DEMOCRATIC PARTY , originally DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY, the
See also:oldest of existing
See also:political parties in the
See also:United States . Its origin
See also:lay in the principles of
See also:local self-
See also:government and repugnance to social and political aristocracy established as
See also:cardinal tenets of
See also:American colonial democracy, which by the War of Independence, which was essentially a democratic
See also:movement, became the basis of the political institutions of the nation . The evils of lax government, both central and state, under the
See also:Confederation caused, however, a marked
See also:anti-democratic reaction, and this united with the temperamental 'conservatism of the framers of the constitution of 1787 in the shaping of that conservative instrument . The influences and interests for and against its adoption took
See also:form in the groupings of Federalists and Anti-Federalists, and these, after the creation of the new government, became respectively, in underlying principles, and, to a large extent, in personnel, the Federalist party (q.v.) and the Democratic-Republican party.l The latter, organized by
See also:Thomas Jefferson in opposition to the Federalists dominated by
See also:Hamilton, was a real party by 1792 . The
See also:great service of attaching to the constitution a democratic
See also:bill of rights be-longs to the Anti-Federalists or Democratic-Republican party, although this was then amorphous . The Democratic-Republican party gained full
See also:control, of the government, save the judiciary, ' The prefix " Democratic " was not used by Jefferson; it became established, however, and official.in 18o1, and controlled it continuously thereafter until 1825, No political " platforms " were then known, but the writings of Jefferson, who dominated his party throughout this
See also:period, take the place of such . His inaugural address of 18o1 is a famous statement of democratic principles, which to-
See also:day are taken for granted only because, through the party organized by him to secure their success, they became universally accepted as the ideal of American institutions . In all the colonies, says
See also:Adams, " a
See also:court and a
See also:country party had always contended "; Jefferson's followers believed sincerely that the Federalists were a new court party, and monarchist . Hence they called themselves " Republicans " as against monarchists,—standing also, incident-ally, for states' rights against the centralization that
See also:monarchy (or any approach to it) implied; and " Democrats " as against aristocrats,—standing for the "
See also:common rights of Englishmen," the " rights of man," the levelling of social ranks and the widening bf political privileges . In the early years of its history—and during the `period of the French Revolution and afterwards—the Republicans sympathized with the French as against the
See also:British, the Federalists with the British as against the French . Devotion to abstract principles of democracy and liberty, and in
See also:practical politics a strict construction of the constitution, in
See also:order to prevent an aggrandizement of
See also:national power at the expense of the states (which were nearer popular control) or the citizens, have been permanent characteristics of the Democratic party as contrasted with its
See also:principal opponents; but neither these nor any other distinctions have been continuously or consistently true throughout its long course.2 After 18o1 the commercial and manufacturing nationalistic3 elements of the Federalist party,being now dependent on Jefferson for
See also:protection, gradually went over to the Republicans, especially after the War of 1812; moreover, administration of government naturally
See also:developed in Republican ranks a
See also:group of broad-constructionists.' These groups fused, and became an
See also:independent party.' They called themselves National Republicans, while the Jacksonian Republicans soon came to be known - simply as Democrats.5 Immediately afterward followed the tremendous victory of the Jacksonians in 1828,-a great advance in
See also:radical democracy over the victory of 1800 . In the
See also:interval the Federalist party had disappeared, and practically the entire country, embracing Jeffersonian democracy, had passed through the school of the Republican party .
It had established the power of the "
See also:people" in the sense of that word in
See also:present-day American politics . Bills of rights in every state constitution protected the
See also:citizen; some state
See also:judges were already elective; very soon the people came to nominate their presidential candidates in' national conventions, and draft their party platforms through their
See also:convention representatives.6 After the National Republican scission the Democratic party, weakened thereby in its nationalistic tendencies, and deprived of the leadership of
See also:Jackson, fell quickly under the control of its
See also:Southern adherents and became virtually sectional in its
See also:objects . Its states' rights
See also:doctrine was turned to the defence of
See also:slavery . In thus opposing anti-slavery sentiment-inconsistently, alike as regarded the " rights of man " and constitutional construction, with its
See also:original and permanent 2 Under the rubric of " strict construction " fall the greatest struggles in the party's
See also:history: those over the United States
See also:Bank, over tariffs—for protection or for " revenue only—over "
See also:internal improvements," over issues of administrative
See also:economy in providing for the " general welfare," &c . The course of the party has frequently been inconsistent, and its doctrines have shown, absolutely considered, progressive latitudinarianism . " Nationalistic " is used here and below, not in the sense of a general nationalistic spirit, such as that of Jackson, but to indicate the, centralizing tendency of a broad construction of constitutional
See also:powers in behalf of commerce and manufactures .
See also:Standing for protective tariffs, internal improvements, &c . 6 It should be
See also:borne in mind, however, that the Democratic party of Jackson was not, strictly identical with the Democratic-Republican party of Jefferson,—and some writers date back the origin of the present Democratic party only to 1828-1829 . The Democratic national convention of 1832 was preceded by an Anti-Masonic convention of 183o and by the National-Republican convention of 1831; but the Democratic platform of 1840 was the first of its kind . principles—it lost morale and power . As a result of the contest over Kansas it became fatally divided, and in 186o put forward two presidential tickets: one representing the doctrine of Jefferson
See also:Davis that the constitution recognized slave-
See also:property, and therefore the national government must protect slavery in the territories; the other representing
See also:Douglas's doctrine that the inhabitants of a territory might virtually exclude slavery by " unfriendly legislation." The combined popular votes for the two tickets exceeded that
See also:cast by the new, anti-slavery Republican party (the second of the name) for Lincoln; but the election was lost . During the ensuing
See also:Civil War such members of the party as did not become War Democrats antagonized the Lincoln administration, and in 1864 made the great blunder of pronouncing the war " a failure." Owing to Republican errors in reconstruction and the scandals of
See also:Grant's administration, the party gradually regained its strength and morale, until, having largely subordinated Southern questions to economic issues, it cast for
See also:Tilden for president in 1876 a popular
See also:vote greater than that obtained by the Republican
See also:candidate, Hayes, and gained control of the
See also:House of Representatives .
The ElectoralCommission, however, made Hayes president, and the quiet acceptance of this decision by the Democratic party did it considerable
See also:credit . Since 1877 the Southern states have been almost solidly Democratic; but, except on the
See also:negro question, such unanimity among Southern whites has been, naturally, factitious; and by no means an unmixed
See also:good for the party . Apart from the " Solid South," the period after 1875 is characterized by two other party difficulties . The first was the attempt from 1878 to 1896 to "straddle" the
See also:silver issue;' the second, an attempt after 1896 to harmonize general elements of conservatism and radicalism within the party . In 1896 the South and West gained control of the organization, and the national
See also:campaigns of 1896 and 'goo were fought and lost mainly on the issue of "
See also:free silver," which, however, was abandoned before 1904 . After 1898 "imperialism," to which the Democrats were hostile, became another issue . Finally, after 1896, there became very apparent in the party a tendency to attract the radical elements of society in the general re-alignment of parties taking place on
See also:industrial-social issues; the Democratic party apparently attracting, in this readjustment, the " radicals " and the " masses " as in the
See also:time of Jefferson and Jackson . In this
See also:process, in the years 1896-I goo, it took over many of the principles and absorbed, in large
See also:part, the members of the radical third-party of the " Populists," only to be confronted thereupon by the growing strength of
See also:Socialism, challenging it to a farther radical widening of its
See also:programme . From 186o to 1908 it elected but a single president (Grover
See also:Cleveland, 1885-1889 and 1893-1897).2 All American parties accepted long ago in theory "Jeffersonian democracy "; but the Democratic party has been " the political
See also:champion of those elements of the [American] democracy which are most democratic . It stands nearest the people."' It may be noted that the Jeffersonian Republicans did not attempt to democratize the constitution itself . The choice of a president was soon popularized, however, in effect; and the popular election of United States senators is to-day a definite Demo- cratic tenet.' ' The attitude of the Republican party was no less inconsistent and evasive . 2 It controlled the House of Representatives from 1874 to 1894 except in 188o–1882 and 1888–189o; but except for a time in Cleveland's second
See also:term, there were never simultaneously a Democratic president and a Democratic majority in Congress .
See also:Professor A . D . Morse in
See also:International Monthly,
See also:October 'goo . He adds, " It has done more to Americanize the foreigner than all other parties." (It is predominant in the great cities of the country.) ' In connexion with the prevalent popular tendency to regard the president as a people's tribune, it may be noted that a strong presidential
See also:veto is, historically, peculiarly a Democratic contribution, owing to the history of Jackson's (compare Cleveland's) administration.times, usually' issued. by the national Democratic
See also:committee in alternate years, and M . Carey, The Democratic
See also:book (
See also:Cincinnati, 1868) . For a hostile
See also:criticism of the party, see W . D .
See also:Mirror of
See also:Modern Democracy; History of the Democratic Party frem' 825 to 1861 (New
See also:York, 1864); Jonathan Norcross, History of Democracy Considered as a Party-Name and a Political Organization (New York, 1883) ; J . H .
See also:Patton, The Democratic Party: Its Political History and Influence (New York, 1884) . Favourable
See also:treatises are R . H .
Gillet, Democracy in the United States (New York, 1868) ; and
See also:George Fitch, Political Facts: an
See also:Historical Text-Book of the Democratic and Other Parties (Baltimore, 1884) . See also, for general political history, Thomas H .
See also:Thirty Years' View (2 vols., New York, 1854-1856, and later
See also:editions) ;
See also:James G .
See also:Blaine, Twenty Years of Congress (2 vols., Norwich, Conn., 1884-1893); S . S .
See also:Cox, Three Decades of Federal Legislation (
See also:Providence, 1885) S . P . Orth, Five American Politicians: a Study in the
See also:Evolution of American Politics (Cleveland, 1906), containing sketches of four Democratic leaders—Burr, De Witt
See also:Van Buren and Douglas; Macy, Party Organization and Machinery . (New York, 1904); J . H .
See also:Hopkins, History of Political Parties in the United States (New York, 1900) ; E . S .
Stanwood, History of the
See also:Presidency (last ed., Boston, 1904) ; J . P . Gordy, History of Political Parties, 1 . (New York, 1900) ; H . J .
See also:Ford, Rise and Growth of American Politics (New York, 1898); Alexander
See also:Johnston, History of American Politics (New York, 1900, and later editions); C . E . Merriam, A History of American Political Theories (New York, 1903), containing chapters on the Jeffersonian and the Jacksonian Democracy; and James A . Woodburn, Political Parties and Party Problems in the United States (New York, 1903) .
DEMOCRACY (Gr. 3np.oKparia, from S)µos, the people...
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