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CYSTOFLAGELLATA (so named by E. Haeckel)

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 709 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CYSTOFLAGELLATA (so named by E. Haeckel), a group of Mastigophorous Protozoa, distinguished from Flagellata by their large size (0.15—1.5 mm.), and their branched endoplasm, recalling that of Trachelius among Infusoria, within a firm ectosarc bounded by a strong cuticle. Nutrition is holozoic, a deep groove leading down to a mouth and pharynx. A long fine flagellum arises from the pharynx in Noctiluca (E. Suriray) Leptodiscus and (R. Hertwig); and in the former genus, a second flagellum, thick, long and transversely striated, rises farther out, in the groove; this was likened by E. R. Lankester to a proboscis, whence his name of Rhynchoflagellata, which we discard as unnecessary and posterior to Haeckel's. Noctiluca has thus the form of an apple with a long stalk. Leptodiscus (R. Hertwig) has the form of a medusa without a proboscis—it is menisciform with the thin contractile margin produced inwards like a velum on the concave side, while the mouth is on the convex surface and the single flagellum springs from a blind tube on the same surface. Craspedotella (C. A. Kofoid), the third genus, is still more medusiform, with a broad velum, and the mouth in a convex central protrusion of the roof of the bell; and a thick flagellum springs from a blind tube on the convex surface. All three genera are pelagic and phosphorescent, this property being seated in the ectoplasm; Noctiluca miliaris is indeed the chief source of the phosphorescence of our summer seas. O. Butschli, like other writers, regards the Cystoflagellates as closely allied to the Dinoflagellates, the small flagellum the form (figs. 5, 6). The metamorphosis of these has not yet been observed. ' Mastigophora," in Protozoa (Braun's Thierreich, vol. i., Protozoa) (1883-1887). (M. HA.)
End of Article: CYSTOFLAGELLATA (so named by E. Haeckel)
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