See also:drawing, employed generally in the
See also:form of pencils, but sometimes also as a powder, and consisting of native earthy and stony friable substances, or of artificially prepared mixtures of a
See also:base of
See also:pipe or
See also:clay with Prussian blue,
See also:umber and other pigments . Calcined
See also:talc and compounds of magnesium,
See also:bismuth and lead are occasionally used as bases . The required shades of tints are obtained by adding varying amounts of colouring
See also:matter to equal quantities of the base . Crayons are used by the artist to make groupings of
See also:colours and to secure landscape and other effects with ease and rapidity . The outline as well as the
See also:rest of the picture is
See also:drawn in crayon . The colours are softened off and blended by the
See also:finger, with the assistance of a stump of
See also:leather or paper; and shading is produced by
See also:cross-hatching and stippling . The
See also:art of
See also:painting in crayon or
See also:pastel is supposed to have originated in Germany in the 17th century . By Johann
See also:Alexander Thiele (1685–1752) it was carried to
See also:great perfection, and in France it was early practised with much success . Amongst the earlier pastellists may be mentioned Rosalba Carriera (1675–1757), W .
See also:Hoare (1707–1792), F .
See also:Cotes (1726–1770), and J .
See also:Russell (1744–1806); and in
See also:recent years the art has been successfully revived .
CRAYFISH (Fr. ecrevisse)
SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD CREASY (1812-1878)
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