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COUNTS AND DUKES OF BAR

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Originally appearing in Volume V03, Page 405 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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COUNTS AND DUKES OF BAR. In the middle of the Ioth century the territory of Bar (Barrois) formed a dependency of the Empire. In the Iith century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side. Theobald I., count of Bar, was an ally of Philip Augustus, as was also his son Henry II., who distinguished himself at the battle of Bouvines in 1214. But sometimes the counts of Bar bore arms against France. In 1301 Henry III. having made an alliance with Edward I. of England, whose daughter he had married, was vanquished by Philip the Fair, who forced him to do homage for a part of Barrois, situated west of the Meuse, which was called Barrois mouvant. In 1354 Robert, count of Bar, who had married the daughter of King John, was made marquis of Pont-a-Mousson by the emperor Charles IV. and took the title of duke of Bar. His successor, Edward III., was killed at Agincourt in 1415. In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of Chalons, gave the duchy of Bar to Rene of Anjou, the grandson of his sister Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine. Yolande of Anjou, who in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudemont, became heiress of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of Rene of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 148o; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes. United with Lorraine to France in 1634, Barrois remained, except for short intervals, part of the royal domain. It was granted in 1738 to Stanislaus Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, and on his death in 1766 was once more attached to the crown of France. (M.P.*)
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