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DEDUCTION (from Lat. deducere, to tak...

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 921 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DEDUCTION (from Lat. deducere, to take or lead from or out of, derive), a term used in common parlance for the process of taking away from, or subtracting (as in mathematics), and specially for the argumentative process of arriving at a conclusion from evidence, i.e. for any kind of inference.i In this sense it includes both arguments from particular facts and those from general laws to particular cases. In logic it is generally used in contradiction to " induction " for a kind of mediate inference, in which a conclusion (often itself called the deduction) is regarded as . following necessarily under certain fixed . laws from premises. This, the most common, form of deduction is the syllogism (q.v.; see also LOGIC), which consists in taking a general principle and deriving from it facts which are necessarily involved in it. This use of deduction is of comparatively modern origin; it was originally used as the equivalent of Aristotle's /rn-aywyi (see Prior Analytics, B xxv.). The modern use of deduction is practically identical with the Aristotelian ouXXoycQµbs. 1 Two forms of the verb are used,- " deduce " and deduct originally synonymous, they are now distinguished, " deduce being confined to arguments, " deduct " to quantities. clear sanguine complexion, with a long beard as white as milk—a very handsome man—tall and slender. He wore a goune like an artist's. goiine with hanging sleeves." Dee's Speculum or mirror, a piece of solid pink-tinted glass about the size of an orange, is preserved in the British Museum. His principal works are—Propaedeumata aphorislica (London, 1558) ; Monas hieroglyphica (Antwerp, 1564) ; Epistola ad Fredericum Commandinum (Pesaro, 1570) ; Preface Mathematical to the English Euclid (1570) ; Divers Annotations and Inventions added after the tenth book of English Euclid (1570) ; Epistola praefixa Ephemeridibus Joannis Feldi, a. 1557; Parallaticae commentationis praxeosque nucleus quidam (London, 1573). The catalogue of his printed and published works is to be found in his Compendious Rehearsal, as well as in his letter to Archbishop Whitgift. A manuscript of Dee's, relating what passed for many years between him and some spirits, was edited by Meric Casaubon and published in 1659. The Private Diary of Dr John Dee, and the Catalogue of his Library of Manuscripts, edited by J. O. Halliwell, was published by the Camden Society in 1842. There is a life of Dee in Thomas Smith's Vitae illustrium virorum. (1707); English translation by W. A. Ayton, the Life of John Dee (1909).
End of Article: DEDUCTION (from Lat. deducere, to take or lead from or out of, derive)
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