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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 18 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KIRKEE NEPAUL DEIG,' POONA,' KIRKEE-POONA,' SEETABULDEE,' NAGPORE; SEETABULDEE-NAGPORE,' MAHEIDPOOR, CORYGAUM, AVA, BHURTPOOR. This medal was awarded " to the surviving officers and soldiers of the Crown and of the East India Company " who took part in any one of seventeen specified actions and operations which occurred in India, Nepaul and Burma, during the first twenty-five years of the 19th century, " including the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and the Company's Marine who took part in the first Burmese War." The queen's consent to the grant of this medal was announced in the London Gazette by a Notice of the Court of Directors, dated March 21, 1851. It was subsequently notified to the British Army by a Horse Guards G.O., dated March 21, 1851; to the Royal Navy by an Admiralty memorandum of the same date; and to the Army in India by a governor-general's G.O., dated April 14, 1851. In this medal again there is a discrepancy in dating, for though it , is dated 1799-1826, the first action for which it was awarded, the storming of Allighur, took place on September 24, 1803. No medals were issued without clasps, the largest combination of clasps known being five. According to the India Office records there were apparently men entitled to as many as seven clasps, but whether any medal was issued with more than five is very doubtful. That awarded to the duke of Wellington had three clasps, " Assye," " Argaum " and " Gawilghur." With the exception of medals issued with the Ava and Bhurtpore clasps, this medal is a rare one, and with a large number of the clasps, all except perhaps those for Nepaul and Maheidpore, an extremely rare one. The rarest of all is ' Seetabuldee," as only two Europeans and two natives are known to have received it. " Defence of Delhi " is also a very rare clasp, as the garrison only comprised two weak battalions of native infantry ; as is also " Corygaum, which was issued to only two Europeans, " both officers," and seventy-five natives. The only European troops present at Corygaum were an officer and twenty-six men of the Madras Artillery, of whom the officer and twelve men were killed and eight wounded. As the " Burma " medal had already been given to the .Company's native officers and soldiers for the First Burmese War, only the European officers and men of the Company's service received the medal with " Ava " clasp; but as the " Nepaul " medal had not been given to all the native troops who actually served " within the hills," the medal with clasp " Nepaul " was granted to those native troops who had not received the Nepaul medal, as well as to all the Company's European officers and men. 15. India, 1852—95 (2nd India G.S., officially styled " India, 1854 ").—Awarded by the Government of India as far as the first two issues with their clasps are concerned, all subsequent issues and clasps, with the exception of the last two, by Queen Victoria; the last two issues and clasps by King Edward VII. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: Victory standing, crowning a naked warrior sitting. In exergue, a lotus flower and leaves, symbolizing the connexion of the medal with India. Ribbon: Red, with two blue stripes, forming five }-inch stripes (Plate I.). Clasps: PEGU,2 PERSIA,' NORTH-WEST FRQNTIER, UMBEYLA, BHOOTAN, LOOSHAI, PERAK 1875-76,2 JOWAKI 1877-78, NAGA 1879-80, BURMA 1885-87,2 SIKKIM 1888, HAZARA 1888, BURMA 1887-89, CHIN-LOOSHAI 1889-9o, SAMANA 1891, HAZARA 1891, N.E. FRONTIER 1891, HUNZA 1891, BURMA 1889—92, LUSHAI 1889-92,WAZIRISTAN 1894-95, CHIN HILLS 1892-93, KACHIN HILLS 1892-93. The queen's assent to this award, to those of H.M.'s Sea and Land Forces, as well as those belonging to the East India Company's Establishment engaged in the Second Burmese War, was first made known to the Government of India in a letter from the Court of Directors, April 6, 1853. In a Minute by Lord Dalhousie, the governor-general, December 9, 1852, it had been suggested " whether it would not be better for the future, instead of issuing a separate Medal for each campaign, to have one Medal, such as the ' Indian Medal ' (i.e. the ' India, 1851 Medal), which should be issued once to each individual entitled: the particular service for which it is granted being recorded upon a Bar, and every subsequent service which may be thought to deserve distinction being recorded by an additional Bar. This plan would avoid the multiplication of Medals, which has accumulated of late years, which I humbly think is undesirable." In another letter from the Court of Directors to the Government of India, March 1, 1854, this suggestion is approved, and it was ordered that after " a suitable design " had been procured (L. C. Wyon designed the reverse), "the Medal to be now struck shall be of a general character, the particular service for which it is now granted, viz. ' Pegu,' being recorded on a Bar. In the event of the same soldiers being entitled hereafter to another similar distinction, the service will be recorded by an additional Bar to the same Medal." Occasional mistakes have however been made, for, since the issue with the clasp for the Perak campaign, from which time it has become customary to date the clasp, many instances have occurred of men having received two medals with clasps for different campaigns. The issue to the Persian Expeditionary Force 1 Whether in one or both actions, only one clasp awarded. 2 The Royal Navy or Indian Marine, or both, received the medal with these clasps.(1856-1857), with the clasp " Persia," was awarded by the Court of Directors January 19, 1858, and sanctioned by the queen in the same month. The first issue of the medal by the Crown was authorized April 15, 1859, with the clasps " North-West Frontier" and " Umbeyla,' the former covering various expeditions between 1849 and 1863, the latter the hard-fought Umbeyla Campaign of the latter mentioned year. All subsequent issues of the award were made by Queen Victoria, with the exception of those that carried with them the clasps " Chin Hill 1892-93," and " Kachin Hills 1892—93," which were only awarded ten years afterwards by King Edward VII., and notified in Army Order 9 of January 1903; the medal, which had meantime been superseded by the Third India G.S. medal described below, being re-issued with these last two clasps. The combination of clasps with this medal is very numerous, but medals with more than two or three clasps are rare. Seven is probably the greatest number awarded with any one medal, and a medal with this number, viz. Umbeyla," " North-West Frontier," " Jowaki 1877-78," " Burma 1885-87," " Hazara 1888," "' Samana 1891," and ' Hunza 1891," was granted to Bhanga Singh, Satdar Bahadur, who retired as Subadar-Major of No. 4 (Derajat) Mountain Battery. Sir William Lockhart (q.v.) had the medal with six clasps. The rarest of all the clasps is probably " Hunza 1891," as less than a thousand men were employed, and the majority of these were Cashmere Imperial Service Troops. No European troops received the clasps, " Looshai," " Naga 1879-8o," or " Hunza 1891." " Sikkim 1888 " is also a rare clasp as only some 2000 troops were employed, the only Europeans being two companies of the and Derbyshire Regiment. So also is " N.E. Frontier 1891," for in the Manipur expedition for which this clasp was given about 3000 men were employed, the only Europeans being four companies of the King's Royal Rifle Corps. It was with the issue of this medal with the clasp ' Burma 1885-87," that the precedent was set of awarding the medal and clasp in bronze to " all authorized followers," a precedent that was followed in all subsequent issues. 16. South Africa, 1834-35, 1846-47, 1850--53.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1854. (South Africa, 1877-79. Re-issue of first medal. Awarded by Queen Victoria, I880.) Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: A lion crouching be-hind a sugar bush (Protea mellifera). Above, SOUTH AFRICA. In exergue, 1853. In the exergue of the re-issued medal, the place of the date is taken by a trophy of four assegais and a Zulu shield. Ribbon: Orange watered, with two broad and two narrow blue stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: 1877-78-79, 1878-79, 1877-78, 1878, 1877, 1879. The command of the queen that a medal should be awarded to the survivors of the forces that had been engaged in the first, second and third Kaffir Wars (1834-35, 1846-47, and 1850--53) was notified by Viscount Hardinge, the commander-in-chief, in a G.O., dated Horse Guards, November 22, 1854. No clasps were issued with this medal. The medal was accorded only to the " regular forces " (including the Cape Mounted Rifles), so local levies did not receive it. In the third Kaffir War a small Naval Brigade and a detachment of Royal Marines took part in the operations, and the survivors received the medal. The award of the re-issue was notified in a G.O. by the duke of Cambridge, commander-in-chief, August I, 1880. It was to" be granted to Her Majesty's Imperial Forces, and to such of Her Majesty's Colonial Forces, European or Native, as were regularly organized and disciplined as combatants, whether raised by the Colonial Government or by the General Officer Commanding." The operations for which it was given were against the Galekas and Gaikas 1877-78, the Griquas 1878, Basutos 1879, Zulus 1879, and Sekukuni 1878-79. In both the operations against the Galekas and Gaikas, and in the Zulu War of 1879, the Royal Navy and Royal Marines took part and received the medal. The clasps issued with this medal were as noted above and record the year, or years, of service covering all the operations in which the recipient was engaged. No one received a medal with more than one clasp. The medal without a clasp was issued to such troops as were employed in Natal from January to September 1879, but never crossed the border into ululand. 17. Crimea, 1854-56.—Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1854. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal:. below, 1854. Reverse: Victory crowning a Roman soldier, who holds a sword in his right hand, and bears on his left arm a shield on which is the figure of a lion. On the left, CRIMEA. Ribbon: Light blue, with narrow yellow borders (Plate I.). Clasps: ALMA, BALAKLAVA, INKERMANN, SEBASTOPOL, AZOFF.' This medal, awarded to both Services, was first notified by a commander-in-chief's G.O., dated December 15, 1854. The grant was limited to all troops landing in the Crimea up to September 9, 1855—the day on which Sevastopol fell—" unless they shall have been engaged after that date in some expedition or operation against the enemy." This latter proviso applied in the main to the naval clasp " AZOFF," the period for which award was extended to the 22nd of November. The clasps for this medal are very ornamental, being in the shape of oak leaves, ornamented with acorns. The Royal Navy and Royal Marines, besides the " Azoff clasp, received the clasps " Balaklava," " Inkermann," " Sebastopol." The 2 Royal Navy and Royal Marines. largest number of clasps to any one medal is four. Certain non-combatants received the medal without a clasp. 18. Baltic,1854-55 Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1856. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in First China Medal. Reverse: Britannia seated and holding a trident in her right hand. In the background forts. Above, BALTIC. In exergue, 1854-1855. Ribbon: Yellow, with pale blue borders (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. This award, notified by Admiralty Order, June 5, 1856, was granted " to the officers and crews of Her Majesty's ships, as well as to such officers and Men of Her Majesty's Army as were employed in the operations in the Baltic in the years 1854 and 1855." The medal is, of course, practically a naval one, but two officers and ninety-nine men of the Royal Engineers were employed in the expedition, especially at Bomarsund, and received it. 19. Turkish Crimea Medal.—Awarded by the Sultan, 1856. Obverse: A trophy composed of a field piece, a mortar, and an anchor, the field piece standing on the Russian Imperial Standard, and having a map of the Crimea spread over the wheel and breech. Behind are the Turkish, British, French and Sardinian flags. The flag of the nation to which the recipient belonged is in the front with that of Turkey, the flags of the other two nationalities behind. In exergue, " Crimea 1855," " La Crimee 1855," or " La Crimea 1855," according as to whether the medal was intended for British, French or Sardinian recipients. Reverse: The Sultan's cypher, below, in Turkish, " Crimea," and the year of the Hegira, 1271. Ribbon: Crimson watered, with bright green edges (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. This medal was distributed to all of the Allied Forces, both naval and military, which shared in the operations in the Black Sea and the Crimea. As the ship that conveyed a majority of the English medals was sunk, the remainder were issued indiscriminately, and a large number of the British received medals which were originally intended either for the French or Sardinians.' 20. Arctic, 1818-1855 (First Arctic).—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1857. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, wearing a tiara. Legend, VICTORIA REGINA. Reverse: A ship blocked in the ice, icebergs to right and left, and in foreground a sledging party. Above, FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES. In exergue, 1818-1855. Ribbon: White (Plate II.). Clasps: Nil. This award was first notified in an Admiralty Notice dated, January 30, 1857. It was given to the crews of Her Majesty's ships employed in Arctic exploration, and also " to the officers of the French Navy, and to such volunteers as accompanied those expeditions "; also to those engaged in expeditions " equipped by the government and citizens of the United States ": also to the " commanders and crews of the several expeditions which originated in the zeal and humanity of Her Majesty's subjects ": and finally to those who served " in the several land expeditions, whether equipped by Her Majesty's government, by the Hudson's Bay Company, or from private resources." The medal is worn on the left breast and takes rank as a war medal. It is octagonal in shape, 1.3 in., and has affixed to the upper edge a five-pointed star to which is attached a ring for suspension. The head of the queen, which is the work of L. C. Wyon, has never been reproduced on any other medal. 21. Indian Mutiny, 1857-58.—Awarded by the Government of India, 1858. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on First China Medal. Reverse: Britannia standing facing left with a lion on her right side; her right arm is extended holding out a wreath; on her left arm is the Union shield, and in her left hand a wreath. Above, INDIA. In exergue, 1857-1858. Ribbon: White, with two red stripes, forming five }-inch stripes (Plate I.). Clasps: DELHI (May 30 to Sep. 14, 1857); DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW (June 29 to Sep. 25, 1857); RELIEF OF LUCKNOW (Nov., 1857); LUCK-NOW (March 2 to 21, 1858); CENTRAL INDIA (Jan. to June 1818). The grant of this award was first notified in a despatch from the Court of Directors to the Government which stated that " the Queen has been graciously pleased to command that a Medal shall be granted to the troops in the Service of Her Majesty, and of the East India Company, who have been, or may be, employed in the suppression of the Mutiny in India." This is the last medal given by the Honourable East India Company. The medal without clasp was awarded to all, including civilians, who had taken part in operations against the mutineers or rebels, and with the clasps enumerated above to those who shared in the operations specified. Some two or three artillery men are known to have received the medal with the clasps " Delhi," " Relief of Lucknow, " Luck-now " and " Central India." The medal with three clasps, viz. " Delhi," " Relief of Lucknow " and " Lucknow " was given only to the 9th Lancers and the Bengal Horse Artillery, and of course ' In addition to this award the French emperor sent five hundred of the French " Military Medal," to be distributed amongst specially selected non-commissioned officers and men of the army and Royal Marines, and petty officers and seamen of the Royal Navy. Only two of these medals were given to officers, viz. the duke of Cambridge and Sir William Codrington, the latter being presented by Pelissier with his own medal. The king of Sardinia also distributed 450 medals to the British forces, of which 50 were given to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, and 243 to officers and 157 to non-commissioned officers and privates of the army.various officers who served on the staff, as, for example, Field Marshals Earl Roberts and Sir Henry Norman. With regard to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, the " Shannon's " brigade, under Captain Peel, received the medal with one, or both, of the clasps " Relief of Lucknow," "Lucknow," the " Pearl's " brigade, under Captain Sotheby received the medal without clasp. This is the last medal that had on it the beautiful head of Queen Victoria which was first used for the China Medal of 1842, and of which W. Wyon, R.A., was the artist. 22. Abyssinia, 1867-68.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1868. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, with diadem and veil; around an indented border, between the nine points of which are the letters A.B.Y.S.S.I.N.I.A. Reverse: Within a beaded circle the name of recipient, his corps, regiment or ship, the whole surrounded with a wreath of laurel. Ribbon: Red, with broad white borders Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The sanction of this award is to be found in a letter from Sir J. S. Pakington, secretary of state for war, to H.R.H. the duke of Cambridge, field-marshal commanding-in-chief, which notifies the queen's pleasure " that a medal be granted to all Her Majesty's Forces and Indian Forces, Naval and Military, employed in the operations in Abyssinia; which resulted in the capture of Magdala." In all 20,000 medals were struck. The medal is smaller than the usual, if in. in diameter, and it is surmounted by an Imperial Crown, and a large silver ring for suspension. It is altogether an unusual type of medal, and in the use of an indented border it follows a very old precedent, that of a medal commemorating the victory of Valens over Procopius, A. D. 365. (See Les Medallions de 1'empire romain, by W. Froehner, Paris, 1878). The artists responsible for this medal are Joseph S. Wyon and Alfred B. Wyon, and this bust of the queen is reproduced on only one other medal, the New Zealand. 23. New Zealand, 1845—47, 186o-66.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1869. Obverse: 'Bust of Queen Victoria as on Abyssinia medal, but larger. Legend: VICTORIA D:G:BRITT: REG:F:D: Reverse: Dated, within a wreath of laurel, according to the period in which the recipient served. Above, NEW ZEALAND; below, VIRTUTIS HONOR. Ribbon: Blue, with a broad red stripe down centre (Plate I.). Clasps: Nil. The grant of this award to the Army was notified in an Army Order, dated March 1, 1869, and its extension to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines by an Admiralty Order, dated June 3, 1869. Owing to incompleteness in the returns many medals were issued undated. The dates on the reverse, in those issued dated, varied considerably; for. the First Maori War, the medal was issued to the Army with one and to the Navy with five different dates; for the Second Maori War, the medal was issued to the Army with twenty-one, and to the Navy with five different dates. No medal was dated 1862, though many of the Army medals bore date of a period covering that year, although no naval medals did. 24. West Africa, 1873-19oo.—Awarded (originally as the " Ashantee meda) by Queen Victoria in 1874, with the exception of the last issue, with clasp " 1900," which was awarded by H.M. King Edward VII. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, with diadem, and veil behind, by L. C. Wyon. Legend: VICTORIA REGINA. Reverse: British soldiers fighting savages in thick bush, by Sir E. J. Poynter. Ribbon: Yellow, with black borders, and two narrow black stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: COOMASSIE, 1887-8, 1891-2, 1892, 1893—94; WITU, 1890;8 LIWONDI, 1893;2 WITU, August 1893;8 JUBA RIVER, 1893;2 LAKE NYASSA, 1893;2 GAMBIA, 1894;2 BENIN RIVER, 1894;8 BRASS RIVER, 1895.8 MWELE, 1895;8 ¢NIGER, 1897; BENIN, 1897;8 SIERRA LEONE, 1898-99; 1896-98, 1897-98, 1898, 1899, 1900. This medal was first awarded by Army Order 43, dated June t, 1874, to " all of Her Majesty's Forces who have been employed on the Gold Coast during the operations against the King of Ashantee," and in addition a clasp, " Coomassie," "in the case of those who were present at Amoaful and the actions between that place and Coomassie (including the capture of the capital), and of those who, during the five days of those actions, were engaged on the north of the Prah in maintaining and protecting the communications of the main army." In all, with and without the clasp, ii,000 medals were issued for the Ashantee campaign to both Services. Over eighteen years later this same medal was re-issued as a " general service " medal, the award being for operations in Central Africa, and on the East and West Coasts, during the period 1887-92, which were covered by the dated, clasps " 1887-"8,' ' 1891—2," and " 1892." As such the issue was continued fo operations down to,the year 1900, although the official title " West 2 These clasps were all naval awards, but two companies of the West India Regiment took part in the operations for which the clasp " Gambia, 1894," was awarded. 8 Were awarded by the Admiralty to certain local forces which oo-operated with the Naval Brigades. ' " Mwele, 1895," is not strictly speaking a clasp, as it is engraved on the edge of the medal. Recipients already in possession of the medal were entitled to have the action and date engraved thereon. It corresponds, however, to a clasp in that it commemorates a particular service, and so has been included. I4 Africa Medal" (see Army Order 253, of Dec. 1894) is somewhat of a misnomer, for very frequently the medal has been granted for services in Central Africa and in the Hinterland of the East Coast as for services on the West Coast. In all issues since the original Ashantee " medal, the clasp only was given to those who already had the medal, so subsequent issues do not make it a new award. As will be seen later, the same medal was subsequently issued with a different ribbon, and so constituted as an entirely new decoration, that could be worn in conjunction with the older one. With the exception of those issued with " Mwele, 1895 " engraved on the medal, none of these medals have been issued without a clasp since the original issue for the campaign of 1873–74; and the clasp " Coomassie " that accompanied the first issue is the only one that has been issued to regimental units of the British Army as apart from the West India Regiment and local troops. The duke of Edinburgh was married in January of the year in which this medal was first awarded, and it is said that yellow and black (the Imperial Russian colours) were chosen as the colours of the ribbon, in compliment to his consort the grand duchess Marie of Russia. 25. Arctic, 1876 (2nd Arctic Medal).—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1876. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, crowned and with veil by G. G. Adams. Legend: VICTORIA REGINA; underneath bust, 1876. Reverse: A ship packed in floe ice; above, an Arctic sky with fleecy clouds in a clear horizon. Ribbon: White (Plate II.). Clasps: Nil. The award of this grant was notified in an Admiralty Order, dated Nov. 28, 1876, and the award is specified " to all persons, of every rank and class, who were serving on board Her Majesty's ships ' Alert ',and ' Discovery ' during the Arctic Expedition of 1875–1876, and on board the yacht ' Pandora,' in her voyage to the Arctic Regions in 1876." The 'Pandora' was owned and sailed by Commander (Sir Allen) Young, R.N.R., whose officers and crew rendered valuable services to Her Majesty's ships when in the Polar seas. Sixty-three medals were given on board the " Alert, fifty-seven on board the " Discovery." The bust on the obverse of this medal has not been reproduced on any other. The reverse (by L. C. Wyon) is copied from a photograph taken during the expedition of the ° Alert " and Discovery under Sir George Nares, K.C.B. 26. Afghanistan, 1878–80 (2nd Afghan). Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1880. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, crowned and with veil, by J. E. Boehm. This is the first war medal bearing the imperial title. Legend: VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERATRIX. Reverse: A column of troops emerging from, a mountain-pass, headed by a heavy battery elephant carrying a gun; behind, mounted troops. Above, AFGHANISTAN. In exergue, 1878--99–80. Ribbon: Green, with crimson borders (Plate I.). Clasps: ALI MUSJID, PEIWAR KOTAL, CHARASIA, KABUL, AHMED KHEL, KANDAHAR. At the conclusion of the first phase of the Second Afghan War, it was proposed that the (Second) India G.S. Medal should be issued for this campaign with clasps " Afghanistan," " Ali Musjid," Peiwar Kotal," but, after the massacre of Sir P. L. N. Cavagnari and the members and escort of the Embassy at Kabul, Sep. 3, 1879, and the consequent renewal of the war, it was decided to grant a separate medal. The first official intimation of the award is in a telegram from the secretary of state for India to the viceroy, dated Aug. 7, 1880. The award, with the regulations to govern the issue, was promulgated in a G.O. by the governor-general, Dec. to, 188o, and subsequent G.O.'s. The medal without clasp was awarded to all who had served across the frontier between Nov. 22, 1878, and May 26, 1879 (first phase of the war), and between Sep. 1899, and Aug. 15, 188o for the Khyber and Kurram Lines, and Sep. 20, 188o, for Southern Afghanistan (second phase of the war). The " Kabul " clasp was awarded to all who had shared in the operations " at and near that place from the loth to the 23rd Dec., 1879, including the column under the command of Brigadier-General C. T. S. Gough, C.B., which joined Sir Frederick Roberts on the 24th Dec., 1879." The clasp for " Kandahar" did riot include the whole garrison of the beleaguered city, but only the troops that were actually " engaged in the action fought under Sir Frederick Roberts' command against Sirdar Mahomed Ayub Khan on the 1st Sep., 1880." The greatest number of clasps with which the medal was issued was four, and the units to which such medals were issued are the 72nd Highlanders, 5th Ghoorkas, 5th Punjab Infantry and 23rd Punjab Pioneers. The bust of the Queen by Sir Edgar Boehm, R.A., has not been re-produced on other war medals. 27. Kabul to Kandahar, 1880.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1880. This decoration took the form of a five-pointed star, I.9 in. across from point to point, with a ball between the points; between the two topmost points of the star is an Imperial Crown and ring for suspension. Obverse: In the centre the imperial monogram V.R.I., surrounded by a band inscribed KABUL TO KANDAHAR, 1880. Reverse: Plain, with a hollow centre, round which the recipient's name and regiment are indented in capital letters. The old rainbow-coloured military ribbon is worn with this star. The grant of this award was first notified in a despatch from the secretary of state for India to the viceroy, dated Nov. 30, 1880. This awarded the decoration " to the force which marched from Kabul to Kandahar," and later, Aug. 26, 1881, a G.O. by the Governor-General extended the grant " to the troops which then composed the garrison of Kelat-i-Ghilzai, and accompanied the force under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir F. S. Roberts, G.C.B., V.C., from that place to Kandahar." 28. Egypt, 1882–1889.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1882. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as in the West African Medal. Legend: VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERATRIX. Reverse: A Sphinx; above, EGYPT; below, 1882. Ribbon: Blue, with two white stripes, forming five i-inch stripes (Plate I.). Clasps: ALEXANDRIA, 11th Julyl;. TEL-EL-KEBIR, SUAKIN, 1884; ELTEB, TAMAAI, EL-TEB-TAMAAI,2 THE NILE, 1884–85; ABU KLEA, KIRBEKAN, SUAKIN, 1885; TOFREK, GEMAIZAH, 1888; TOSKI, 1889.3 This medal was first awarded (Admiralty Circular, Oct. 1882 ; G.O. by the commander-in-chief, Oct. 17, 1882; and G.O. by governor-general of India, Oct. 27, 1882); to all the Forces, naval and military, present and serving in Egypt between July 16, and Sep. 14, 1882. The first two clasps were also given with this issue. One military officer (Major-General Sir A. B. Tulloch, then of the Welsh Regiment) received the clasp " Alexandria, 11th July," as he was serving in the fleet as military adviser to Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour. A second issue was made in 1884, and with it the next four clasps were given ; " Suakin, 1884," for those who landed at Suakin or Trinkitat between Feb. 19 and March 26, 1884, was, however, only given to those with the 1882 medal, those not so possessed receiving the medal without a clasp. A third issue was made in 1885, the next five clasps accompanying it. The Nile; 1884–85," was given to those who served south of Assouan on or before March 7, 1885; " Suakin, 1885," to those who were engaged in the operations at Suakin between March and May 14, 1885; but the former clasp was only to go to those already possessed of the medal, others received the medal only. The medal alone was also given to all on duty at Suakin between March 27, 1884, and May 14, 1885. No medals were issued with single clasps' for " Tofrek," recipients of which also got clasp " Suakin, 1885," or " Abu Klea " and Kirbekan," recipients of which got also clasp " The Nile, 1884–85." In 1886, the medal without was' issued to those who had not previously received it and had served at, and south of Wady Haifa, between Nov. 30, 1885 and Jan. II, 1886, but no clasps went with this issue, although the operations included the battle of Ginnis. The last issue was made in 189o. The medal with clasp " Gemaizah, 1888," to all who were present at that action near Suakin, Dec. 20, 1888; the medal alone to all employed on the Nile at, and south of Korosko, on Aug. 3, 1889, and with clasp Toski, 1889," to all present at that action, Aug. 3, 1889. Besides those already enumerated who received the medal without clasp, it was given to officers of hired transports of the mercantile marine, to some civilians, native and European, to the Australian contingent that landed at Suakin, and to the Canadian boatmen employed on the Nile. In fact, not far short of fifty thousand of these "medals have been struck, and the numbers Issued have exceeded that of any other medal with the exception of that given for the South African War. Seven clasps: " Tel-el-Kebir," " Suakin, 1884 "; " El-Teb-Tamaai " " The Nile, 1884–85 "; " Abu Klea " Gemaizah, 1888 "; and " Toski, 1889," were awarded to one officer, Major Beech, late loth Hussars, who also received the Bronze Star with the clasp Tokar, 189o." The medal with six clasps was earned by four men of the 19th Hussars who were Lord Wolseley's orderlies, and who after having earned the first five clasps enumerated in Major Beech's medal, went with Lord Wolseley to Suakin and so got the " Suakin, 1885 " clasp. 29. Egypt Bronze Star, 1882–93.—Awarded by the Khedive 1883. This decoration is in the shape of a five-pointed star (I.9 in. diameter) connected by a small star and crescent to a laureated bar "to' which the ribbon is attached. Obverse: A front view of the Sphinx, with the desert and pyramids in the rear. Around a double band, upon which are, above, EGYPT, 1882, and below, in Arabic, "Khedive of Egypt, 1299 " (the Hegira date). In the second and third issues the dates are respectively altered to 1884, 1301 and 1884–86 and 1301–4; the fourth and fifth issues are dateless. Reverse: A large raised circle inside which is the Khedivial monogram, T. M. (Tewfik Mahomed), surmounted by a Crown and Crescent and Star. Ribbon : Dark blue (Plate I.). Clasps: TOKAR, 189o. This star was awarded for the same operations as was the British Egyptian medal above described, but, except for a few officers and men of the Royal Navy, the issue of the clasp TOKAR was confined to British and 'native officers and men of the Egyptian service. (H. L. S.) 30. Canada, 1885.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1885. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria as on the West African (" Ashantee ") Medal. Reverse: NORTH WEST CANADA and date, within a maple leaf. Ribbon: Blue-grey, with a crimson stripe on each side (Plate II.). Clasp: SASKATCHEWAN. This medal, commemorative of services in the Riel Rebellion, was awarded to Canadian forces only. i Issued to the Royal Navy and Royal Marines only. 2 For combatants present at both actions. 2 Only clasp not issued to Royal Navy and Royal Marines. 31. Canada (General Service).—Awarded, 1899. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, as in Third India G. S. Medal. Reverse: Within a maple wreath, the Dominion flag, above, CANADA. Ribbon: Red, with white centre (Plate II.). Clasps: FENIAN RAID, 1866; FENIAN RAID, 187o; RED RIVER, 187o. One battalion of the King's Royal Rifles received this medal with the Red River Clasp. Otherwise issue confined to Canadian forces. 32. " Queen's" Sudan, 1896-1898.—Awarded by Queen Victoria, 1899. Obverse: Half-length effigy of Queen Victoria holding sceptre, by De Saulles, as in " Uganda " medal described below. Reverse: A winged Victory, seated, with, on either hand, the Union Jack and the Egyptian flag. The left hand holds a laurel wreath, the right a palm branch. On a tablet below, SUDAN, and below this lotus leaves. Ribbon: Half black, half yellow, divided by a narrow red stripe (Plate I.). Clasps: none. Given for the operations under the command of Sir Herbert (Lord) Kitchener, which led to the reconquest of the Sudan, 1898; issued in bronze to followers. 33. " Khedive's" Sudan, 1896--1900.—Awarded by the khedive in 1897. Obverse: " Abbas Hilmi II." and date, in Arabic. Re-verse : A trophy of arms with a shield in the centre, on a tablet below " Recovery of the Sudan," in Arabic. Ribbon: Yellow, with blue centre (Plate I.). Clasps: FIRKET, HAFIR, SUDAN, 1897; SUDAN, 1898; ABU HAMED, THE ATBARA, KHARTOUM GEDAREF,1 SUDAN, 1899;1 SUDAN, 1900;1 CEDID,1 BAHR-EL-GHAZAL, 1900-1902;1 TEROK,1 NYAM NYAM,1 TALODI.1 This medal was awarded to officers and men of the British Navy and Army, to the Egyptian Army engaged in the reconquest of the Sudan and (in bronze without clasps) to followers. 34. Cape Colony General Service, 1900.—Awarded by the government of Cape Colony. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria as on the Volunteer Long Service Medal. Reverse: Arms of Cape Colony. Ribbon: Dark blue, with yellow centre (Plate II.). Clasps: BASUTOLAND, TRANSKEI, BECHUANALAND. Issued to Colonial troops only, for services in various minor campaigns. 35. Matabeleland, 1893 (called the Rhodesia Medal).—Awarded by the British South Africa Company, 1896. Obverse: Rust of Queen Victoria. Reverse: A fighting lion. Ribbon: Orange, with three dark blue stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: RHODESIA and MASHONALAND, with dates. This is the first war medal issued by a chartered company since the close of the Company's rule in India. It was awarded to British officers and men of the British service, to the Cape Mounted Rifles, Bechuanaland police, and the Chartered Company's own forces, engaged in the Matabeleland and Mashonaland Campaigns 1893, 1896 and 1897. 36. East and Central Africa, 1891-98.—Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1895. Obverse and Reverse: as in West African (or original Ashantee) Medal described above. Ribbon: Terra-cotta, white and black stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: CENTRAL AFRICA, 1894-96; CENTRAL AFRICA, 1899. This medal only differs from the West African in that it has a different ribbon. It is suspended by a ring. Practically only the local forces (and of course their British officers) received this medal. But a few officers and men of the Indian Army and of the Royal Navy have also received it. 37. East and Central Africa, 1899 (the" Uganda" Medal).—Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1899. Obverse: Half-length effigy of Queen Victoria, by De Saulles. Reverse: Britannia with lion, gazing over a desert towards a rising sun. Ribbon: Half red, half yellow (Plate II.). Clasps: LUBWA'S, UGANDA, 1897-98; UGANDA, 1899; UGANDA, 1900. This medal was awarded to the local forces and also to officers and men of the Indian Army and Royal Navy. 38. Ashanti Star, 1896.—Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1896. Obverse: An imperial crown with " Ashanti, 1896 " round it. Reverse: Inscribed " from the Queen." The star is four-pointed, and is crossed by a saltire or St Andrew's cross. Ribbon: Yellow with black stripes (Plate II.). This medal was issued for the expedition against Prempeh in 1896. As there was no actual fighting, no medal was given, but sickness claimed many victims, amongst them Prince Henry of Battenberg. The decoration was issued to officers and men of the British Army, Royal Navy and local troops. 39. Ashanti Medal, 1900.—Awarded by King Edward VII. in 1901. Obverse: Head and bust of King Edward VII. in the uniform of a field-marshal, by De Saulles. Reverse: a lion standing on a cliff, in the background the rising sun. Ribbon: Green with black edges and black central stripe (Plate II.). Clasp: KUMASSI. This medal was the first which was issued with an effigy of King Edward VII. It was given only to local forces, and the British officers employed on the staff or in commands. 40. Africa General Service, 1899- —Awarded by King Edward VII. in 1902. Obverse: As in Ashanti Medal of 1900. Reverse: As in " Uganda " Medal above described. Ribbon: Yellow, with black edges and two narrow green stripes (Plate II.). Clasps: N. NIGERIA, with various dates; S. NIGERIA, with various i Awarded to Egyptian Army only. dates; UGANDA, 1900; JUBALAND, GAMBIA, LANGO, 1901 and 1902; JIDBALLI, KISSI, 1905; SOMALILAND, 1901 and 1902-04; BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA, 1899-1900; ARO, 1901-02. This medal represents an almost incessant warfare of a minor, but exacting, nature. In the first eighteen months, eleven clasps were awarded, some awards being of course retrospective. The clasp " Jubaland " is chiefly a naval award, but all the rest are almost exclusively earned by the West African Frontier Force and the King's African Rifles. It is worthy of remembrance, however, that a contingent of Boer mounted riflemen took part in the Somali-land Campaign, within one year of the peace of Vereeniging, and received the medal and clasp. The ` Somaliland, 1902-1904 " clasp represents indeed a considerable campaign in which contingents from Great Britain and India took part. 41. " Queen's" South African, 1899-1902.—Awarded by King Edward VII. in 1901 shortly after Queen Victoria's death. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, by De Saulles. Reverse: Britannia holding an outstretched laurel wreath towards a body of troops, in the background a coast line, the sea and war-ships. Ribbon: Centre orange bordered with blue, outside edges red (Plate II.). Clasps; see below. The " Queen's" medal for troops engaged in the South African War was authorized, shortly after Queen Victoria's death, by Army Order 94 of 1901. It was given " to all officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men, of the British, Indian and Colonial forces, and to all Nurses and Nursing Sisters, who actually served in South Africa between 11th of October 1899, and a date to be fixed hereafter" (the war not being concluded) " to all troops stationed in Cape Colony and Natal at the outbreak of hostilities, and to troops stationed at St Helena between the 14th of April 1900, and a date to be fixed hereafter." The last provision shows a widening of the signification hitherto attaching to " war service," for the troops at St Helena were employed in guarding Boer prisoners. The A.O. referred to was supplemented by others in 1901 and 1902. Clasps were authorized as follows: BELMONT (Nov. 23, 1899); MODDER RIVER (Nov. 28, 1899); PAARDEBERG (Feb. 17-26, 1900); DREIFONTEIN (March to, 1900); WEPENER (April 9-25, 1900) ; JOHANNESBURG (May 29, 1900); DIAMOND HILL (June 11-12, 1900); BELFAST (Aug. 26-27, 1900); WITTEBERGEN (July 1-29, 1900); DE-FENCE OF KIMBERLEY (Oct. 14, 1899, Feb. 15, 1900), RELIEF OF KIMBERLEY (Feb. 15, 1900); DEFENCE OF MAFEKING (Oct. 13, 1899—May 17, 1900); RELIEF OF MAFEKING (May 17, 1900); TALANA (Oct. 20, 1899); ELANDSLAAGTE (Oct. 21, 1899); DEFENCE OF LADYSMITH (Nov. 3, 1899—Feb. 28, 1900); TUGELA HEIGHTS (Feb. 14-27, 1900); RELIEF OF LADYSMITH (Dec. 15, 1899—Feb. 28, 1900); LAING'S NEK (June 2-9, 1900). Clasps: for CAPE COLONY, NATAL, ORANGE FREE STATE and RHODESIA, were given to troops who served within the limits of the respective colonies and states named during the war, without being present at any action, fought inside those limits, for which a clasp was awarded. Non-enlisted men, of whatever nationality, who drew military pay, were awarded the medal in bronze instead of silver and without clasps. Militia units which volunteered and were sent to Mediterranean stations to release the regulars for field service were awarded (Feb. 1902) the medal without clasp, " Mediterranean " being substituted for " South Africa " on the reverse. This was not, of course, issued to any one entitled to the Queen's Medal for South Africa. 43• The " King's" South African Medal was awarded by King Edward VII. in 1902, to be worn in addition to the "Queen's " by those who completed eighteen months' service in South Africa during the war. On the obverse of the medal is the effigy of King Edward, by De Saulles (as on the " Ashanti, 1900," Medal) ; the reverse is the same as that of the " Queen's Medal. Ribbon: Green, white and orange (Plate II.). The two clasps awarded were, in accordance with the terms of the award, general in character, to wit, SOUTH AFRICA, 1901 and SOUTH AFRICA, 1902. 44. China, 1900.—Awarded by King Edward VII., 1902. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria as on "-Queen's " South African Medal. Reverse: As on first China Medal, but with date altered. Ribbon: As in first China Medal (Plate I.). Clasps: DEFENCE OF LEGATIONS, RELIEF.OF PEKIN, TAKU FORTS. This medal was issued to the Royal Navy (including some Naval volunteers), British and Indian Armies, and the (Wei-hai-Wei)., Chinese Regiment, for operations during the Boxer rebellion. This was the last war medal, as the " First China " was the first to bear Queen Victoria's effigy. Sir E. H. Seymour, the commander of the Tientsin relieving column, who had taken part in the former China War, received the new medal as well as the old. 45. India, 1895 (Third India General Service).—Awarded by Queen Victoria in 1896. Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria, by T. Brock, R.A. Reverse: A British and Indian soldier supporting a standard; below, INDIA, 1895. Ribbon: Three red and two green stripes of equal width (Plate I.). Clasps: DEFENCE OF CHITRAL, 1895; RELIEF OF CHITRAL, 1845; MALAKAND, 1898; PUNJAB FRONTIER, 1898; TIRAH, 1897; TIRAH, 1898; WAZIRISTAN, 1901-02. The ribbon of this medal is perhaps more frequently seen than that of any other British war medal except those for Sotith Africa. inscribed " FOR VALOUR." There is a bronze laureated bat for suspension, connected with the cross by a V. The reverse is plain, but the name, rank and corps of the recipient are engraved on the back of the laureated bar. Ribbon: Red for the army; blue for the navy. Clasp: For every additional act of bravery a clasp, bearing the date of such act, may be awarded. Nothing save " the merit of conspicuous bravery " gives claim for the decoration, and it must be evinced by " some signal act of valour or devotion to their country " performed " in the presence of the enemy." (The regulation italicized was for a short time abrogated, but soon restored to force.) The original Royal Warrant has been supplemented by various Royal Warrants (Oct. 1857, Aug. and Dec. 1858, Jan, 1867, April and Aug. 1881), and now every grade and rank of all ranks of all branches of His Majesty's Forces, British and Colonial, are eligible, with the single exception of native ranks of the Indian army, who have an equivalent decoration in their own Order of Merit. In the case of recipients who are not of commissioned rank, the Cross carries with it a pension of £10 a year, and an additional £5 a year for each clasp. A larger grant is sometimes given to holders of the V.C. who are in need of monetary help. In all, up to 1904, the Cross was awarded to 521 recipients (including 15 posthumous awards). 3. Distinguished Conduct in the Field (Army).—Instituted by Royal Warrant, September 30, 1862. Obverse: A military trophy, with, in the centre, the Royal Arms (as in the Long Service and Good Conduct Medals). Reverse: inscribed " FOR DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT IN THE FIELD." Ribbon: Three stripes equal width, outside red, centre blue (Plate II.). Clasp: Royal Warrant, 7th of February 1881, authorized award of clasps for subsequent acts of gallantry. " Individual acts of distinguished conduct in the field in any part of the world " entitle to this medal, and only non-commissioned officers and men of the British forces are eligible for the award. Prior to its institution, distinguished gallantry was rewarded by the " Meritorious Service " medal. Single clasps have been constantly conferred, and there is more than one case of a recipient having earned two clasps to his medal. 4. Albert Medal (for saving life at sea).—Instituted by Royal Warrant, 7th of March 1866. Gold oval badge, enamelled in dark blue, with a monogram composed of the letters V and A, inter-laced with an anchor erect, all in gold, surrounded with a' garter in bronze, inscribed in raised letters of gold " FOR GALLANTRY IN SAVING LIFE AT SEA," and surmounted by a representation of the crown of the prince consort, the whole edged with gold. Ribbon: dark blue, with two white stripes. Clasps are awarded for any subsequent acts • of bravery. By a subsequent Royal Warrant of the 12th of April 1867, the decoration was-re-constituted in two classes, as follows. 1st Class—Badge precisely as already described. Ribbon: Dark blue, with four white stripes (If in. wide). Clasps: As authorized in original warrant. 2nd Class—Badge exactly similar to that of the 1st Class, except that it is entirely worked in bronze, instead of gold and bronze. Ribbon: Dark blue, with two white stripes. Clasps: As authorized for 1st Class. The decoration is awarded only to those who " have, in saving or endeavouring to save the lives of others from shipwreck or other peril of the sea, endangered their own lives." The 1st Class is confined " to cases of extreme and heroic daring "; the 2nd for acts which, though great courage may be shown, " are not sufficiently distinguished to deserve " the 1st Class of the decoration. 5. New Zealand Cross.—Instituted by an Order of the governor of New Zealand in council, loth of March, 1869. Silver Maltese Cross with gold star on each of the four limbs and in the centre, in a circle within a gold laurel wreath, NEW ZEALAND. Above the Cross a crown in gold, and connected at the top by a V, to a silver bar ornamented with laurel in gold. The name of recipient is engraved on reverse. Width of Cross, I% in. Ribbon: Crimson. Clasps: Authorized for subsequent acts of valour. In authorizing this decoration Sir G. F. Bowen, the then governor, went outside his authority, but the queen ratified the colonial order in council, and intimated " Her gracious desire that the arrangements made by it may be considered as established from that date by Her direct authority." It was, however, stipulated that the occasion was in no way to form a precedent. The award was to be for those " who may particularly distinguish themselves by their bravery in action, or devotion to their duty while on service," and only local " Militia, Volunteers or Armed Constabulary " were to be eligible. In all only nineteen of these decorations were awarded. No clasps were awarded. 6. Conspicuous Gallantry (Navy).—Instituted by an Order of the queen in Council, 7th of July, 1874. Obverse: Head of Queen Victoria, by W. Wyon, R.A. (as on China Medal). i Reverse: A laurel wreath, and within FOR CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY. Above, a crown. Ribbon: Three stripes of equal width, outside blue, centre white (Plate II.). Clasps: none authorized. To reward " acts of pre-eminent bravery in Action with the Enemy." Only petty officers and seamen of the Royal Navy, i Now naval effigy of King Edward VII., as on Transport Service Medal In 1903 the medal was re-issued with the military effigy of King Edward VII. (as on the Ashanti, 1900, medal) on the obverse, and the date was omitted from the reverse. The medal is issued in bronze, without clasps, to followers. 46. Tibet, 1903-o4.—Awarded by King Edward VII in 1905. Obverse: Military effigy of the king as on Ashanti, 1900, medal. Reverse: a representation of the Potala at Lhasa. Ribbon: Purple-red, edged with green and white stripes (Plate II.). Clasp: GYANTSE. 47. India, 1908.—A new India General Service Medal was authorized in 1908, to take the place of the medal granted by A.O. 43 of 1903. This was to be issued in silver to officers and men, and in bronze to non-enlisted men of all sorts. This medal with clasp bearing the name and date was given to the troops which took part in the North Western Frontier Expedition of 1908. The ribbon is dark blue edged with green. 48. Transport Medal.—Awarded by King Edward VII. in 1902. Obverse: Head and bust of the king in naval uniform, by De Saulles. Reverse; A steamer at sea, and the five continents. Ribbon: red, with two thin stripes near the edge (Plate II.). Clasps: SOUTH AFRICA, 1899–19o2; CHINA, 1900. This medal is restricted to officers of the mercantile marine serving in chartered troop-ships. It is a sort of general service medal, clasps being added as earned. Up to 1910 only the above clasps had been authorized. 49• Polar Medal (or Antarctic Medal).—Awarded by King Edward VII., 1904. Obverse: Naval effigy of the king as on Transport Medal. Reverse: In the foreground a sledge and travellers, in the background the steamer " Discovery " (Capt. R. F. Scott's Expedition, 1904). Ribbon: As for Ist and 2nd Arctic Medals, white (Plate I.). The medal, like the 1st Arctic Medal, is octagonal. First awarded to officers and men of the " Discovery," whether belonging to the Royal Navy or not. It is given with a dated clasp for Antarctic exploration service. Other Medals and Decorations.—The above forty-nine medals are given as rewards for participating in the operations they commemorate, and issued generally to all concerned, irrespective of individual distinction or bravery. There are other classes of medals and decorations, civil as well as military, which must be grouped with them, as being allied in character. These are either (i.) awards personal to the recipient, being an acknowledgment of or reward for special individual services or good conduct (these are civil as well as military in respect of awards for bravery), or (ii.) awards that are simply of a commemorative kind, though worn as war medals and for the most part given to officers and soldiers. The more important of these two classes will be named. Orders given for service are dealt with, for the most part in the article KNIGHTHOOD; but particulars are given here of certain distinctively military orders that have no knighthood rights and duties, and indeed little meaning apart from the deeds or services which led to the award—being so to speak, records of the past, rather than badges of a present membership. Individual decorations for services may be classed as (i.) for gallantry, (ii.) for special merit, and (iii.) for long service and good conduct. 1. Indian Order of Merit.--Awarded by H.E.I. Company and notified by G.O. of governor-general, April 17, 1837. Obverse: 1st Class—A Gold Star, It in. diameter; in the centre, in gold on a ground of dark blue enamel, crossed swords within a circle around which is the legend, REWARD OF VALOUR, the whole encircled by a gold laurel wreath. 2nd Class—Star similar to that of 1st Class, but in silver. Wreath and centre as in 1st Class.. 3rd Class—Star exactly similar to that of 2nd Class, but the wreath and centre in silver, and dark blue enamel and silver, respectively. Reverse: Engraved 1st, 2nd and 3rd Class Order of Merit, respectively, but the name of the recipient is not engraved on the decoration when issued. Ribbon: Dark blue, with red edges. This decoration is to be obtained only by a " conspicuous act of individual gallantry" in the field or in the attack or defence of fortified places. It is open to all native officers or soldiers of the Indian Army, " without distinction of rank or grade." The 3rd Class is bestowed for the first act of gallantry for which the recipient is recommended. The 2nd Class is given only to those who possess the third, and for a second act of conspicuous gallantry. The 1st Class is given only to those who hold the 2nd, and for a third act of bravery. A recipient of the decoration receives an additional allowance equivalent in the 3rd Class to one-third, in the and to two-thirds, and in the 1st to the whole of the ordinary pay of his rank, over and above that pay or his pension. The widow (in the case of plurality of wives, the first married) receives the pension of the Order for three years after her husband's death. 2. Victoria Cross.—Instituted by Royal Warrant, January 29, 1856. A bronze Maltese Cross, i in. diameter, with, in the centre, the Royal Crest (lion and crown), and below it a scroll and non-commissioned officers and privates of the Royal Marines, are eligible for this decoration. Prior to the institution of this decoration, acts of gallantry by sailors and marines were rewarded by the same medal as that given to the army before the " medal for distinguished conduct in the field " was instituted, viz. the " Meritorious Service " medal. If the holder be a Chief or First Class Petty Officer, or a Sergeant of Marines, the award carries with it an annuity of £20 per annum; and if a recipient's service ends before his reaching one of those ranks, he may receive a gratuity of £20 on discharge. 7. Albert Medal (for saving life on land).—Instituted by Royal Warrant, 3oth of April 1877. 1st Class—Similar to that of the 1st Class for saving life at sea, but the enamelling is in red instead of blue, and there is no anchor interlaced with. the mono-gram V.A. Ribbon: Crimson, with four white stripes. Clasps: for subsequent acts of same character. and Class—Badge similar to that of the and Class for saving life at sea, but the enamelling is in red instead of blue, and there is no anchor interlaced with the monogram V.A. Ribbon: Crimson, with two white stripes. Clasps: As authorized for 1st Class. The conditions governing the award of this decoration are the same that govern the award for saving life at sea. Originally the award was restricted to acts of gallantry performed within British dominions, but this restriction was removed by Royal Warrant, 5th of June 1905. 8. Distinguished Conduct in the Field (Colonial).—Instituted by a Royal Warrant, 24th of May 1894, which was later cancelled and superseded by Royal Warrant, 31st of May 1895. Obverse: same as " Distinguished Conduct in the Field " (Army). Reverse : same as " Army " medal, but with the name of the colony inscribed above the words " For Distinguished Conduct in the Field." Ribbon: Crimson, with a line of the colonial .colour in the centre. Clasps: Authorized for subsequent acts of valour. Every colony or protectorate, having permanently embodied forces, draws up regulations to govern the issue of these medals as suit its own particular requirements, but in all essentials these regulations are modelled on those that govern the award of the Distinguished Conduct in the Field (Army). 9. Conspicuous Service Cross.—Instituted by an Order in Council, 15th of June 1901. Silver cross, with the reverse side plain; on the obverse, in the centre, the Imperial and Royal Cypher, E.R.I., surmounted by the imperial crown. Ribbon: Three stripes equal width, outside white, centre blue. Clasps: none authorized. This award is to recognize Distinguished Service before the Enemy." Its grant is confined to " Warrant Officers or Sub-ordinate Officers " of the Royal Navy. Such, not being of " lower-deck rating," are not eligible for the " Conspicuous Gallantry " medal; also, they, " by reason of not holding a commission in the Royal Navy, are not eligible to any existing Order or Decoration." 10. Edward Medal.—Founded in 1907 to reward acts of courage in saving life in mines, this medal was extended in 1909 (R.W. Dec. 3) so as to be awarded " to those who in course of industrial employment endanger their own lives in saving or endeavouring to save the lives of others from perils incurred in connexion with such industrial employment." Certain important medals and decorations for saving life are not the gift of the Crown. These are allowed to be worn in uniform on the right breast. They are the medals of the Royal Humane Society, those given by the Board of Trade for gallantry in saving life at sea, the medals of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, those of the Shipwrecked Fisher-, men and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society, Lloyd's Honorary Silver Medal, Liverpool Shipwrecked and Humane Society's Medals, and the Stanhope Gold Medal. All these are suspended from a dark blue ribbon with the exception of the medals of the S.F. and M. Royal Benevolent Society, which has a light blue ribbon, and the Stanhope Gold Medal which has a broad dark blue centre, edged with yellow, and black borders. These medals are usually struck in silver or bronze, but occasionally gold medals are awarded. The Stanhope Gold Medal is annually awarded for the most gallant of all the acts of rescue for which the society have awarded medals during the year. This award has been frequently earned by officers or men of the Royal Navy. It is, in fact, the " Victoria Cross " of awards of this character. The following are decorations for special merit: I. Order of British India.—Instituted by General Order of Governor-General of India, 17th of April 1837. 1st Class—A gold star of eight points radiated, 1i in. in diameter, between the two top points the crown of England. In the centre, on a ground of light blue enamel, a gold lion statant, within a band of dark blue enamel, containing in gold letters ORDER OF BRITISH INDIA, the whole encircled by a gold laurel wreath. The whole hangs from the ribbon by a gold loop attached by a ring to the top of the crown, and is worn round the neck, outside the uniform. Ribbon: originally sky-blue, changed to crimson 1838. 2nd Class—Gold star similar to that of the 1st Class, but smaller, 1 # in. diameter,and without the crown. The centre also is similar to that of the 1st Class star, but the enamelling is all dark blue. Suspended. and worn as in the 1st Class. Ribbon: As in 1st Class. This, the highest military distinction to which in the ordinary course native officers of the Indian Army can attain, and confined to them, is a reward for long, honourable and specially meritorious service. The 1st Class is composed exclusively of officers of and above the rank of Subadar in the artillery and infantry, or of a corresponding rank in the other branches of the service. The and Class is open to all native commissioned officers, irrespective of their rank. Originally the order was limited to 10o in the 1st Class and the same number in the and, but it now comprises 215 in the 1st Class , and 324 in the and Class. Officers in the 1st Class are entitled to the title of " Sirdar Bahadur," and receive a daily allowance of two rupees in addition to the pay, allowances or pension of their rank, while those of the and Class are styled " Bahadur," and receive an extra one rupee per diem. 2. Ability and Good Conduct.—Instituted in 1842. Obverse: A paddle-wheel steamship. Reverse: Crown and anchor, and inscribed, FOR ABILITY AND GOOD CONDUCT. Ribbon: None authorized. No official documents as regards the institution of this decoration are now to be found at the Admiralty, but only engineers were eligible for the award, and it carried no gratuity or annuity. Only six were ever awarded. When, in 1847, engineers were raised to the rank of warrant officers, the issue of this decoration was discontinued. It had a ring for suspension, and was probably worn with the narrow navy blue ribbon of the " Long Service and Good Conduct " medal of the period. 3. Meritorious Service (Army and Royal Marines).—Instituted by Royal Warrant, 19th December 1845, for army only; grant extended to Royal Marines by Order in Council, 15th January 1849. Obverse : Head of Queen Victoria as on China medal." Reverse: FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE, within a laurel wreath. Ribbon: „Crimson for army (Plate II.); navy blue for Royal Marines. Only non-commissioned officers of or above the rank of sergeant are eligible for this decoration. It carries with it an annuity not exceeding £20 per annum; but, as the total sum avail-able is strictly limited, the number of these medals that is issued is small, and a non-commissioned officer who is recommended may have to wait many years before his turn comes and he receives the award. The qualification for recommendation is long, efficient and meritorious service, and need not necessarily, although in many cases it does, include any special display of personal gallantry in action. For many years the " meritorious service " medal was considered to cancel the " long service and good conduct” medal, but by A.O. 250 of 1902 both medals can be worn together? 4. The Distinguished Service Order (see KNIGHTHOOD) is giv ti only to officers (and naval and military officials of officer rank, not including Indian native officers) for services in war. Often it is the reward of actual conspicuous gallantry under fire, but its purpose, as defined in the Royal Warrant instituting the order, is to reward " individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war; " and the same document declares that only those shall be eligible who have been mentioned " in despatches for meritorious or distinguished service in the field, or before the enemy." In the main, therefore, it is awarded for special services in war, and not necessarily under fire; and although the services rewarded are as a fact generally rendered in action, the order is in no sense a sort of second class of the Victoria Cross. Like the latter, the Distinguished Service Order is generally referred to by its initials.' 5. The Royal Red Cross is also an Order. Membership is restricted to women (not necessarily British subjects), and is given as a reward for naval or military nursing service. Instituted 1883. 6. The Kaiser-i-Hind Medal is given for public services in' India. 7. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration.—Instituted in 1892. An oval of silver, crossed at intervals with gold, in the centre 'the monogram V.R. and crown in gold. Worn from a ring. Ribbon: Dark green. This decoration was instituted in 1892, and is the reward of twenty years' service in the commissioned ranks of the volunteer force. It is generally called the " V.D. " Since the conversion of the Volunteer into the Territorial Force (1908) it has been replaced by THE TERRITORIAL OFFICERS' DECORATION. Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve and of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve are eligible for a similar decoration (1910). 8. The Long Service and Good Conduct (Army) Medal was instituted in 1833. Obverse: A trophy of arms.' Reverse: FOR LONG SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT. Ribbon: Crimson, as for " Meritorious Service " medal (Plate II.). This is a reward for " long service with irreproachable character and conduct," the qualifying period of service being 18 years.' i Now naval effigy of King Edward VII., as on Transport Service medal. 2 Other " Meritorious " or " Long Service " medals worn with a crimson ribbon are the former Long Service medal of the H.E.I. Company's European troops and the Meritorious and Long Service medals of the Indian Native Army. Now replaced by military effigy of King Edward VII. 9. The Long Service and Good Conduct (Navy) Medal was intituted in 1831. Ribbon: Blue, with white edges (Plate II.). 1o. The Volunteer Long Service Medal.—Instituted in 1894 Has a green ribbon. Obverse: Effigy of Queen Victoria. Reverse: A scroll within a wreath, inscribed FOR LONG SERVICE IN THE VOLUNTEER FORCE. Replaced by the Territorial Long Service Ilfedal (1908), of which the ribbon is green with a yellow centre; And the obverse a bust of the king. The Militia Long Service Medal (1904) has a light blue ribbon, the Imperial Yeomanry Long Service Medal a yellow ribbon, the Honourable Artillery Company's Medal a black, red and yellow ribbon. All these are shown on Plate II.1 11. The Medal for the Best Shot in the Army was instituted in (869 Obverse: Bust of Queen Victoria (now effigy of King Edward VII.). Reverse: A winged Victory crowning a warrior. Ribbon : Red, with two narrow black stripes on each edge, the two black stripes being divided by a narrow white one. There is also a " Best Shot " Medal for the Indian Native Army, which has an drange ribbon. 12. The Medal for Naval Gunnery was instituted in 1903. Ribbon: Red centre, flanked by two narrow white stripes, two broad blue stripes at edges (Plate II.). Amongst medals of the last class may be mentioned the Jubilee Medals of 1887 and .1897, the Coronation Medal of 1902, the Royal Victorian Medal (this, however, is a sort of sixth class of the Royal Victorian Order, for which see KNIGHTHOOD) and the medals awarded for Durbars. United States.—The war medals and decorations of the United States, although few in number, are interesting, as they follow a peculiar system in the colours of the ribbons. The principal military decoration of the United States is the " Medal of Honor," which was founded for the reward of unusual bravery or special good conduct during the Civil War. In its present form it is a five-pointed star, with a medallion in the centre bearing a head of Minerva and round it UNITED STATES OF AMERICA in relief. On each ray of the star is an oak-leaf, and the points themselves are trefoil shaped. A laurel wreath, in green enamel, encircles the whole, and this wreath is surmounted by VALOR, which in turn is surmounted by an eagle that attaches the decoration to its ribbon. This last is blue, with thirteen white stars worked on it in silk. Accompanying this decoration there is a badge or lapel button, hexagonal, and made of blue silk with the thirteen stars in white. The original form of the decoration had no encircling wreath; on the rays, instead of the oak-leaves, were small wreaths of laurel and oak, and the design in the central medallion was a figure of Minerva standing, with her left hand resting upon a consul's fasces and her right warding off with a shield the figure of Discord. The background was formed by thirty-four stars. The decoration was surmounted by a trophy of crossed guns, swords, &c., with eagle above, and the ribbon was designed of the national colours, as follows: thirteen alternate red and white stripes, and across the ribbon at the top a broad band of blue (palewise gules and argent and a chief azure). The ribbon was attached to the coat by a clasp badge bearing two cornucopias and the arms of the U.S. The present decoration does not have this badge, but is suspended from a concealed bar brooch. Another special decoration is the " Merit " Medal. This bears on the obverse an eagle, surrounded by the inscription VIRTVTIS ET AVDACIAE MONVMENTVM ET PRAEMIVM, and on the reverse the inscription FOR MERIT, surrounded by an oak-leaf wreath; in the upper part of the exergue is UNITED STATES ARMY, in the lower thirteen stars. The ribbon is red, white and blue, in six stripes, two red stripes divided by a fine white line in the centre, two white on either side of the red and two blue forming the two outer edges. We come now to the war medals proper, issued generally to all those who took part in the events commemorated. The Civil War Medal bears on the obverse the portrait of Lincoln, surrounded by an inscription taken from his famous Second Inaugural—WITH MALICE TOWARDS NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL. On the reverse is the inscription THE CIVIL WAR, 1861–1865 surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves and olive branches. The ribbon is somewhat similar to that last described; the blue stripe, however, is in the centre, divided as before by a white line, and the red stripes form the outer edges. The " Indian Wars " Medal is interesting from the fact that its reverse was copied on other medals, this making it, in a sense, a " general service " medal. On the obverse is a mounted Indian in war costume bearing a spear, in the upper part of the exergue INDIAN WARS, in the lower a buffalo's skull with arrow-heads on either side. What we have called the " general service " design 1 By Royal Warrant of 31st of May 1895, medals both for distinguished conduct in the field and for long service were authorized to be awarded by the various colonies possessing regular or volunteer troops, " under regulations similar, as far as circumstances permit, to those now ranking for Our Regular and Auxiliary Forces."on the reverse is composed of (a) an eagle perched on a cannon, supported by five standards (typifying the five great wars of the United States), rifles, Indian shield, spear and arrows, Filipino dagger and Cuban machete; (b) below this trophy the words FOR SERVICE; (c) in exergue, above, UNITED STATES ARMY, below, thirteen stars. Ribbon of the Indian Medal, vermilion, with deep red edges. The " War with Spain " Medal bears on the obverse a castle with two flanking towers; in exergue, above, WAR WITH SPAIN, below, the date 1898, with, on one side of it, a branch of the tobacco-plant, and on the other a sugar-cane. Reverse: As for " Indian Wars " Medal. Ribbon: Centre golden-yellow, with two red stripes close to the edges, the edges themselves being narrow stripes of blue. The " Philippine Insurrection " Medal bears on the obverse a coco-nut palm tree, with, on the left of it, a lamp (typifying Enlightenment), and on the right a balance (representing Justice). This is encircled by the inscription PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION 1899. The ribbon is blue, with two red stripes near the edges. Reverse: As in " Indian Wars " Medal. Another medal connected with the Filipino insurrection is the so-called " Congressional " Medal, which was designed to commemorate the participation in the war of regulars and volunteers, Northerners and Southerners, side by side. On the obverse is a colour-party of infantry with the national flag, the fly of the flag extending almost to the edge of the medal. Below is the date, 1899, and above, in a semicircle, PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION. The reverse has the inscription FOR PATRIOTISM, FORTITUDE AND LOYALTY, surrounded by a wreath of oak-leaves (typifying the North) and palm branches (typifying the South). The ribbon is blue, edged by narrow stripes of the national colours, the blue being nearest the edge and the red nearest the centre. The " China Relief " Medal bears on the obverse a Chinese dragon, surrounded by the inscription CHINA RELIEF EXPEDITION, and at bottom, the date 1900–1. Reverse: As for " Indian Wars " medal. Ribbon: Lemon-yellow, with narrow blue edges. It is interesting to note that in the case of two of these medals the national colours of the enemy (Spain and China) furnish those of the ribbon. The national colours adopted by the Filipinos were red and blue, and these also figure, in spite of their similarity to the U.S. national colours, on the ribbons of the " Filipino " and " Congressional " Medals. The Indian ribbon is, similarly, of the colour of the enemy's war paint—vermilion. See, for illustrations and further details of all these medals and decorations, Journal of the [U.S.] Military Service Institution, May–June 1909. Some of the badges of membership of associations of veterans, such as the Loyal Legion, are allowed to be worn as war medals in uniform. The " Rescue " Medal, in gold or silver, is awarded for bravery in saving life by land or sea. Other Countries.—As has been mentioned above, foreign decorations for military service usually take the form of Orders in many classes. There are, however, numerous long service decorations, which need not be specified. The most famous of the European war and service decorations are the Prussian Iron Cross, the French Medaille Militaire, and the Russian St George's Cross; all these are individual decorations. The Iron Cross is given to officers and soldiers for distinguished service in war. It was founded, in the enthusiasm of the War of Liberation movement, on the loth of March 1813, and revived at the outbreak of the " War for Unity " against France, 19th of July 187o. The cross is a Maltese cross of cast iron edged with silver. The 1813–15 crosses have the initials F. W. (Friedrich Wilhelm) in the centre, a crown in the upper limb of the cross, and the date in the lower. Those of 187o have W. (Wilhelm) in the centre, crown on the upper and date on the lower limb of the cross. There are certain distinctions between the Grand Cross, which is worn at the neck, the 1st Class Cross which is worn as an Order suspended from a ribbon, and the 2nd Class Cross, which is worn on the breast. In 187o war medals were given, bearing on the obverse a Maltese cross superposed on a many-pointed star, and having in its centre 187o–1871 within a wreath. The reverse has W. and a crown, with, for combatants the inscription Dem siegreichen Heere, and for non-combatants Fur Pflichttreue im Kriege, in each case surrounded by the words Gott war mit uns. Ihm sei die Ehre. The award of the Iron Cross to the rank and file carries with it an allowance of 3–6 marks monthly. (H. L. S. ; C. F. A.)
DEIOCES (O771.6rc17s)

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