See also:industry which originally embraced the manufacture of all cutting
See also:instruments of whatever
See also:form or material . The progress of manufacturing industry has, however, detached from it the fabrication of several kinds of edge-tools, saws and similar implements, the manufacture of which is now regarded as forming distinct branches of
See also:trade . On the other
See also:modern cutlery includes a
See also:great number of articles which are not strictly cutting instruments, but which, owing to their more or less intimate relation to table or
See also:pocket cutlery, are classed with such articles for convenience'
See also:sake . A
See also:steel table or
See also:fork, for example, is an important article of cutlery, although it is not a cutting
See also:tool . The
See also:original cutting instruments used by the human
See also:race consisted of fragments of
See also:obsidian, or similar stones, rudely flaked or chipped to a cutting edge; and of these tools numerous remains yet exist .
See also:Stone knives and other tools must have been employed for a long
See also:period by the prehistoric races of man-kind, as their later productions show great perfection of form and finish . In the
See also:Bronze period, which succeeded the Stone Age, the cutlery of our ancestors was fabricated of that alloy . The use of iron was introduced at a later but still remote period; and it now, in the form of steel, is the
See also:staple article from which cutlery is manufactured . From the earliest period in
See also:history the manufacture of cutlery has been peculiarly associated with the
See also:town of Sheffield, the prominence of which in this manufacture in his own age is attested by
See also:Chaucer, who says of the
See also:miller of Trumpington- " A Sheffeld thwitel baar he in his
See also:hose." That town still retains a
See also:monopoly of the ordinary cutlery trade of Great Britain, and remains the chief centre of the industry for the whole
See also:world . Its influence on methods of production has also been widely extended; for instance, many Sheffield workmen emigrated to the
See also:United States of
See also:America to take
See also:part in the manufacture of pocket-knives when it was started in
See also:Connecticut towards the
See also:middle of the 19th century . The thwitel or whittle of Chaucer's
See also:time was a very poor
See also:rude implement, consisting of a blade of
See also:bar steel fastened into a wooden or
See also:horn handle . It was used for cutting
See also:food as well as for the numerous
See also:miscellaneous duties which now fall to the pocket-
See also:knife .
To the whittle succeeded the
See also:Jack knife, the Jacques-de-Liege, or Jock-to-Ieg of the Scottish
See also:James VI.,—which formed the prototype of the modern clasp-knife, inasmuch as the blade closed into a groove in the handle . About the beginning of the 17th century, the pocket-knife with
See also:spring back was introduced, and no marked improvement thereafter took place till the early part of the ,9th century . In 1624, two centuries after the incorporation of the Cutlers'
See also:Company of
See also:London, the cutlers of Hallamshire—the name of the
See also:district of which Sheffield is the centre—were formed into a
See also:body corporate for the
See also:protection of the " industry, labour, and reputation of the trade, which was being disgraced by the " deceitful and unworkmanlike wares of various persons." The
See also:act of incorporation specifies the manufacture of " knives,
See also:sickles and tUTTACIt other cutlery," and provides that all persons engaged in the business shall " make the edge of all steel implements matte' factured by them of steel, and steel only, and shall strike on their wares such mark, and such only, as should be assigned to thei'n by the
See also:officers of the said company." = Notwithstanding these regulations, and the pains and penalties attached to their infringement, the corporation was not very successful in maintaining the high character of Sheffield wares . Most manufacturers made cutlery to the
See also:order of their customers, on which the name of the retailer was stamped, and very inferior malleable or
See also:cast iron
See also:blades went forth to the public with London made;;'' " best steel," and other falsehoods stamped on them to order . The corporate mark and name of a few firms, among which
See also:Rodgers & Sons stand foremost, are a
See also:guarantee of the very highest excellence of material and finish; and such firms decline to
See also:stamp any name or mark other than their own on their manufactures . In
See also:foreign markets, however, the reputation of such firms is much injured by impudent forgeries; and so far was this
See also:system of
See also:fraud carried that inferior foreign
See also:work was forwarded to London to be transhipped and sent abroad ostensibly as English cutlery . To protect the trade against frauds of this class the Trades Mark Act of .1862 was passed chiefly at the instigation of the Sheffield chamber of commerce . The variety of materials which go to
See also:complete any single article of cutlery is very considerable; and as the stock
See also:list of a
See also:cutler embraces a vast number of articles different in form, properties and uses, the cutlery manufacturer must have a practical knowledge of a wide range of substances . The leading articles of the trade include carving and table knives and forks; pocket or clasp knives, razors, scissors, daggers,
See also:hunting knives and similar articles, surgical knives and lancets, butchers' and shoemakers' knives, gardeners' pruning-knives, &c . The blades or cutting portions of a certain number of these articles are made of shear steel, and for others crucible cast steel is employed . Sometimes the cutting edge alone is of steel, backed or strengthened with iron, to which it is welded . The tang, or part of the blade by which it is fastened to the handles, and other non-cutting portions, are also very often of iron .
See also:silver, silver, horn,
See also:shell, ivory,
See also:mother-of-pearl, and numerous
See also:fancy woods are all brought into requisition for handles and other parts of cutlery, each demanding
See also:special treatment according to its nature . The essential processes in making a piece of steel cutlery are (1)
See also:forging, (2) hardening and tempering, (3) grinding, (4) polishing, and (5) putting together the various pieces and
See also:finishing the knife, the workmen who perform these last operations being the only ones known in the trade as " cutlers." The following outline of the stages in the manufacture of a
See also:razor will serve to indicate the sequence of operations in making an article which, though
See also:simple in form, demands the highest care and skill . The first essential of a
See also:good razor is that it be made of the finest quality of cast steel . The steel for razors is obtained in bars the thickness of the back of the instrument . Taking such a bar, the forger heats one end of it to the proper forging temperature, and then dexterously fashions it upon his
See also:anvil, giving it roughly the required form, edge and concavity . It is then separated from the
See also:remainder of the bar, leaving only sufficient
See also:metal to form the tang, if that is to be made of steel . The tang of the "
See also:mould," as the blade in this
See also:condition is termed, is next
See also:drawn out, and the whole " smithed " or beaten on the anvil to compact the metal and improve the form'and edge of the razor . At this stage the razor is said to be " forged in the rough," and so neatly can some workmen finish off this operation that a shaving edge may be given to the blade by simple whetting . The forged blade is next " shaped ",by grinding on the dry stone; this operation considerably reduces its
See also:weight, and removes the oxidized scale, thereby allowing the hardening and tempering to be done with certainty and proper effect . The shaped razor is now returned to the forge, where the tang is
See also:file-cut and pierced with the joint-hole, and into the blade is stamped either the name and corporate mark of the maker, or any mark and name ordered by the tradesman for whom the goods are being manufactured . The hardening is accomplished by
See also:heating the blade to a cherryred
See also:heat arid suddenly quenching it in
See also:water; which leaves the metal excessively hard and brittle . To bring it to the proper
See also:temper for a razor, it is again heated till the metallic
See also:surface assumes a
See also:colour,' and after being plunged into water, it is ready for' the
See also:process of wet grinding .
The wet grinding is done on stones which vary indiameter from Ii to 12 in. according to the concavity of surface desired (" hollow-ground, "
See also:half hollow-ground," &c.) . "Lapping," which is the first stage in polishing,'is performed on a
See also:wheel of the same diameter as the wet-grinding stone . The
See also:lap is built ups of segments of
See also:wood having the
See also:fibres towards the periphery, and covered with a metallic alloy of tin and lead . The lap is fed with a mixture of
See also:emery powder and oil . "
See also:Glazing'' and "polishing," which follow, are for perfecting the
See also:polish on the surface of the razor,
See also:leather-covered wheels with
See also:fine emery being used; and the work is finished off with
See also:crocus . The finished blade is then riveted into the scales or handle, which may be of ivory, bone, horn or other material; and when thereafter the razor is set on a
See also:hone it is ready for use . The processes' employed in making a table-knife do not differ essentially from those required for a razor . Table-knife blades are forged from shear and' other steels, and, if they are not in one piece, a'
See also:bit of malleable iron sufficient for the bolster or
See also:shoulder and tang i's welded to each, often by machinery, especially in the 'case of the cheaper qualities . The bolster is formed with the aid of a die and swage called " prints," and the tang is drawn• out . The tang is variously formed, according to the method by which it is to be secured in the haft, and the various Processes of tempering, wet grinding and polishing are pursued as described above . Steel forks of an inferior quality are cast and subsequently cleaned and polished; but the best quality are forged from bar steel, and the prongs are cut or stamped out of an extended flattened extremity called the mould or "
See also:mood." In the United States of America machinery has been extensively adopted for performing the various
See also:mechanical operations in forging and fitting table cutlery, and in Sheffield it is employed to a great extent in the manufacture of table and pocket knife blades, scissors and razors . The cutler of the 18th century was an
See also:artisan who forged and ground the blades and fitted them in the hafts ready for sale; to-
See also:day the division of labour is carried to an extreme degree .
In the making of a
See also:common pocket-knife with three blades not fewer than one
See also:separate operations are involved,,and these may be performed by as many workmen composed of five distinct classes—the scale and spring makers (the scale being the metal lining which is covered by the handle proper), the blade forgers, the grinders, the cutters of the coverings of ivory, horn, &c., that form the handles, and the hatters or cutlers proper.: .. Grinders are divided into three classes—dry, wet and mixed grinders, according as they work at dry or wet stones . This branch of trade is, in Sheffield, conducted in distinct establishments called "wheels," which are divided up into separate apartments or " hulls," the dry grinding being as much as possible separated from the wet grinding . Dry grinding; such as is practised in the shaping of razors described above, the " humping " or rounding of scissors, and other operations, used to, be a process especially dangerous to
See also:lung diseases being induced by the fine` dust of
See also:silica and steel with which the atmosphere was loaded; but a great improvement has been effected by resorting to wet grinding as much as possible, by arranging'fans to remove the dust by suction, and by general
See also:attention to sanitary conditions .
MANASSEH CUTLER (1742-1823)
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