CTESIPHON , a large
See also:village on the
See also:bank of the
See also:Tigris, opposite to
See also:Seleucia, of which it formed a suburb, about 25 M. below
See also:Bagdad . It is first mentioned in the
See also:year 220 by
See also:Polybius V . 45 . 4 . When the
See also:Parthian Arsacids had conquered the lands east of the
See also:Euphrates in 129 B.C., they established their winter residence in Ctesiphon . They dared not stay in Seleucia, as this city, the most populous
See also:town of western
See also:Asia, always maintained her Greek self-
See also:government and a strong feeling of independence, which made her incline to the west whenever a
See also:Roman army attacked the Parthians . The Arsacids also were afraid of destroying the
See also:wealth and commerce of Seleucia, if they entered it with their large retinue of
See also:barbarian officials and soldiers (
See also:Strabo xvi . 743, Plin. vi . 122, cf .
See also:Joseph .
See also:Ant. xviii . 9, 2) .
See also:time Ctesiphon increased in
See also:size, and many splendid buildings
See also:rose; it had the outward appearance of a large town, although it was by its constitution only a village . From A.D . 36-43 Seleucia was in
See also:rebellion against the Parthians till at last it was forced by
See also:Vardanes to yield . It is very probable that Vardanes now tried to put Ctesiphon in its place; therefore he is called founder of Ctesiphon by
See also:Marcellinus (
See also:xxiii . 6 . 23), where King
See also:Pacorus (78-11o) is said to have increased its inhabitants and built its walls . Seleucia was destroyed by the Romans in A.D . 164 . When
See also:Ardashir I.founded the
See also:empire (226), and fixed his residence at Ctesiphon, he built up Seleucia again under the name of Veh-Ardashir . Later
See also:kings added other suburbs;
See also:Chosroes I. in 540 established the inhabitants of Antiochia in
See also:Syria, whom he had led into captivity, in a new city, " Chosrau-
See also:Antioch " (or " the Roman city ") near his residence . Therefore the
See also:Arabs designate the whole complex of towns which
See also:lay together around Seleucia and Ctesiphon and formed the residence of the Sassanids by the name Madain, " the cities,"—their number is often given as seven . In the
See also:wars between the Roman and Persian empires, Ctesiphon was more than once besieged and plundered, thus by Odaenathus in 261, and by Carus in 283; Julian in 363 advanced to Ctesiphon, but was not able to take it (Ammianus
See also:xxiv .
7) . After the
See also:battle of Kadisiya (Qadisiya) Ctesiphon and the neighbouring towns were taken and plundered by the Arabs in 637, who brought home an immense amount of
See also:booty (see
See also:CALIPHATE) . From then, these towns decayed before the in-creasing prosperity of the new Arab capitals Basra and Bagdad . The site is marked only by the ruins of one gigantic
See also:building of
See also:work, called Takhti Khesra, "
See also:throne of Khosrau " (i.e . Chosroes) . It is a
See also:great vaulted
See also:hall ornamented with pilasters, the
See also:remainder of the palace and the most splendid example of Sassanian architecture (see ARCHITECTURE, vol . H. p . 558, for further details and
See also:illustration) . (ED .
CUBA (the aboriginal name)
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