See also:political science, that
See also:form of
See also:government in which the
See also:people rules itself, either directly, as in the small city-states of
See also:Greece, or through representatives . According to Aristotle, democracy is the perverted form of the 1 For the " four years' war " and the
See also:chronological questions involved, see C . W .
See also:Muller, Frag . Hist . Graec. ii . 445 . ii third form of government, which he called rroXireia, " polity " or " constitutional government," the
See also:rule of the majority of the
See also:free and equal citizens, as opposed to
See also:monarchy and aristocracy, the rule respectively of an individual and of a minority consisting of the best citizens (see GOVERNMENT and ARISTOCRACY) . Aristotle's restriction of " democracy " to
See also:bad popular government, i.e.
See also:mob-rule, or, as it has sometimes been called, " ochlocracy (bxXos, mob), was due to, the fact that the Athenian democracy had in his
See also:day degenerated far, below the ideals of the 5th century, when it reached its
See also:zenith under
See also:Pericles . Since Aristotle's day the word has resumed its natural meaning, but democracy in
See also:modern times is a very different thing from what it was in its best days in Greece and Rome . The Greek states were what are known as " city-states," the characteristic of which was that all the citizens could assemble together in the city at
See also:regular intervals for legislative and other purposes . This
See also:assembly of the people was known at Athens as the Ecclesia (q.v.), at
See also:Sparta as the
See also:Apella (q.v.), at Rome variously as the
See also:Comitia Centuriata or the Concilium Plebis (see CoMITIA) .
Of representative government in the modern sense there is practically no trace in Athenian
See also:history, though certain of the magistrates (see
See also:STRATEGUS) had a quasi-representative character .
See also:Direct democracy is impossible except in small states . In the second place the qualification for citizenship was rigorous; thus Pericles restricted citizenship to those who were the sons of an Athenian
See also:father, himself a
See also:citizen, and an Athenian
See also:mother (it 406E11 berrooiv) . This
See also:system excluded not only all the slaves; who were more numerous than the free population, but also
See also:resident aliens, subject
See also:allies, and those Athenians whose descent did not satisfy this criterion (r4ji'yivet jo ,caOapoi) . The Athenian democracy, which was typical in
See also:ancient Greece, was a highly exclusive form of government . With the growth of
See also:empire and nation states this narrow parochial type of democracy became impossible . The population became too large and the distance too
See also:great for regular assemblies of qualified citizens . The rigid distinction of citizens and non-citizens was progressively more difficult to maintain, and new criteria of citizenship came into force . The first difficulty has been met by various forms of representative government . The second problem has been solved in various ways in different countries; moderate democracies have adopted a low
See also:property qualification, while extreme democracy is based on the extension of citizenship to all adult persons with or without distinction of sex . The essence of modern representative government is that the people does not govern itself, but periodically elects those who shall govern on its behalf (see GOVERNMENT;
See also:REPRESENTATION) .
DEMOCHARES (c. 355–275 B.C.)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.