catholic school system whose crown was the episcopally controlled university of Louvain (1834). The Education Act of 1842 led to the formation of the Liberal party, whose bond of union was resistance to clericalism, whose watchword was the " independence of the civil power." The Catholics and Liberals were alternately in control until 1894, when the tenfold enlargement of the electorate broke down the Liberal party completely. The chief theme of contention, developed through many a noteworthy phase, has been the question of schools. In the half-century from 183o to 188o the cloisters likewise prospered and multiplied fivefold. The result of this evolution is that Belgium is to-day the most staunchly Catholic land north of the Alps. In Holland, as in Belgium, the education question has been uppermost. Here, even after 1831 the Roman Catholics constituted three-eighths of the population. Allied with Holland. the Liberals against the orthodox Protestants, who were threatening religious liberty, the Catholics assisted in 1857 to establish a system of non-sectarian state schools, where attendance is not obligatory nor instruction gratuitous. Changing front, in 1868, in league with the orthodox, they tried to make these denominational; but as the Liberals defeated their attempt, they founded schools of their own. In the non-Catholic countries of Europe during the reign of Pius IX., and in fact during the whole 19th century, the important gains of Rome were in strategic position rather Other non-than in numbers. The spread of toleration, which catholic always favours minorities, broke down between 1845 countries. and 1873 the Lutheran exclusiveness of Norway, Denmark and Sweden; but as yet the Catholics form a disappearing fraction of the population. In European Russia, as a result of the partitions of Poland under Catherine II. (1762-1796), about one-tenth of the people are Roman Catholics. The Ruthenians had united with Rome at Brest in 1596, forming a group of Uniates distinct from the Poles, who belonged to the Latin rite. In spite of the assurances of Catherine, Russia has repeatedly persecuted the Ruthenian Uniates, in order to incorporate them into the Holy Orthodox Church; and she has occasionally taken drastic measures against the Poles, particularly after the revolts of 183o and 1863. After more than a century of repression in 1905 the Edict of Toleration brought some relief. The remarkable extension of the Catholic hierarchy by Pius IX. into Protestant lands, legally possible because of toleration, was in some cases made practicable because of immigration. Though this factor was perhaps not prominent in the case of Holland (1853) or Scotland (1878) it was Irish immigration which made it feasible in England (185o). For a time the Roman propaganda in England, which drew to itself High Churchmen like Newman and Manning, was viewed with apprehension; but though the Roman Catholic Church has grown greatly in influence in the country, the number of its adherents, in proportion to the growth of population, has not very greatly increased. In the United States of America, however, the Catholic population has increased by leaps and bounds through immigration. The famines of the 'forties, with their subsequent political and economic difficulties, transferred to America millions of the Irish, whose genius for organization in politics has not fallen short of their zeal for religion. The German-speaking immigrants have also had a creditable share in the work of church extension, but the Italians have manifested no marked ardour for their faith. The losses in transplantation have been huge, but it is impossible to estimate them accurately, for even the current figures for the Catholic population are based on detailed estimates rather than on an actual count. Summing up the history of the papacy from the Congress of Vienna to the fall of the temporal power, one finds statistical gains in Protestant countries offset perhaps by relative losses in Catholic lands, both largely due to the closely related forces of toleration and immigration. While the hold of the popes on the States of the Church was constantly weakening, their power over the domestic policies of foreign governments was increasing; and the transition from autocracy to parliamentary rule accelerated this process, at least in non-Catholic territories. The unparalleled spread of ultramontane ideas (see ULTRAMONTANISM) brought about a centralization of authority at Rome such as would have appalled the 18th century. This centralization was, however, for the time not so much legal as doctrinal. In 1854 Pius IX. by his sole authority established a dogma (see IMMACULATE CONCEPTION); and the infallibility implied in this act was openly acknowledged in 187o by the Council of the Vatican (see VATICAN COUNCIL and INFALLIBILITY). Thus were the spiritual prerogatives of the papacy exalted in the very summer that the temporal power was brought low. (W. W. R.*) V.—Period from 187o to 1900. The few months that elapsed between the 18th of July 1870 and the 18th of January 1871 witnessed four events that have been fraught with more consequence to the papacy than any-thing else that had affected that institution for the past three centuries. They were as follows: (1) The proclamation of the Infallibility of the Pope on the 18th of July 1870; (2) the fall of the Napoleonic empire and the establishment of the third French republic on the 4th of September 1870; (3) the occupation of Rome by the Italian forces on the loth of September 1870, resulting in the incorporation of the remaining states of the Church in the kingdom of Italy; and (4) the foundation of the German Empire by the proclamation, on the 18th of January 1871, of the king of Prussia as hereditary German emperor. These changes, which so greatly disturbed the current of all European relations, could not fail to react upon the papal policy in various ways. They brought its existing tendencies into greater relief, set before it new aims and diverted it into new channels. Essential modifications could not, of course, be at once effected or even indicated in a power whose life-blood is tradition, and whose main strength has always lain in calmly abiding the issue of events and in temporizing. The eight years that Pius IX. was permitted to see after the loss of his temporalities entirely harmonize with this character. The veil that hides the negotiations which, during the closing months of the Franco-German War, were carried on between Bismarck and the pope, through the agency of Cardinal Bonnhose, has not yet been lifted, and perhaps never will be. According to Bismarck Prince Bismarck's own account of the matter, as and the given in his Gedanken and Erinnerungen, these Temporal negotiations were initiated by the chancellor, who, Power. between the 5th and 9th of November 1870, entertained pour parlers with Archbishop Ledochowski-on the question of the territorial interests of the pope. The chancellor, acting, as he himself says, in the spirit of the adage, " one hand washes the other," proposed to that prelate that the pope should give earnest of the relations subsisting between him and Germany by influencing the French clergy in the direction of the conclusion of peace. The cool reception his endeavours met with, both at the hands of the French ecclesiastics as well as in Rome, satisfied Bismarck that the papal hierarchy lacked either the power or the good will to afford Germany assistance of sufficient value to make it worth while giving umbrage to both the German Protestants and the Italian national party, and risking a reaction of the latter upon the future relations between the two countries, which would be the inevitable result were Germany openly to espouse the papal cause in Rome." These utterances are eminently characteristic. They show how far Bismarck was (even at the close of 1870) from comprehending the traditional policy of the papacy towards Germany and German interests, and how little he conceived it possible to employ the relations between the future empire and the Vatican as a point of departure for a successful and consistent ecclesiastical policy. Rome, in a certain sense, showed itself possessed of far greater foresight. The German politicians and the Prussian diplomatists accredited to Rome had worked too openly at undermining the papal hierarchy, and had veiled their sympathies for Piedmont far too lightly to lead the Vatican to expect, after the loth of September 1870, a genuine and firm intervention on the part of Prussia on behalf of the temporal power of the Holy See. To satisfy the demands of Bismarck in November 1870 would have cost the Vatican more than it would ever have gained. It could neither afford to trifle with the sympathies of the French Catholics nor to interrupt the progress of those elements, which would naturally be a thorn in the side of the young German Empire, thus undo Bismarck's work, and restore the Vatican policy to its pristine strength and vigour. It was soon to be perceived how carefully the Curia had made its calculations. The address of the Catholic deputies to the emperor William in Versailles on the 18th of February 1871, pleading for the restoration of the States of the Church and the temporal sovereignty of the pope, and for the reconstitution of the Catholic group formed in the Prussian Landtag in 186o as the Centrum or Centre Party in the new Reichstag (April 1871), must not be regarded as the origin but rather the immediate occasion of the Kulturkampf. The congratulations which the pope sent to the emperor William on receiving the announcement of the establishment of the German Empire (March 6, 1871) were a last exchange of civilities, and the abolition of the Catholic department in the Prussian ministry of public worship (July 8, 1871) quickly followed, together with the appointment of Falk as Kultusminister (Jan. 22, 1872), and the School Inspection Law of the 9th of February 1872. On the 3oth of January Bismarck took the opportunity of inveighing against the formation of the sectarian Centrum as being " one of the most monstrous phenomena in the world of politics," and he left no room for doubt kampt:'nrin the minds of his hearers that he regarded the leadership of Windthorst as constituting, in his eyes, a peril to the national unity. In his Memoirs (ii. 126) he declares that the Kulturkampf was mainly initiated by him as a Polish question. This declaration, in view of the development of affairs, must appear as strange as the chancellor's confession (Memoirs, ii. 129 seq.) that he endeavoured to persuade the emperor of the advantage of having a. nuncio accredited to Berlin (in lieu of the Catholic department of public worship). The refusal of the emperor William to entertain this project shows that in such matters his judgment was more correct than that of his counsellor, and the incident proves that the latter had anything but a clear insight into the historical position. He was drifting about with no higher aim than a " hand-to-mouth " policy, whilst the Holy See could feel the superiority with which the consciousness of centuries of tradition had endowed it, and took full advantage of the mistakes of its opponent. The chancellor never realized the gravity of the onslaught which, with his Kulturkampf, he was making upon the conscience and liberty of his Catholic fellow citizens. He dealt with the great question at issue from the standpoint of the diplomatist, rather than from that of the statesman well versed in ecclesiastical history and possessing an insight into what it implies; and by his violent, inconsiderate action he unwittingly drove into the ranks of Ultramontanism the moderate elements of the Catholic population. This conflict, moreover, brought Ultra montanism the enormous advantage that, even after the abolition of the May Laws, it had still left to it a well-disciplined press, an admirable organization, and a network of interests and interested parties; and all these combined to make the Centrum the strongest and the most influential political party in Germany for the remainder of the 19th century. Owing to these circumstances, the rise and further development of the Kulturkampf were viewed in Jesuit and Vatican circles with feelings of the utmost complacency. The purely ecclesiastical policy of Pius IX. was guided by the earnest desire to see the doctrine of Papal Infallibility brought to universal recognition. The definition of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and the proclamation of the Syllabus (1864) were finger-posts pointing the way to the Council of 187o. The pope had been persuaded that the proclamation of the new dogma would be effected without difficulty and without discussion; and when the pronouncement actually met with opposition, he was both surprised and embittered. For a moment the idea was entertained of giving way to the opposition and deferring a decision in the matter, or, in the manner of the fathers in the Council of Trent, adjourning it to the Greek kalends. But the party that needed for its purposes an infallible pope readily persuaded Pius IX. that if the council broke up without arriving at a decision favourable to the papacy, this would be tantamount to a serious defeat of the Holy See and an open victory for the Gallican system. The consequence was the bull Pastor aeternus, which Pius IX. issued on the 15th of July. This did not by any means represent all the demands of the Jesuits, and it was couched in terms which appeared not unacceptable to the majority of the Catholics. The fact that the bishops were prepared to forego their opposition was not unknown in Rome. It was anticipated by the authorities. But in Germany, as also in France, the waves of anti-Infallibility were rolling so high, that the further development of events was viewed with no small concern. Under normal conditions, the situation could not fail to terminate favourably for the Vatican. That the Kulturkampf had followed so rapidly upon the war was the greatest piece of good fortune that could have befallen the Holy See. The war demanded both in Germany and France the sacrifice of all available energy and public spirit; while the Kulturkampf, by bringing into relief the question of the external existence of the Church, thrust all internal dogmatic interests and problems completely into the background. The egregious blunder in the May Laws was the punitive clauses directed against the inferior clergy. Instead of enlisting them as friends, the Prussian government contrived by wild and wanton persecution to make them its enemies. The open protection it accorded to the Old Catholic movement contributed in no small measure to estrange those influential elements which, whilst favouring the suppression of Ultramontane tendencies, desired no schism in the Church, and viewed with horror the idea of a National Church in Bismarck's sense (see OLD CATHOLICS). Thus we find that the bitter years of the Kulturkampf extricated the Vatican from one of the most difficult situations in which it had ever been placed. Pius IX. could now fold his hands, so far as the future was concerned. It is well known that he fed on inspirations, and expected each day the advent of some supernatural occurrence which should bring about the triumph of the Church. In this frame of mind, on the 24th of June 1872, he addressed the German Leseverein, and referred to the stone that would soon fall from on high and crush the feet of the Colossus. Yet the stone has not fallen from the summit of the holy hill, and the Colossus of the German Empire has not crumbled into dust, which is more than can be said for the pope's inspirations, which led him to expect the sudden withdrawal of the Italians from Rome, and a solution of the Roman question in the sense inspired by his visionary policy. The Holy See directed all its energies towards the solution of the problem; in the event of its proving to be insoluble, it would take care that it should remain a festering sore in the body of the monarchy. (For the Kulturkampf see further GERMANY: History.) The documents of the Vatican Council which have been published since 187o leave no room for doubt that the proclamation of Papal Infallibility was intended to be followed by a further declaration, to the effect that the doctrine of the temporal power of the pope should be regarded as a revealed article of faith; yet the advantage and necessity of the temporal power were not to be regarded as a revealed dogma properly speaking, but as a truth guaranteed by the doctrinal body of the Holy Church. These articles, contained in the 5th Scheme, and zealously championed by the sectaries of the Jesuit order, reveal the immediate object for which the council of 1869-187o was convened. The resolutions were devised to save the situation, in view of the impending loss of the temporalities. No one could expect that Pius IX. would recognize the annexation of Rome by Italy. Rome, even in the loth century, had been a spectator of many changes in the political world. It had seen more than one kingdom rise and fall. No wonder, then, that the Vatican, confronted by a new Italy, observed The papacy a passive and expectant attitude, and sanctioned no and thenew jot or tittle that could infringe its rights or be Italian interpreted as a renunciation of its temporal sove- reignty. It was quite in keeping that Pius IX. availed himself to the full of the (for him) convenient clauses of the Italian Law of Guarantees (May 13, 1871), while refusing the civil list of three and a quarter million lire provided for his use, and inhibiting Italian Catholics from participating in the elections to the House of Deputies (tie elettori ne eletti)' This step was regarded in Italy as a natural one. Although the Liberal record of the pope was a thing of the past, and his policy had, since Gaeta, become firmly identified with the reactionary policy of Antonelli, yet the early years of his pontificate were in such lively recollection as to allow of Pius IX.'s appearing to some extent in the light of a national hero. And rightly; for he had always had a warm heart for Italy; and had it not been for the anti-ecclesiastical policy of the house of Piedmont, he would not, in the 'sixties, have been wholly averse from reconciliation. The hitherto unpublished correspondence of the pope with Victor Emmanuel contains remarkable proofs in support of this contention, and a further corroboration can also be preceived in the conciliatory attitude of Pius IX. on the death of the king. Pius died on the 7th of February 1878, only a few weeks later than his opponent. He had long passed the traditional years of Peter's pontificate, had reigned longer than any previous wearer of the tiara, and had seen some brilliant days—days of illusory glory. On his death he left the Church shaken to its very foundations, and in feud with almost every government. In Italy the Holy See was surrounded by a hostile force, whose " prisoner " the lord of the Vatican declared himself to be. In Spain and Portugal, and also in Belgium, a Liberalism inimical to the Church was in power. Prussia, together with other German states, was in arms against pope and episcopate. In France the Conservative Monarchical party had just shown its inability to preserve the Crown, whilst the Republic had anchored itself firmly by denouncing the clergy as its enemy. There was hardly a sovereign or a government in Christendom against which Pius IX. had not either protested or against which he had not openly declared war. Such was the heritage that devolved upon Leo XIII. on his election on the loth of February 1878. Leo XIII. brought to his new dignity many qualities that caused his election to be sympathetically received. In contrast to his predecessor, he was a man of slow and calm deliberation, and it was natural to suppose that he L1898eo X-1903III., . was little, if at all, accessible to impulses of the moment or to the persuasions of his entourage. He was endowed with a certain scholastic erudition, and enjoyed the reputation of being a good Latinist. As nuncio in Brussels he had become acquainted with the trans-Alpine world, and had been initiated into the working of the machinery of modern politics and modern parliamentary government. The fact that he had for so long been absent from Rome afforded ground for the belief that he was not inclined to identify himself with any of the parties at the Vatican court. These were the considerations that had caused 1 By the Law of Guarantees the pope was recognized as an independent sovereign, with jurisdiction over his own palaces and their extensive precincts and the right to receive diplomatic representatives accredited to him. He also received the right to appoint bishops, who—except in Rome and the suburbicarian districts—were to be Italian subjects; and, with a significant exception, the exequatur, placet regium, and every form of government permission for the publication and execution of acts of ecclesiastical authority were abolished. (See also ITALY: History.) the Moderates in the Sacred College to fix their eyes upon him. The appointment of Franchi as secretary of state was a bid for peace that was viewed by the Irreconcilables with ill-disguised vexation. The following years of Leo XIII.'s pontificate only tended to increase their dissatisfaction. The first care of the new pope was to pave the way for the restoration of peace with Russia and the German Empire, and it was owing to his patience, persistence and energy that these efforts for peace were crowned with success. In the case of Germany he made many concessions which appeared to the Zelanti to be excessive, and made even still greater ones to France and Russia, to the great distress of the Poles. But at last Leo XIII. could Leo Diplomatist. boast not only of having re-established diplomatic relations with most of the powers, but also of having entered into a convention with the great powers of the North, which accorded him, in conjunction with the three emperors, a leading position as champion of the conservative interests of humanity. How proud Leo XIII. was of his importance in this position is shown by the beautiful encyclical, De civitatum constitutione christiana (" Immortale Dei " of Nov. 1, 1885), in which he adopted the strongest attitude against the principle of the sovereignty of the people (ex its autem Pontificum prcescriptis illud omnino intelligi necesse est, ortum publice potestatis a Deo ipso, non a multiludine repeti posse), refuting the notion that the principle of public power emanates from the will of the people alone (principaturn non esse nisi populi voluntatem), and absolutely rejecting the sovereignty of the people as such. But this attitude was adopted by Leo XIII. not as an end but as a means. The real aims of his rule were disclosed in the second phase of his pontificate. At its very commencement, the pope in his first encyclical (Easter 1878) proclaimed the necessity of a temporal hierarchy. This was at the time regarded merely as a formality imposed by circumstances, and one not to be seriously entertained; but it became more and more evident that the recovery of the temporalities was the real mainspring of Leo's whole policy. In the negotiations with Germany, it was clearly seen that it was from that side that the pope expected intervention in favour of restitution; and, according to all appearances, Bismarck did for a while keep alive these representations, though with more tact than candour. After peace had been concluded, Leo, by the agency of Galimberti, reminded the chancellor of the settlement of the Roman question. Bismarck replied that he was " unaware of the existence of any such question." The two visits paid by Emperor William II. to the Vatican could not fail to remove any doubts in the mind of the pope as to the fact that Germany did not dream of giving him back Rome. The Austro-German-Italian triple alliance was a dire blow to his expectations, and Crispi's policy with its irritating and galling pin-pricks caused the cup to overflow. Thus slowly, but yet deliberately, between 1887 and 1893, a transformation took place in Leo's spirit and policy, and with LeoXIII.andit was brought about one of the most momentous the French changes in the attitude of the Church towards the Republic. problems of the times and their impelling forces. A rapprochement with France inevitably entailed not only an alliance with modern democracy, but also a recognition of its principles and aims. In Rome there was no room for both pope and king. The note of the pope to Rampolla of the 8th of October 1895, in consequence of the celebrations on the 20th of September, declared, in terms more decided than any that had until then been uttered, that the papacy required a territorial sovereignty in order to ensure its full independence, and that its interests were therefore incompatible with the existence of the kingdom of Italy as then constituted. The inevitable consequences ensued. Italy regarded the pope more than ever as a foe within its walls; and the policy of the pope, as regards Italy, aimed at replacing the kingdom by one or more republics, in which the temporal power should, in some form or other, find a place. But the continuance of the Republic in'Paris was a condition precedent to the establishment of a republic in Rome, and the first had no chance of existence if the democracy in France did not remainin power. The result was the policy of the Ralliement. Instructions were given to the French Catholics to break with monarchical principles, and both externally and internally to cleave to the Republic as representing the best form of constitutional government. In carrying out the regime of Rampolla, which was, in every respect, a bad imitation of that of Antonelli, the Vatican left no stone unturned in its attempt to coerce the conscience of the French royalists; it did not even stop at dishonour, as was evidenced by the case of the unhappy Mgr d'Hulst, who, in order to evade the censorship of his pamphlet on Old Testament criticism, had to abandon both his king and his principles, only to die in exile of a broken heart. The case was characteristic of the whole Catholic monarchical party, which, owing to the pope's interference in French politics, became disintegrated and dissolved, a fate that was all the more painful seeing that the Ralliement failed to influence the course of events. The " atheistic " Republic did not for one moment think of putting on sackcloth, or even of giving the Church a single proof of esteem and sympathy. In one respect it was impossible for the papacy to continue on the path it had taken. In his first encyclical, Leo XIII.. had sounded the clarion for battle against the Social The pope Democracy; his encyclical Novarum rerum en- and social deavoured to show the means to be employed, Democracy. mainly in view of the condition of things in Belgium, for solving the social question on Christian lines. But the Christian Democracy, which, starting in Belgium and France, had now extended its activity to Italy, Austria and Germany, and was striving to arrive at this solution, degenerated everywhere into a political party. The leaders of this party came into close contact with the Social Democrats, and their relations became so cordial that Social Democracy everywhere declared the " Democratie Chretienne " to be its forerunner and pioneer. The electioneering alliances, which were everywhere in vogue, but particularly in Germany, between the Catholics and popular party and the Social Democrats, throw a lurid light upon the character of a movement that certainly went far beyond the intentions of the pope, but which it was now difficult to undo or to hold in check. For it is the essence of the matter that there were further considerations going far beyond the Roman question and forcing the Curia to adhere to the sovereignty of the people. The external rehabilitation of the Church had become, in many points, a fait accompli, but, internally, events had not kept pace with it. Catholic romanticism had withered Alienation away in France, as it had in Germany.. " Liberal of the Catholicism," which was its offspring, had died with Educated Montalembert, after being placed under a ban by !I? Rome. The national religious movement, associated in Italy with the great names of Rosmini and Gioberti, had similarly been disavowed and crushed. The development of the last decade of the 19th century had clearly shown that the educated bourgeoisie, the tiers Nat, in whose hands the supreme power had since 1848 become vested throughout Europe, was either entirely lost to the Church or, at all events, indifferent to what were called Ultramontane tendencies. The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings. This bourgeoisie and the modern state that it upholds stand and fall with the motion of a constitutional state, whose magna carta is municipal and spiritual liberty, institutions with which the ideas of the Curia are in direct conflict. The more the hope of being able to regain these middle classes of society disappeared, the more decidedly did the Curia perceive that it must seek the support and the regeneration of its power in the steadily growing democracy, and endeavour through the medium of universal suffrage to secure the influence which this new alliance was able to offer. The pontificate of Leo XIII. in its first phase aimed at pre-serving a certain balance of power. Whilst not openly repelling the tendencies of the Jesuits, Leo yet showed himself well disposed towards, and even amenable to, views of a diametri-The papacy catty opposite kind; and as soon as the Vatican and the threw itself into the arms of France, and bade fare-Modern well to the idea of a national Italy, the policy cf De°1oCracY' equilibrium had to be abandoned. The second phase in Leo's policy could only be accomplished with the aid of the Jesuits, or rather, it required the submission of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to the mandates of the Society of Jesus. The further consequence was that all aspirations were subjected to the thraldom of the Church. The pontificate of Leo XIII. is distinguished by the great number of persecutions, prosecutions and injuries inflicted upon Catholic savants, from the prosecution of Antonio Rosmini down to the proscription directed against the heads of the American Church. Episodes, such as the protection so long extended to the Leo Taxil affair, and to the revelations of Diana Vaughan (the object of which last was to bring Italian freemasonry and its ostensible work, the unity of Italy, into discredit), together with the attitude of the Ultra-montane press in the Dreyfus affair, and later towards England, the invigoration of political agitation by the Lourdes celebration and by anti-Semitism, were all manifestations that could not raise the " system " in the estimation of the cultured and civilized world. Perhaps even more dangerous was the employment of the whole ecclesiastical organization, and of Catholicism generally, for political purposes. No one will be so foolish or so unjust as to hold Leo XIII. responsible for the excesses committed by the subordinate departments of his government, in disclosing prosecuting and sometimes even fraudulently misrepresenting his aims and ends. But all these details, upon which it is not necessary to dwell, are overshadowed beyond all doubt by the one great fact that the ecclesiastical regime had not only taken under its wing the solution of social questions, but also claimed that political action was within the proper scope of the Church, and, moreover, arrogated to itself the right of interfering by means of " Directives " with the political life of nations. This was nothing new, for as early as 1215 the English barons protested against it. But the weakening of the papacy had allowed this claim to lapse for centuries. To have revived it, and to have carried it out as far as is possible, was the work of Leo XIII. It would be both presumptuous and premature to pass a final verdict upon the value and success of a policy to which, whatever else be said, must be accorded a certain meed of praise for its daring. Even in 1892 Speller, in his essay upon Lamennais, pointed out how the latest evolution of Catholicism was taking the course indicated by Lamennais in his Livre du people (1837), and how the hermit of " La Chenaie," who departed this life in bitter strife with Rome, declared himself to be the actual precursor of modern Christian Socialism. He hinted that the work of Leo XIII. was, in his eyes, merely a new attempt to build up afresh the theocracy of the middle ages upoh the ruins of the old monarchies, utilizing to this end the inexperience of the young and easily beguiled democracies of the dawning loth century. To comprehend these views aright, we must first remember that what in the first half of the 19th century, and also in the days of Lamennais, was understood by Democracy was not coincident with the meaning of this expression as it was afterwards used, and as the Christian Socialists understood it. Down to 1848, and even still later, " Democracy " was used to cover the whole mass of the people, pre-eminently represented by the broad strata of the bourgeoisie; in 1900 the Democratic party itself meant by this term the rule of the labouring class organized as a nation, which, by its numerical superiority, thrust aside all other classes, including the bourgeoisie, and excluded them from participation in its rule. In like manner it would be erroneous to confuse the sense of the expression as it obtains on the continent of Europe with what is under-stood under this term in England and America. In this latter case the term " Democracy," as applied to the historical development of Great Britain and the United States, denotes a constitutional state in which every citizen has rightsproportionate to his energy and intelligence. The socialistic idea, with which the " Democratie Chretienne " had identified itself both in France and Belgium, regards numbers as the centre of gravity of the whole state organism. As a matter of fact it recognizes as actual citizens only the labourer, or, in other words, the proletariat. On surveying the situation, certain weak points in the policy of the Vatican under Leo XIII. were manifest even to a con-temporary observer. They might be summed up as follows: (r) An unmistakable decline of religious fervour in church life. (2) The intensifying and nurturing of all the passions and questionable practices which are so easily encouraged by practical politics, and are incompatible in almost all points with the priestly office. (3) An ever-increasing displacement of all the refined, educated and nobler elements of society by such as are rude and uncultured, by what, in fact, may be styled the ecclesiastical " Trottori." (4) The naturally resulting paralysis of intelligence and scientific research, which the Church either proscribed or only sullenly tolerated. (5) The increasing decay and waxing corruption of the Romance nations, and the fostering of that diseased state of things which displayed itself in France in so many instances, such as the Dreyfus case, the anti-Semitic movement, and the campaign for and against the Assumptionists and their newspaper, the Croix. (6) The increasing estrangement of German and Anglo-Saxon feeling. As against these, noteworthy reasons might be urged in favour of the new development. It might well be maintained that the faults just enumerated were only cankers inseparable from every new and great movement, and that these excrescences would disappear in course of time, and the whole movement enter upon a more tranquil path. Moreover, in the industrial districts of Germany, for example, the Christian industrial movement, supported by Protestants and Catholics alike, had achieved considerable results, and proved a serviceable means of combating the seductions of Socialism. Finally, the Church had reminded the wealthy classes of their duties to the sick and toilers, and by making the social question its own it had gone a long way towards permeating all social and political conditions with the spirit of Christianity. (F. X. K.) VI.—Period from 1900 to 1910. On the 3rd of March 1903 Leo XIII. celebrated his Jubilee with more than ordinary splendour, the occasion bringing him rich tributes of respect from all parts of the world, Catholic and non-Catholic; on the loth of July following he died. The succession was expected to fall to Leo's secretary of state, Cardinal Rampolla; but he was credited with having inspired the French sympathies of the late pope; Austria exercised its right of veto (see CONCLAVE, ad fan.), and on the 8th of August, Giuseppe Sarto, who as cardinal patriarch of Venice had shown a friendly disposition towards the Italian government, was elected pope. He took as his secretary of state Cardinal Raphael plus X. Merry del Val, a Spaniard of English birth and educa- tion, well versed in diplomacy, but of well-known ultramontane tendencies. The new pope was known to be no politician, but a simple and saintly priest, and in some quarters there were hopes that the attitude of the papacy towards the Italian kingdom might now be changed. But the name he assumed, Pius X., was significant; and, even had he had the will, it was soon clear that he had not the power to make any material departure from the policy of the first " prisoner of the Vatican." What was even more important, the new regime at the Vatican soon made itself felt in the relations of the Holy See with the world of modern thought and with the modern conception of the state. The new pope's motto, it is said, was " to establish all things in Christ " (instaurare omnia in Christo) ; and since, ex hypoihesi, he himself was Christ's vicar on earth, the working out of this principle meant in effect the extension and consolidation of the papal authority and, as far as possible, an end to the compromises by means of which the •papacy had sought to make friends of the Mammon of unrighteousness. It was this spirit which informed such decrees as that on " mixed marriages " (Ne temere) of 1907, which widened still further the social gulf between Catholics and Protestants (see MARRIAGE: Canon Law), or the refusal to allow the French bishops to accept the Associations Law passed by the French government after the denunciation of the concordat and the separation of Church and State (see FRANCE: History): better that the Church in France should sink into more than apostolic poverty than that a tittle of the rights of the Holy See should be surrendered. Above all it was this spirit that breathed through every line of the famous encyclical, Pascendi gregis, directed against the " Modernists " (see ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH: History), which denounced with bitter scorn and irony those so-called Catholics who dared to attempt to reconcile the doctrine of the Church with the results of modern science, and who, presumptuously disregarding the authority of the Holy See, maintained " the absurd doctrine that would make of the laity the factor of progress in the Church." That under Pius X. the papacy had abandoned none of its pretensions to dominate consciences, not of Catholics only, was again proved in 1910 when, at the very moment when the pope was praising the English people for the spirit of tolerance which led the British government to introduce a bill to alter the form of the Declaration made by the sovereign on his accession into a form inoffensive to Roman Catholics, he was remonstrating with the government of Spain for abrogating the law forbidding the Spanish dissident churches to display publicly the symbols of the Christian faith or to conduct their services otherwise than semi-privately. In pursuance of the task of strengthening the Holy See, the Vatican policy under Pius X. was not merely one of defiance Church towards supposed hostile forces within and without Reforms. the Church; it was also strenuous in pushing on the work of internal organization and reform. In 1904 a commission of cardinals was appointed to undertake the stupendous task of codifying the canon law (see CANON LAW), and in 1go8 an extensive reorganization of the Curia was Reforms of pi. x carried out, in order to conform its machinery more . nearly to present-day needs (see CURIA ROMANA). In taking England, the United States and other non-Catholic states from under the care of the Congregation of the Propaganda, the pope raised the status of the Roman Catholic Church in those countries. All these changes tended to consolidating the centralized authority of the papacy. Other reforms were of a different character. One of the earliest acts of the new pontificate was to forbid the use in the services of the Church of any music later than Palestrina, a drastic order justified by the extreme degradation into which church music had fallen in Italy, but in general honoured rather in the spirit than in the letter. More important was the appointment in 1907 of a commission, under the presidency of Abbot Gasquet, to attempt the restoration of the pure text of the Vulgate as St Jerome wrote it. Such activities might well be taken as proof that the papacy at the outset of the 20th century possessed a vigour which it was Causes of the far from possessing a hundred years earlier. Under Revival of Pius VI. and Pius VII. the papacy had reached the EhePapacy. lowest depths of spiritual and political impotence since the Reformation, and the belief was even widespread that the prisoner of Fontainebleau would be the last of the long line of St Peter's successors. This weakness was due not to attacks from without—for orthodox Protestantism had long since lost its aggressive force—but to disruptive tendencies within the Church; the Enlightenment of the 18th century had sapped the foundations of the faith among the world of intellect and fashion; the development of Gallicanism and Febronianism threatened to leave the Holy See but a shadowy pre-eminence over a series of national churches, and even to obliterate the frontier line between Catholicism and Protestantism. It was the Revolution, which at one moment seemed finally to have engulfed the papacy, which in fact preserved it; Febronianism, as a force to be seriously reckoned with, perished in the downfall of the ecclesiastical principalities of the old Empire; Gallicanism perished with the constitutional Church in France, and itsprinciples fell into discredit with a generation which associated it with the Revolution and its excesses. In the reaction that followed the chaos of the Revolutionary epoch men turned to the papacy as alone giving a foothold of authority in a confused and quaking world. The Romantic movement helped, with its idealization of a past but vaguely realized and imperfectly understood, and Chateaubriand heralded in the Catholic reaction with his Genie du Christianisme (18o1) a brilliant if superficial attack on the encyclopaedists and their neo-Paganism, and a glorification of the Christian Church as supreme not only in the regions of faith and morals, but also in those of intellect and art. More weighty was the Du Pape of Joseph de Maistre (1819), closely reasoned and fortified with a wealth of learning, which had an enormous influence upon all those who thought that they saw in the union of " altar and throne " the palladium of society. The Holy Empire was dead, in spite of the pope's protest at Vienna against the failure to restore " the centre of political unity "; Joseph de Maistre's idea was to set up the Holy See in its place. To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling. So far as politics are concerned this sentiment was practically confined to certain classes, which saw their traditional advantages threatened by the revolutionary tendencies of the The papacy times; and the alliance between the throne and the and modern altar, by confusing the interests of the papacy with Thought. those of political parties, tended—as Leo XIII. had the wit to realize—to involve the fate of the one with that of the other, as in France. Far stronger was the appeal made by the authoritative attitude of the papacy to all those who were disturbed by the scientific spirit of the age: the ceaseless questioning of all the foundations on which faith and. morality had been supposed to rest. Biblical criticism, by throwing doubt on the infallibility of the Scriptures, was undermining the traditional foundation of orthodox Protestantism, and most of the Protestant Churches, divided between antagonistic" tendencies, were ceasing to speak with a certain voice. To logical but timid minds, like that of J. H. Newman, which could not be content with a compromise with truth, but feared to face ultimate realities, the rigidly authoritative attitude of Rome made an irresistible appeal. The process, maybe, from the point of view of those outside, was to make a mental wilderness and call it peace; but from the papal point of view it had a double advantage: it attracted those in search of religious certainty, it facilitated the maintenance of its hold over the Catholic democracy. The methods by which it has sought to maintain this hold are criticized in the article ULTRAMONTANISM. There can also be little doubt—though the Curia itself would not admit it—that the spiritual power of the papacy has been greatly increased by the loss of the temporal power. The Loss of The pope is no longer a petty Italian prince who, in the Temporal order to preserve his dominions, was necessarily Power. involved in the tangle of European diplomacy; he is the monarch of a vast, admirably organized, spiritual world-empire, and when —as must needs happen—the overlapping of the spiritual and temporal spheres brings him into conflict with a secular power, his diplomacy is backed, wherever Catholic sentiment is strong, by a force which the secular power has much difficulty in resisting; for in spiritual matters (and the term covers a wide field) the Catholic, however loyal to his country he may. be, must obey God, whose vicegerent is the pope, rather than man. Even Bismarck, in the end, had to " go to Canossa." It is, indeed, possible to exaggerate this power. The fact that the Vatican presents a great force hostile to and obstructive of certain characteristic tendencies of modern life and thought has necessarily raised up a powerful opposition even in countries traditionally Catholic. France no longer deserves the title of eldest daughter of the Church; the Catholicism of Italy is largely superficial; even Spain has shown signs of restiveness. On the 722 other hand, the great opportunity now open to the papacy on its spiritual side, is proved by the growing respect in which it has been held since 187o in the English-speaking countries, where Roman Catholics are in a minority and their Church is in no sense established. Without doubt, opinion has been influenced in these countries by the fact that Rome has not been sufficiently strong to exercise any disturbing influence on the general course of national affairs, while in both its conspicuous members set a high example of private and civic conduct. (W. A. P.) List of the Pontiffs of the Roman Church.' Date of Election Date of Death. or Consecration. C. 41 B. PETRUS 29 vi, C. 65-67 c. 67 S. Linus t 23 ix, C. 79 C. 79 S. Cletus (Anencletus) t 26 iv, c. 91 c. 91 S. Clemens I f 23 xi, C. 100 c.ioo S. Evaristus f 26 x, c. 109 c.1o9 S. Alexander t 3 v, C. 119 c.I19 S. Sixtus (Xystus) t 6 iv, c. 126 ? 128 S. Telesphorus t 5 137 c.138 S. Hyginus II 1,.. 142 c.142 S. Pius II v, C. 156 c.157 S. Anicetus t 17 iv, 167 168 S. Soter 22 iv, C. 176 177 S. Eleutherus 26 v, 189 c.190 S. Victor I. 20 iv, c. 2o2 c.202 S. Zephyrinus 26 viii, 217 218 S. Calixtus I. 14 x, 222 222 S. Urbanus I. t 25 v, 23o 23o S. Pontianus res. 28 ix, 235 235 (21 xi, ord.) S. Anterus t 3 i, 236 236 S. Fabianus 20 i, 250 251 (iii. el.) S. Cornelius 14 ix, 253 253 el. S. Lucius t 5 iii, 254 254 (12 v ?, el.) S. Stephanus I. t 257 2 viii, 257 viii S. Sixtus (Xystus) II. , t 6 viii, 258 259 22 vii, el, S. Dionysius t 268 26 xii, 269 5 i, el. S. Felix t 274 30 xii, 275 C. 5 i S. Eutychianus t 8 xii, 283 283 17 xii S. Gains t 22 iv, 296 296 3o vi S. Marcellinus (? 25 x), 304 307 el. S. Marcellus t 15 i, 309 309 iv, el. S. Eusebius t 17 viii, 309 310 2 vii S. Melchiades ( M i l t i a d e s ) t I I i, 314 314 31 i S. Sylvester t 31 xii, 335 336 f8 i S. Marcus t 7 x, 336 337 6 ii, el. S. Julius t 12 iv, 352 352 22 v S. Liberius t 24 ix, 366 366 ix S. Damasus t 10 xii, 384 384 xii S. Siricius t 26 xi, 398 398 xi–xii S. Anastasius I. t veil. anno 4oi–2 402 S. Innocentius I. t 12 iii, 417 417 18 iii, cs. S. Zosimus t 26 xii, 418 418 28 xii S. Bonifacius I. t 4 ix, 422 422 C. io ix S. Coelestinus I. t C. 26 vii, 432 432 31 vii S. Sixtus III. t i8 viii, 440 44o viii, el. S. Leo I. t Io xi, 461 461 12 xi, cs. S. Hilarus T 21 ii, 468 468 25 ii, cs. S. Simplicius t 2 iii, 483 483 S. Felix III. t C. 25 ii, 492 492 I iii, CS. S. Gelasius t 19 xi, 496 496 C. 24 xi. cs. S. Anastasius II. t et sep. 19 xi, 498 498 22 xi S. Symmachus t et sepult. 19 vii, 514 514 20 vii, cs. S. Hormisdas t sepult. 7 viii, 523 523 13 viii S. Joannes I. t 18 v, 526 526 12 vii, cs. S. Felix IV. t sepel. i2 x (?) 530 53o 17 ix, el. Bonifacius II. t sepul. 17 x, 532 532 31 xii, cs. Joannes II. t sepel. 27 v, 535 535 3 vi, cs. S. Agapetus I. t 22 iv, 536 536 8 vi, es. S. Silverius, exul t sepel. 20 vi, C. 538 537 29 in, cs. Vigilus t 7 vi, 555 555 p• 7 vi, cs. Pelagius I. t 3 iii, 56o 560 14 vii, es. Joannes III. t sepel. 13 vii, 573 574 3 vi, cs. Benedictus I. t 31 vii, 578 578 27 xi, cs. Pelagius II. t sepel. 6 ii, 590 590 3 ix, cs. S. Gregorius I. t sepel. 12 iii, 604 6o4 13 ix, cs. Sabinianus t 22 ii, 6o6 607 19 ii, cs. Bonifacius III. t sepel. 12 xi, 607 608 15 ix, cs. S. Bonifacius IV. t sepel. 25 v, 615 615 19 x, cs. S. Deusdedit t sepel. 8 xi, 618 619 23 xii, cs. Bonifacius V. t sepel. 25 x, 625 625 3 xi, es. Honorius t sepel. 12 x, 638 Date of Election Date of Death. or Consecration. 64o 28 v, cs. Severinus t sepel. 2 viii, 64o 640 25 xii, cs. Joannes IV. t sepel. 12 x, 642 642 24 xi, cs. heodorus I. t sepal. 14 v, 649 649 vi-vii, cs. S. Martinus t exul i6 ix, 655 654 10 viii, cs. S. Eugenius I. f sepel. 3 vi, 657 657 30 vii, cs. S. Vitalianus t sepal. 27 i, 672 672 II iv, cs. Adeodatus t sepal. 16 vi, 676 676 2 xi, cs. Donus t sep. 11 iv, 678 678 vi–vii, es. S. Agatho sep. 10 i, 681 682 17 viii, cs. S. Leo II. t sep. 3 vii, 683 684 26 vi, cs. S. Benedictus II. t sep. 8 v, 685 685 23 vii, cs. Joannes V. t 2 viii, 686 686 21 x, es. Conon f sepel. 22 ix, 687 687 x-xii, el. S. Sergius I. t sepel. 8 ix, 701 701 30 x, cs. Joannes VI. f sepel. 10–Ii i, 705 705 I iii, cs. Joannes VII. t sep. i8 x, 707 708 18 i (?) Sisinnius f sep. 7 ii, 708 708 25 iii, cs. Constantinus I. 9 iv, 715 715 19 v, cs. S. Gregorius II. t sepel. I I ii. 731 731 II ii, el. S. Gregorius III. t sep. 29 xi, 741 741 cs. S. Zacharias Lt sep. 15 iii, 752 752 ni, el. Stephanus II. t ex. iii, 752 752 ex. in, el. Stephanus III. t sep. 26 iv, 757 757 29 v, cs. S. Paulus I. f 28 vi, 767 767 5 vu, cs. Constantinus IL depos. 6 viii, 768 768 7 viii, cs. Stephanus IV t Iii, 772 772 I ii, el. Hadrianus I. t 25 xii, 795 795 26 xii, el. S. Leo III. t sep. 12 vi, 816 816 vi, el. Stephanus V. t 24 i, 817 817 25 i, cs. S. Paschalis I. t C. 14 v, 824 82 v–vi Eugenius II. t viii, 827 7 827 Valentinus t ex. ann. 827 827 ex. ann. Gregorius IV. t i, 844 847 i Sergius II. t 27 i, 847 847 10 iv, cs. S. Leo IV. t 17 vii, 855 855 29 ix, cs. Benedictus III. f 7 iv, 858 858 2 iv, cs. S. Nicolaus I. t 13 xi, 867 4 867 14 xii, cs. Hadrianus II. t C. i xii, 872 872 14 xii Joannes VIII, t 15 xii, 882 882 C. xii arinus I. t C. v, 884 884 C. v, el. Hadrianus III. t C. viii–ix, 885 885 C. ix, el. Stephanus VI. t c. ix, 891 891 C. ix Formosus t 23 v, 896 896 C. 23 v, el. Bonifacius VI. t C. 6 vi, 896 896 a. ii vi,intrus Stephanus VI. (VII.) amot.t vii, 897 897 vii, cs. Romanus t c. xi, 897 897 C. xi Theodorus II. t post 20 dies 898 C. vi, es. Joannes IX. t vii, 900 900 6–26 vii Benedictus IV. t viii, 903 903 C. viii Leo V. t C. ix, 903 903 C. x Christophorus amot. it 904 904 29,1, es. Sergius III, t p 4 ix, 911 911 C. 1X, CS. Anastasius IIL f C. xi, 913 913 C. xi, cs. Lando t C. v, 914 914 15 v, CS. Joannes X. in carcere 929 928 C. Vii, CS. Leo VI. t C. ii, 929 929 C. ii. Cs. Stephanus VIII. t 15 iii, 931 931 C. cs. Joannes XI. t i, 936 936 a. 9 i, cs. Leo VI. (VII.) t vii, 939 939 a. 19 vii,cons. Stephanus IX. t C. x, 942 942 a. II xi, cons. Marinus II. t C. iv, 946 946 C. iv Agapetus II. t C. 8 xi, 955 955 C. xi, es. Joannes XII. (amot. 4 xii, 963) t 14 v, 964 963 4 xii, el. Leo VIII. t C. 965 964 v, el. Benedict V. exul 965 965 I x, cs. Joannes XIII. t 6 ix, 972 973 19 i, Cs. Benedict VI. f occis. vii, 974 974 x Benedictus VII. t x, 983 983 ex. ann. Joannes XIV. t occis. 20 viii, 984 984 Bonifacius VII. vii, 985 985 I ix, cs. Joannes XV. tin. iv, 996 996 3 v, cs. Gregorius V. t ii, 999 999 In. iv, cs. Sylvester II. (Gerber') t 12 v, 1003 1003 13 vi, cs. Joannes XVII. (Sicco) t 7 xii, 1003 1003 25 xii, cs. Joannes XVII I. t vi, 1009 1009 p. 20 vi, cs. Sergius IV. t i6—22 vi, 1012 VIII. 1012 22 vi, cs. 7 iv, 1024 Benedict 1024 24vi–I5vii,cs. Joannes XIX. f i, 1033 1033 1, cs. Benedictus IX. resignat. I v, 1045 Io45 I v, intr. Gregorius VI. resignat. 20 xii, 1046 1046 25 xii, cs. Clemens II. t 9 x, 1047 1048 17 vii, cs. Damasus II. t 9 viii, 1048 1049 12 ii, cs. S. Leo IX. f 19 iv, 1054 1055 13 iv, cs. Victor II. t 28 vii, 1057 1057 2 viii, el. Stephanus X. t 29 iii, 1058 io58 5 iv, el. Benedict X. expels. C. i, 1059 i As recorded in the registers of the Roman Church lfrom P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum Romanae ecclesiae/. Date of Election Date of Death. or Consecration. 1605 v, el. Paulus V. j' 28 1, 1621 1621 9 ii Gregorius XV. f 8 vii, '623 1623 6 viii, el. Urbanus VIII. t 29 vii, 1644 1644 15 ix Innocentius X. t 7 i, 1655 1655 7 iv Alexander VII. f 22 v, 1667 1667 20 vi Clemens IX. f 9 xii, 1669. 1670 29 iv Clemens X. f 22 vii, 1676 1676 21 ix Innocentius XI. f 12 vii, 1689 1689 6 x Alexander VIII. f I ii, 1691 1691 12 vii Innocentius XII. f 27 ix, I 1700 23 xi, el Clemens XI. f 19 iii, 1721 21 172' 8 v Innocentius XIII. t 7 iii, '724 1724 29 v $ 21 Benedictus XIII. ii, 1730 '730'2 vii Clemens XII. 6 ii, 1740 174o 17 viii Benedictus XIV. t 3 v, '758 '758 6 vii Clemens XIII. t 2 ii, 1769 '769 '9 v Clemens XIV. 22 ix, 1774 1775 15 ii Pius VI. f 29 viii, 1799 1800 '4 iii Pius VI!. t 20 viii, 1823 1823 28 ix Leo XII. f 'o ii, '829 '829 31 iii Pius VIII. t 30 xi, 1830 '831 2 ii Gregorius XVI. vi, '846 1846 '6 vi, el. Pius IX. t 3 vi, 1877 '877 vi, el Leo XIII. t 20 vii, 1903 1903 4 viii, el. Pius X. General.—Of encyclopaedias may be mentioned the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge (New York, 1908 sqq.); the Catholic Encyclopaedia (New York, 1907 sqq.); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896 sqq.) ; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (2nd ed., Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882–1901); G. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiaslica (Venice, 1840 sqq.), all of which contain articles on individual popes and subjects connected with the papacy, with bibliographies. For chronological detail, see Z. V. Lobkowitz, Statistik der Piipsle (Freiburg i. B., 1905). Carefully indexed source materials in the original languages are given by C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums and des rbmischen Katholizismus (2nd enlarged ed., Tubingen, 1901); many fragments in translation under " Papacy " in History for Ready Reference, ed. by J. N. Larned (vols. iv., vi., vii. Springfield, '895–'910). Helpful Church histories are F. X. Funk, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichle (5th ed., Paderborn, 1907) ; A. Knopfler, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichle (4th ed., Freiburg i. B., 1906), both Roman Catholic; also the Lutheran work of J. H. Kurtz, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichle, ed N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert (14th ed., Leipzig, 1906). (W. W. R.*) Period I. To zo87.—A bibliography of the history of the papacy during the first eleven centuries would embrace all the vast number of works on the history of the Church during this period. Of these a selected list will be found in the bibliography to the article CHURCH HISTORY. Here it must suffice to mention certain modern works bearing more particularly on this period. Harnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed. i. 400 et seq. ; Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, vol. i. §§ 22–25, 74; Sohm, Kirchenrecht, vol. i. § 29 et seq.; Loning, Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenrechls (1878); Duchesne, Eglises separees (1905), Les Premiers temps de Petal pontifical (19o4). (L. D.*) Period II. (a) From zo87 to 1124.—L. Paulot's Un Pape francais: Urbain II. (Paris, 1903), which is written with a Catholic bias, is the only biography of Urban II. that is at all full. Cf. M. F. Stern, Zur Biographie des Papstes Urbans II. (Berlin, 1883). On Paschal II., see E. Franz, Papst Paschalis II. (Breslau, 1877); W. Schum, Die Politik Papst Paschals II. gegen Kaiser Heinrich V. im Jahre 1112 (Erfurt, 1877) ; and the excellent " Etude des relations entre le Saint-Siege at le royaume de France de 1099 a 1,08," published by Bernard Monod in the Positions des theses des eleves de l'Ecole des Charles (1904). The Bullarium of Calixtus II. and the History (Paris, 189') of his pontificate have been published by Ulysse Robert. Cf. M. Maurer, Papst Calixt II. (Munich, '889). Besides these monographs, useful information on the history of the popes of this period will be found in the following: R. Rohricht, Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem (Innsbruck, '898) and Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Innsbruck, 1901); H. von Sybel, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzugs (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1881) ; H. Hagenmeyer. Peter der Eremit (Leipzig, 1879) ; F. Chalandon, Essai sur le regne d'Alexis I. Comnene (Paris, 1900); G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Reiches enter Heinrich IV. and Heinrich V. (Leipzig, '890 et seq.); Carl Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII. (Leipzig, 1894) ; Ernst Bernheim, Zur Geschichte des W1lrmser Konkordates (Gottingen, '878) ; Martin Rule, The Life and Times of St Anselm (2 vols., London, '883); and Klemm, Der Investilurstreit unter Heinrich I. (b) From 1124 to 1198.—Monographs dealing expressly with the Date of Election or Consecration_ 1059 24 i, cs. Io61 I x, el. 1073 22 iv, el. Io86 24 v, el. 'o88 12 iii, el. 1099 13 viii, el. 1'18 24 i, el. 1119 2 ii, el. 1124 15—16 xii, el. 1130 14 ii, el. 1143 26 ix, el. 1144 12 iii, el. 1145 15 ii, el. 1153 12 Vii, cs. 1154 4 xii, el. 1159 7 ix, el. 1'8' I ix 1185 25 xi 1187 2' x, el. 1187 19 xii, el. 1191 30 iii, el. I1988i '2'6 18 vii I227 19 iii 1241 x 1243 25 vi 1254 25 xii 1261 29 viii 1265 5 ii
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