DEMOSTHENES , the
See also:Attic orator and statesman, was
See also:born in 384 (or 383) B.C . His
See also:father, who
See also:bore the same name, was an Athenian
See also:citizen belonging to the deme of Paeania . His
See also:mother, Cleobule, was the daughter of Gylon, a citizen who had been active in procuring the
See also:protection of the
See also:kings of
See also:Bosporus for the Athenian colony of Nymphaeon in the
See also:Crimea, and whose wife was a native of that region . On these grounds the adversaries of Demosthenes, in after-days, used absurdly to taunt him with a traitorous or
See also:barbarian ancestry . The boy had a bitter fore-taste of
See also:life . He was seven years old when his father died, leaving
See also:property (in a manufactory of swords, and another of upholstery) worth about £3500, which, invested as it seems to have been (20 % was not thought exorbitant),' would have yielded rather more than £60o a
See also:year . £300 a year was a very comfortable income at Athens, and it was possible to live decently on a tenth of it . Nicias, a very
See also:rich man, had property
See also:equivalent, probably, to not more than £7.000 a year . Demosthenes was born then, to a handsome, though not a great
See also:fortune . But his guardians—two nephews of his father, Aphobus and Demophon, and one Therippides—abused their
See also:trust, and handed over to Demosthenes, when he came of age, rather less than one-seventh of his patrimony, perhaps between £50 and £6o a year . Demosthenes, after studying with
See also:Isaeus (q.v.)—then the great
See also:master of forensic eloquence and of Attic
See also:law, especially in will cases 1—brought an
See also:action against Aphobus, and gained a
See also:verdict for about £2400 . But it does not appear that he got the
See also:money; and, after some more fruitless proceedings against Onetor, the
See also:brother-in-law of Aphobus, the
See also:matter was dropped,—not, however, before his relatives had managed to throw a public
See also:burden (the equipment of a
See also:ship of war) on their
See also:ward, whereby his resources were yet further straitened .
He now became a professional writer of speeches or pleas (Xoyo'ypa4os) for the law courts, sometimes speaking himself . Biographers have delighted to relate how painfully Demosthenes made him-self a tolerable
See also:speaker,—how, with pebbles in his mouth, he tried his lungs against the waves, how he declaimed as he ran up
See also:hill, how he shut himself up in a
See also:cell, having first guarded himself against a longing for the haunts of men by shaving one side of his
See also:head, how he wrote out
See also:Thucydides eight times, how he was derided by the
See also:Assembly and encouraged by a judicious actor who met him moping about the
See also:Peiraeus . He certainly seems to have been the reve;se of athletic (the stalwart Aeschines upbraids him with never having been a sportsman), and he probably had some sort of defect or impediment in his speech as a boy . Perhaps the most interesting fact about his
See also:work for the law courts is that he seems to have continued it, in some measure, through the most exciting parts of his great
See also:political career . The speech for Phormio belongs to the same year as the plea for
See also:Megalopolis . The speech against Boeotus " Concerning the Name " comes between the First Philippic and the First Olynthiac . The speech against Pantaenetus comes between-the speech " On the Peace " and the Second Philippic . 1 See Jebb's Attic Orators from
See also:Antiphon to Isaeos, vol. ii. p . 267 f . The political career of Demosthenes, from his first
See also:direct contact with public affairs in 355 B.C. to his
See also:death in 322, has an essential unity . It is the assertion, in successive forms adapted to successive moments, of unchanging principles . Externally, it is divided into the
See also:chap-ter which precedes and the
See also:chapter which follows Chaeronea .
But its inner meaning, thesecret of its indomitable vigour, the law which harmonizes its apparent contrasts, cannot be understood unless it is regarded as a whole . Still less can it be appreciated in all its large wisdom and sustained self-mastery if it is viewed merely as a duel between the ablest
See also:champion and the craftiest enemy of Greek freedom . The
See also:time indeed came when Demosthenes and
See also:Philip stood
See also:face to face as representative antagonists in a mortal conflict . But, fdr Demosthenes, the
See also:special peril represented by Philip, the peril of subjugation to Macedon, was merely a disastrous accident . Philip happened to become the most prominent and most formidable type of a danger which was already threatening
See also:Greece before his baleful
See also:star arose . As Demosthenes said to the Athenians, if the Macedonian had not existed, they would have made another Philip for themselves . Until Athens recovered something of its old spirit, there must ever be a great
See also:standing danger, not for Athens only, but for Greece,—the danger that sooner or later, in some shape, from some quarter—no man could foretell the
See also:hour, the manner or the source—barbarian violence would break up the gracious and undefiled tradition of
See also:separate Hellenic life . That was the true relation of Athens to Greece ? The answer which he gave to this question is the
See also:key to the life of Demosthenes . Athens, so Demosthenes held, was the natural head of Greece . Not, however, as an empress holding subject or subordinate cities in a dependence more or less compulsory . Rather as that city which most nobly expressed the noblest attributes of Greek political existence, and which, by her pre-eminent gifts both of intellect and of moral insight, was primarily responsible, everywhere and always, for the
See also:maintenance of those attributes in their integrity .
Wherever the cry of the oppressed goes up from Greek against Greek, it was the
See also:voice of Athens which should first remind the oppressor that Hellene differed from barbarian in postponing the use of force to the persuasions of equal law . Wherever a barbarian
See also:hand offered wrong to any city of the Hellenic sisterhood, it was the
See also:arm of Athens which should first be stretched forth in the
See also:holy strength of
See also:Apollo the Averter . Wherever among her own
See also:children the
See also:loyalty was yielding to love of pleasure or of
See also:base gain, there, above all, it was the
See also:duty of Athens to see that the central
See also:hearth of Hellas was kept pure . Athens must never again seek "
See also:empire " in the sense which became odious under the influence of
See also:Cleon and Hyperbolus,—when, to use the image of Aristophanes, the
See also:allies were as Babylonian slaves grinding in the Athenian
See also:mill . Athens must never permit, if she could help it, the re-
See also:establishment of such a domination as
See also:Sparta exercised in Greece from the
See also:battle of
See also:Aegospotami to the battle of
See also:Leuctra . Athens must aim` at leading a
See also:free confederacy, of which the members should be bound to her by their own truest interests . Athens must seek to deserve the confidence of all Greeks alike . Such, in the belief of Demosthenes, was the
See also:part which Athens must perform if Greece was to be safe . But reforms must be effected before Athens could be capable of such a part . The evils to be cured were different phases of one malady . Athens had long been suffering from the profound decay of public spirit . Since the early years of the Peloponnesian War, the separation of Athenian society from the state had been growing more and more marked .
The old type of the eminent citizen, who was at once statesman andgeneral, had become almost
See also:extinct . Politics were now managed by a small circle of politicians .
See also:Wars were conducted by professional soldiers -whose troops were chiefly mercenaries, and who were usually regarded by the politicians either as
See also:instruments or as enemies . The mass of the citizens took no active
See also:interest in public affairs . But, The' fiend . though indifferent to principles, they had quickly sensi- tive partialities for men, and it was necessary to keep them in
See also:humour .
See also:Pericles had introduced the practice of giving a PoNticaf careerand creed . small bounty from the
See also:treasury to the poorer citizens, for the purpose of enabling them to attend the theatre at the great festivals, —in other words, for the purpose of bringing them under the concentrated influence of the best Attic culture . A
See also:provision eminently wise for the age of Pericles easily became a
See also:mischief when the once honourable name of " demagogue " began to mean a flatterer of the
See also:mob . Before the end of the Peloponnesian War the festival-money (theoricon) was abolished . A few years after the restoration of the democracy it was again introduced . But until 354 B.C. it had never been more than a gratuity, of which the payment depended on the treasury having a surplus .
In 354 B.C .
See also:Eubulus became steward of the treasury . He was an able man, with a special
See also:talent for
See also:finance, free from all taint of
See also:personal corruption, and sincerely solicitous for the
See also:honour of Athens, but enslaved to popularity, and without principles of policy . His first measure was to make the festival-money a permanent item in the
See also:budget . Thenceforth this bounty was in reality very much what
See also:Demades afterwards called it,—the
See also:cement (KOXXa) of the democracy . Years before the danger from Macedon was urgent, Demosthenes had begun the work of his life,—the effort to lift the spirit Forensic of Athens, to revive the old civic loyalty, to rouse the speeches city into taking that place and performing that part in Puhiie which her own welfare as well as the safety of Greece causes. prescribed . His formally political speeches must never be considered apart from his forensic speeches in public causes . The Athenian procedure against the proposer of an unconstitutional law—i.e. of a law incompatible with existing laws—had a direct tendency to make the law
See also:court, in such cases, a political
See also:arena . The same tendency was indirectly exerted by the tolerance of Athenian juries (in the
See also:absence of a presiding expert like a
See also:judge) for irrelevant matter, since it was usually easy for a speaker to make capital out of the adversary's political antecedents . But the forensic speeches of Demosthenes for public causes are not only political in this general sense . They are documents, as indispensable as the Olynthiacs or
See also:Philippics, for his own political career . Only by taking them along with the formally political speeches, and regarding the whole as one unbroken series, can we see clearly the full
See also:scope of the task which he set before him,—a task in which his long resistance to Philip was only the most dramatic incident, and in which his real achievement is not' to be measured by the event of Chaeronea .
A forensic speech, composed for a public cause, opens the political career of Demosthenes with a protest against a
See also:signal abuse . In 355 B.C., at the age of twenty-nine, he wrote the speech " Against
See also:Androtion." This combats on legal grounds a proposal that the out-going
See also:senate should receive the honour of a
See also:crown . In its larger aspect, it is a denunciation of the corrupt
See also:system which that senate represented, and especially of the manner in which the treasury had been administered by Aristophon . In 354 B.C . Demosthenes composed and spoke the oration " Against
See also:Leptines," who had effected a slender saving for the state by the expedient of revoking those hereditary exemptions from
See also:taxation which had at various times been conferred in recognition of distinguished merit . The descendants of
See also:Harmodius and Aristogeiton alone had been excepted from the operation of the law . This was the first time that the voice of Demosthenes himself had been heard on the public concerns of Athens, and the utterance was a worthy prelude to the career of a statesman . He answers the
See also:advocates of the
See also:retrenchment by pointing out that the public interest will not ultimately be served by a wholesale violation of the public faith . In the same year he delivered his first strictly political speech, " On the
See also:Navy Boards " (Symrnories) . The Athenians, irritated by the support which
See also:Artaxerxes had lately given to the revolt of their allies, and excited by rumours of his hostile preparations, were feverishly eager for a war with
See also:Persia . Demosthenes urges that such an enterprise would at
See also:present be useless; that it would fail to unite Greece; that the energies of the city.should be reserved for a real emergency; but that, before the city can successfully
See also:cope with any war, there must be a better organization of resources, and,first of all, a reform of the navy, which he outlines with characteristic lucidity and precision . Two years later (352 B.C.) he is found dealing with a more definite question of
See also:foreign policy .
Sparta, favoured by the depression of
See also:Thebes in the Phocian War, was threatening Megalopolis . Both Sparta and Megalopolis sent embassies to Athens . Demosthenes supported Megalopolis . The ruin of Megalopolis would mean, he argued, the return of Spartan domination in the
See also:Peloponnesus . Athenians must not favour the tyranny of any one city . They must respect the rights of all the cities, and thus promote unity based on mutual confidence . In the same year Demosthenes wrote the speech " Against Timocrates," to be spoken by the same Diodorus who had before prosecuted Androtion, and who now combated an attempt to
See also:screen Androtion and others from the penalties of embezzlement . The speech " Against Aristocrates," also of 352 B.C., reproves that foreign policy of feeble makeshifts which was now popular at Athens . The Athenian tenure of the Thracian
See also:Chersonese partly depended for its security on the good-will of the Thracian
See also:prince Cersobleptes .
See also:Charidemus, a soldier of fortune who had already played Athens false, was now the brother-in-law and the favourite of Cersobleptes . Aristocrates proposed that the
See also:person of Charidemus should be invested with a special sanctity, by the enactment that whoever attempted his life should be an outlaw from all dominions of Athens . Demosthenes points out that such adulation is as futile as it is fulsome .
Athens can secure the permanence of her foreign possessions only in one way—by being strong enough to hold them . Thus, between 355 and 352, Demosthenes had laid down the
See also:main lines of his policy . Domestic administration must be purified . Statesmen must be made to feel that they are responsible to the state . They must not be allowed Principles been at war with Philip on account of his seizure of Athens and
See also:Amphipolis . Meanwhile he had destroyed Potidaea Philip. and founded
See also:Philippi . On the Thracian coasts he had become master of
See also:Abdera and Maronea . On the Thessalian
See also:coast he had acquired Methone . In a second invasion of
See also:Thessaly, he had overthrown the Phocians under Onomarchus, and had advanced to Thermopylae, to find the
See also:gates of Greece closed against him by an Athenian force . He had then marched to Heraeon on the Propontis, and had dictated a peace to Cersobleptes . He had formed an
See also:alliance with Cardia, Perinthus and
See also:Byzantium . Lastly, he had begun to show designs on the great Confederacy of
See also:Olynthus, the more warlike
See also:Miletus of the
See also:North .
The First Philippic of Demosthenes was spoken in 351 B.C . The Third Philippic—the latest of the extant political speeches— was spoken in 341 B.C . Between these he delivered eight political orations, of which seven are directly concerned with Philip . The whole series falls into two great divisions . The firstdivision comprises those speeches which were spoken against Philip while he was still a foreign power threatening Greece from without . Such are the First Philippic and the three orations for Olynthus . The second division comprises the speeches of policy . to anticipate
See also:judgment on their deserts by voting each other golden crowns . They must not think to screen misappropriation of public money by getting partisans to pass new
See also:laws about state-debtors . Foreign policy must be guided by a larger and more provident conception of Athenian interests . When public excitement demands a foreign war, Athens must not rush into it without asking whether it is necessary, whether it will have Greek support, and whether she herself is ready for it . When a strong Greek city threatens a weak one, and seeks to
See also:purchase Athenian connivance with the bribe of a border-
See also:town, Athens must remember that duty and prudence alike command her to respect the independence of all Greeks .
When it is
See also:pro-posed, by way of
See also:insurance on Athenian possessions abroad, to flatter the favourite of a doubtful ally, Athens must remember that such devices will not avail a power which has no army except on paper, and no
See also:fit to leave their moorings . But the time had gone by when Athenians could have tranquil leisure for domestic reform . A danger, calling for prompt action, had at last come very near . For six years Athens had spoken against Philip when, by
See also:admission to the Amphictyonic Council, he had now won his way within the circle of the Greek states, and when the issue was no longer between Greece and
See also:Macedonia, but between the Greek and Macedonian parties in Greece . Such are the speech " On the Peace," the speech " On the
See also:Embassy," the speech " On the Chersonese," the Second and Third Philippics . The First Philippic, spoken early in 351 B.C., was no sudden note of alarm
See also:attention to an unnoticed peril . On the contrary, the Assembly was weary of the subject . For six years the war with Philip had been a theme of barren talk . Demosthenes urges that it is time to do some-thing, and to do it with a plan . Athens fighting Philip has fared, he says, like an
See also:amateur boxer opposed to a skilled pugilist . The helpless hands have only followed blows which a trained
See also:eye should have taught them to
See also:parry . An Athenian force must be stationed in the north, at
See also:Lemnos or
See also:Thasos .
See also:infantry and 200
See also:cavalry at least one quarter must be Athenian citizens capable of directing the mercenaries . Later in the same year Demosthenes did another service to the cause of
See also:national freedom . Rhodes, severed by its own
See also:act from the Athenian Confederacy, had since 355 been virtually subject to
See also:Mausolus, prince (Svvav-rgr) of
See also:Caria, himself a tributary of Persia . Mausolus died in 351, and was succeeded by his widow Artemisia . The democratic party in Rhodes now appealed to Athens for help in throwing off the Carian yoke . Demosthenes supported their application in his speech " For the Rhodians." No act of his life was a truer
See also:proof of statesmanship . He failed . But at least he had once more warned Athens that the cause of political freedom was everywhere her own, and that, wherever that cause was forsaken, there a new danger was created both for Athens and for Greece . Next year (35o) an Athenian force under
See also:Phocion was sent to Euboea, in support of Plutarchus,
See also:tyrant of
See also:Eretria, against the
See also:faction of
See also:Cleitarchus . Demosthenes protested against Euboean spending strength, needed for greater
See also:objects, on the war .
See also:local quarrels of a
See also:despot . Phocion won a victory at Tamynae .
But the " inglorious and costly war " entailed an outlay of more than £12,000 on theransom of captives alone, and ended in the
See also:total destruction of Athenian influence through-out Euboea . That
See also:island was now
See also:left an open
See also:field for the intrigues of Philip . Worst of all, the party of Eubulus not only defeated a proposal, arising from this
See also:campaign, for applying the festiv-money to the war-fund, but actually carried a law making it high treason to renew the proposal . The degree to which political enmity was exasperated by the Euboean War may be judged from the incident of Midias, an adherent of Eubulus, and a type of opulent rowdyism . Demosthenes was choragus of his tribe, and was wearing the robe of that sacred
See also:office at the great festival in the theatre of Dionysus, when Midias struck him on the face . The affair was eventually compromised . The speech " Against Midias " written by Demosthenes for the trial (in 349) was neither spoken nor completed, and remains, as few will regret, a
See also:sketch . It was now three years since, in 352, the Olynthians had sent an embassy to Athens, and had made peace with their only sure oiyn- ally . In 350 a second Olynthian embassy had sought thiacs. and obtained Athenian help . The hour of Olynthus had indeed come . In 349 Philip opened war against the Chalcidic towns of the Olynthian
See also:League . The First and Second Olynthiacs of Demosthenes were spoken in that year in support of sending one force to defend Olynthus and another to attack Philip .
" Better now than later," is the thought of the First Olynthiac . The Second argues that Philip's strength is overrated . The Third—spoken in 348—carries us into the midst of action.' It deals with
See also:practical details . The festival-fund must be used for the war . The citizens must serve in person . ' It is genei°ally agreed that the Third Olynthiac is the latest; but the question of the
See also:order of the First and Second has been much discussed . See
See also:Grote (
See also:History of Greece, chap . 88, appendix), who prefers the arrangement ii. i. iii., and
See also:Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, p . 319.A few months later, Olynthus and the
See also:thirty-two towns of the confederacy were swept from the
See also:earth . Men could walk over their sites, Demosthenes said seven years afterwards, without knowing that such cities had existed . It was now certain that Philip could not be stopped outside of Greece . The question was, What point within Greece shall he be allowed to reach ?
Eubulus and his party, with that versatility which is the
See also:privilege of political vagueness, now began to
See also:call for a congress of the allies to consider the
See also:common danger . They found a brilliant interpreter in Aeschines, who, after having been a tragic actor and a clerk to the assembly, had entered political life with the advantages of a splendid
See also:gift for eloquence, a
See also:fine presence, a happy address, a ready wit and a facile
See also:conscience . While his opponents had thus suddenly become warlike, Demosthenes had become pacific . He saw that Athens must have time to collect strength . Nothing could be gained, meanwhile, by going on with the war . Macedonian sympathizers at Athens, of whom Philocrates was the chief, also favoured peace . Eleven envoys, including Philocrates, Aeschines, and Demosthenes, were sent to Philip in
See also:February 346 B.C . After a debate at Athens, peace was concluded with Philip in
See also:April . Philip on the one hand, Athens and her allies on the other, were to keep what they respectively held at the time when the peace was ratified . But here the Athenians made a fatal error . Philip was bent on keeping the
See also:door of Greece open . Demosthenes was bent on shutting it against him .
Philip was now at war with the
See also:people of Halus in Thessaly . Thebes had for ten years been at war with
See also:Phocis . Here were two distinct chances for Philip's armed intervention in Greece . But if the Halians and the Phocians were included in the peace, Philip could not bear arms against them without violating the peace . Accordingly Philip insisted that they should not be included . Demosthenes insisted they should be included . They were not included . The result followed speedily . The same envoys were sent a second time to Philip at the end of April 346 for the purpose of receiving his oaths in ratification of the peace . It was late in
See also:June before he returned from
See also:Thrace to
See also:Pella--thus gaining, under the terms, all the towns that he had taken mean-while . He next took the envoys with him through Thessaly to Thermopylae . There—at the invitation of Thessalians and Thebans—he intervened in the Phocian War .
Phalaecus surrendered . Phocis was crushed . Philip took its place in the Arnphictyonic Council, and was thus established as a Greek power in the very centre, at the sacred hearth, of Greece . The right ofprecedence in consultation of the
See also:oracle (lrpoµavrela) was transferred from Athens to Philip . While indignant Athenians were clamouring for the revocation of the peace, Demosthenes upheld it in his speech " On the Peace " in
See also:September . It ought never to have been made on such terms, he said . But, having been made, it had better be kept . " If we went to war now, where should we find allies ? And after losing
See also:Oropus, Amphipolis, Cardia,
See also:Chios, Cos, Rhodes, Byzantium, shall we fight about the
See also:shadow of
See also:Delphi?" During the eight years between the peace of Philocrates and the battle of Chaeronea, the authority of Demosthenes steadily
See also:grew, until it became first predominant and then paramount . He had, indeed, a melancholy
See also:advantage . Each year his
See also:argument was more and more cogently enforced by the logic of facts . In 344 he visited the Peloponnesus for the purpose of counteracting Macedonian intrigue .
Mistrust, he told the Peloponnesian cities, is the safeguard of free communities against tyrants . Philip lodged a formal complaint at Athens . Here, as elsewhere, the future master of Greece reminds us of
See also:Napoleon on the
See also:eve of the first empire . He has the same imperturbable and persuasive effrontery in protesting that he is doing one thing at the moment when his energies are concentrated on doing the opposite . Demosthenes replied in the Second Philippic . " If," he said, " Philip is the friend of Greece, we are doing PhiipPic. wrong . If he is the enemy of Greece, we are doing right . Which is he ? I hold him to be our enemy, because everything that he has hitherto done has benefited himself and hurt us." The
See also:prosecution of Aeschines for malversation on the First Philippic . Peace between Philip and Athens . End of Phocian War . embassy (commonly known as De falsa legatione), which was brought to an issue in the following year, marks the moral strength of the position now held by Demosthenes .
When the gravity of the
See also:charge and the complexity of the evidence are considered, the acquittal of Aeschines by a narrow majority must be deemed his condemnation . The speech " On the Affairs of the Chersonese " and the Third Philippic were the crowning efforts of Demosthenes . Spoken in the same year, 341 B.c., and within a
See also:short space of each other, they must be taken together . The speech " On the Affairs of the Chersonese " regards the situation chiefly from an Athenian point of view . " If the peace means," argues Demosthenes, " that Philip can seize with impunity one Athenian possession after another, but that Athenians shall not on their peril
See also:touch aught that belongs to Philip, where is the
See also:line to be
See also:drawn ? We shall go to war, I am told, when it is necessary . If the
See also:necessity has not come Third yet, when will it come?" The Third Philippic surveys Philippic a wider
See also:horizon . It ascends from the Athenian to the Hellenic view . Philip has annihilated Olynthus and the Chalcidic towns . He has ruined Phocis . He has frightened Thebes . He has divided Thessaly .
Euboea and the Peloponnesus are his . His power stretches from the Adriatic to the
See also:Hellespont . Where shall be the end ? Athens is the last hope of Greece . And, in this final crisis, Demosthenes was the embodied energy of Athens . It was Demosthenes who went to Byzantium, brought the estranged city back to the Athenian alliance, and snatched it from the hands of Philip . It was Demosthenes who, when Philip had already seized Elatea, hurried to Thebes, who by his passionate
See also:appeal gained one last
See also:chance, the only possible chance, for Greek freedom, who broke down the barrier of an inveterate
See also:jealousy, who brought Thebans to fight beside Athenians, and who thus won at the
See also:eleventh hour a victory for the spirit of loyal union which took away at least one bitterness from the unspeakable calamity of Chaeronea . But the work of Demosthenes was not closed by the ruin of his cause . During the last sixteen years of his life (s38–322) he rendered services to Athens not less important, and Municipal activity. perhaps more difficult, than those which he- had rendered before . He was now, as a matter of course, foremost in the public affairs of Athens . In
See also:January 337, at the
See also:annual winter Festival of the Dead in the
See also:Outer Ceramicus, he spoke the funeral oration over those who had fallen at Chaeronea . He was member of a commission for strengthening the fortifications of the city (reixoiroior) .
He administered the festival-fund . During a dearth which visited Athens between 330 and 326 he was charged with the organization of public
See also:relief . In 324 he was chief (apxtO oipos) of the sacred embassy to
See also:Olympia . Already, in 336,
See also:Ctesiphon had proposed that Demosthenes should receive a golden crown from the state, and that his extraordinary merits should be proclaimed in the theatre at the Great
See also:Dionysia . The proposal was adopted by the senate as a
See also:bill (irpo(3eaeuµa); but it must be passed by the Assembly before it could become an act (>Gii0u rp a) . To prevent this, Aeschines gave
See also:notice, in 336, that he intended to proceed against Ctesiphon for having proposed an unconstitutional measure . For six years Aeschines avoided action on this notice . At last, in 330, the patriotic party
See also:felt strong enough to force him to an issue . Aeschines spoke the speech " Against Ctesiphon," an attack on the whole public life of Demosthenes . Demosthenes gained an overwhelming victory for himself and for the honour of Athens in the most finished, the most splendid and the most pathetic work of ancient eloquence —the immortal oration " On the Crown." In the winter of 325–324 Harpalus, the
See also:receiver-general of
See also:Alexander in
See also:Asia, fled to Greece, taking with him 8000 mercen- Affair of
See also:aries, and treasure equivalent to about a million and Harpa/us, a quarter sterling . On the motion of Demosthenes he was warned from the harbours of
See also:Attica . Having left his troops and part of his treasure at Taenarum, he again presented himself at the Peiraeus, and was now admitted .
IIe spoke fervently of the opportunity which offered itself to those who loved the freedom of Greece . All Asia would rise with Athens to throw off the hated yoke . Fiery patriots like
See also:Hypereides were in raptures . For zeal which could be bought Harpalus had other persuasions . But Demosthenes stood
See also:fire \ . War with Alexander would, he saw, be madness . It could have but one result,—some indefinitely worse
See also:doom for Athens .
See also:Antipater and
See also:Olympias presently demanded the surrender of Harpalus . Demosthenes opposed this . But he reconciled the dignity with the loyalty of Athens by carrying a decree that Harpalus should be arrested, and that his treasure should be deposited in the
See also:Parthenon, to be held in trust for Alexander . Harpalus escaped from prison . The amount of the treasure, which Harpalus had stated as 700 talents, proved to be no more than 350 .
Demosthenes proposed that the
See also:Areopagus should inquire what had become of the other 350 . Six months, spent in party intrigues, passed before the Areopagus gave in their
See also:report (air4avis) . The report inculpated nine persons . Demosthenes headed the
See also:list of the accused . Hypereides was among the ten public prosecutors . Demosthenes was condemned, fined fifty talents, and, in default of payment, imprisoned . After a few days he escaped from prison to Aegina, and thence to Troezen . Two things in this obscure affair are beyond reasonable doubt . First, that Demosthenes was not bribed by Harpalus . The hatred of the Macedonian party towards Demosthenes, and the fury of those vehement patriots who cried out that he had betrayed their best opportunity, combined to procure his condemnation, with the help, probably, of some appearances which were against him . Secondly, it can hardly be questioned that, by withstanding the hot-headed patriots at this juncture, Demosthenes did heroic service to Athens . Next year (323 B.C.) Alexander died .
Then the voice of Demosthenes, calling Greece to arms, rang out like a
See also:trumpet . Early in
See also:August 322 the battle of Crannon decided the Lamian War against Greece . Antipater demanded, as Bnd of the
See also:condition on which he would refrain from besieging L war . r . Athens, the surrender of the leading patriots . De- mades moved the decree of the Assembly by which Demosthenes, Hypereides, and some others were condemned to death as traitors . On the loth of Boedromion (September 16) Demos 322, a Macedonian garrison occupied Munychia . It thenes was a
See also:day of
See also:solemn and happy memories, a day
See also:con-devoted, in the celebration of the Great Mysteries, to damned. sacred joy,—the day on which the glad procession of the Initiated returned from
See also:Eleusis to Athens . It happened, however, to have another association, more significant than any ironical contrast for the present purpose of Antipater . It was the day on which, thirteen years before, Alexander had punished the
See also:rebellion of Thebes with annihilation . The condemned men had fled to Aegina . Parting there from Hypereides and the
See also:rest, Demosthenes went on to Calauria, a small island off the coast of Argolis .
In Calauria there was an ancient
See also:temple of
See also:Poseidon, once a centre of
See also:Flight to Calauria . Minyan and Ionian worship, and surrounded with a
See also:peculiar sanctity as having been, from time immemorial, an inviolable
See also:refuge for the pursued . Here Demosthenes sought
See also:asylum .
See also:Archias of
See also:Thurii, a man who, like Aeschines, had begun life as a tragic actor, and who was now in the pay of Antipater, soon traced the fugitive, landed in Calauria, and appeared before the temple of Poseidon with a
See also:body of Thracian spearmen . Plutarch's picturesque narrative bears the marks of
See also:artistic elaboration . Demosthenes had dreamed the
See also:night before that he and Archias were competing for a prize as tragic actors; the
See also:house applauded Demosthenes; but his
See also:chorus was shabbily equipped, and Archias gained the prize . Archias was not the man to stick at
See also:sacrilege . In Aegina, Hypereides and the others had been taken from the
See also:shrine of
See also:Aeacus . But he hesitated to violate an asylum so peculiarly sacred as the Calaurian temple . Standing before its open door, with his Thracian soldiers around him, he endeavoured to prevail on Demosthenes to quit the holy
See also:precinct . Antipater would be certain to
See also:pardon him . Demosthenes sat silent, with his eyes fixed on the ground .
At last, as the emissary persisted in his bland persuasions, he looked up and said,—" Archias, you never moved me by your acting, and you will not move me now by your promises." Archias lost his
See also:temper, and began to threaten . " Now," rejoined Demosthenes, " you speak like a real Macedonian oracle; before you were acting . Wait a moment, then, till 1 write to my friends." With these words, Demosthenes withdrew into the inner part of the temple, --still visible, however, from the entrance . He took out a
See also:roll of paper, as if he were going to write, put the
See also:pen to his mouth, and
See also:bit it, as was his
See also:habit in composing . Then he threw his head back, and drew his cloak over it . The Thracian spearmen, who were watching him from the door, began to gibe at his cowardice . Death . Archias went in to him, encouraged him to rise, repeated his old arguments, talked to him of reconciliation with Antipater . By this time Demosthenes felt that the
See also:poison which he had sucked from the pen was beginning to work . He drew the cloak from his face, and looked steadily at Archias . " Now you can
See also:play the part of
See also:Creon in the tragedy as soon as you like," he said, " and
See also:cast forth my body unburied . * But I, O gracious Poseidon, quit thy temple while I yet live; Antipater and his Macedonians have done what they could to pollute it." He moved towards the door, calling to them to support his tottering steps .
He had just passed the
See also:altar of the
See also:god, when he fell, and with a. groan gave up the ghost (
See also:October 322 B.C.) . As a statesman, Demosthenes needs no epitaph but his own words in the speech " On the Crown,"—I say that, if the event had been manifest to the whole
See also:world beforehand, not even then Political character. ought Athens to have forsaken this course, if Athens had any regard for her
See also:glory, or for her past, or for the ages to come . The Persian soldier in
See also:Herodotus, following
See also:Xerxes to foreseen ruin, confides to his
See also:guest at the banquet that the bitterest
See also:pain which man can know is roxka 4 povkovra µ/Sevdr Kpariety; —complete, but helpless, prescience . In the grasp of a more inexorable necessity, the champion of Greek freedom was
See also:borne onward to a more tremendous catastrophe than that which strewed the
See also:waters of
See also:Salamis with Persian wrecks and the field of
See also:Plataea with Persian dead; but to him, at least, it was given to proclaim aloud the clear and sure foreboding that filled his soul, to do all that true heart and free hand could do for his cause, and, though not to save, yet to encourage, to
See also:console and to ennoble . As the inspiration of his life was larger and higher than the mere courage of resistance, so his merit must be regarded as standing altogether outside and above the struggle with Macedon . The great purpose which he set before him was to revive the public spirit, to restore the political vigour, and to re-establish the Panhellenic influence of Athens,—never for her own advantage merely, but always in the interest of Greece . His glory is, that while he lived he helped Athens to live a higher life . Wherever the noblest expressions of her mind are honoured, wherever the large conceptions of Pericles command the admiration of states-men, wherever the architect and the sculptor love to dwell on the masterpieces of
See also:Ictinus and
See also:Pheidias, wherever the spell of ideal beauty or of lofty contemplation is exercised by the creations of
See also:Sophocles or of
See also:Plato, there it will be remembered that the spirit which wrought in all these would have passed sooner from among men, if it had not been recalled from a trance, which others were content to
See also:mistake for the last sleep, by the passionate breath of Demosthenes . The orator in whom artistic
See also:genius was
See also:united, more perfectly than in any other man, with moral
See also:enthusiasm and with intel- oratory. lectual grasp, has held in the
See also:modern world the same
See also:rank which was accorded to him in the old; but he cannot enjoy the same appreciation . Macaulay's ridicule has rescued from oblivion the
See also:criticism which pronounced the eloquence of Chatham to be more ornate than that of Demos- thenes, and less diffuse than that of
See also:Cicero . Did the critic, asks Macaulay, ever hear any speaking that was less ornamented than that of Demosthenes, or more diffuse than that of Cicero ? Yet the critic's remark was not so pointless as Macaulay thought it .
Sincerity and intensity are, indeed, to the modern reader, the most obvious characteristics of Demosthenes . His
See also:style is, on the whole, singularly free from what we are accustomed to regard as rhetorical embellishment . Where the modern orator would employ a
See also:wealth of imagery, or elaborate a picture in exquisite detail, Demosthenes is content with a phrase or a word . Burke uses, in reference to
See also:Ali, the same image which Demosthenes uses in reference to Philip . " Compounding all the materials of fury, havoc, desolation, into one black
See also:cloud, he hung for a while on the declivity of the mountains . Whilst the authors of all these evils were idly and stupidly gazing on this menacing
See also:meteor, which darkened all their horizon, it suddenly burst, and poured down the whole of its contents upon the plains of the Carnatic." Demosthenes forbears to amplify . " The people gave their voice, and the danger which hung upon our
See also:borders went by like a cloud." To our modern feeling, the eloquence of Demosthenes exhibits everywhere a general
See also:stamp of
See also:earnest and
See also:simple strength . But it is well to remember the charge made against the style of Demosthenes by a contemporary Greek orator, and the defence offered by the best Greek critic of oratory . Aeschines reproached the diction of Demosthenes with excess of elaboration and adornment (reptcpyia) . Dionysius, in reply, admits that Demosthenes does at times depart from simplicity,—that his style is sometimes elaborately ornate and remote from the ordinary usage . But, he adds, Demosthenes adopts this manner where it is justified by the
See also:elevation of his theme . The remark may serve to remind us of our modern disadvantage for a full appreciation of Demosthenes .
The old world felt, as we do, his moral and
See also:mental greatness, his fire, his self-devotion, his insight . But it felt also, as we can never feel, the versatile perfection of his skill . This it was that made Demosthenes unique to the ancients . The ardent patriot, the far-seeing statesman, were united in his person with the con-summate and unapproachable artist . Dionysius devoted two special
See also:treatises to Demosthenes,—one on his language and style (XeKTUCbS rbroS), the other on his treatment of subject-matter (a-payµarta&S roroS) . The latter is lost . The former is one of the best essays in
See also:literary criticism which antiquity has bequeathed to us . The idea which it
See also:works out is that Demosthenes has perfected Greek
See also:prose by fusing in a glorious harmony the elements which had hitherto belonged to separate types . The austere dignity of Antiphon, the plain elegance of
See also:Lysias, the smooth and balanced finish of that
See also:middle or normal character which is represented by Isocrates, have come together in Demosthenes . Nor is this all . In each
See also:species he excels the specialists . He surpasses the school of Antiphon in perspicuity, the school of Lysias in verve, the school of Isocrates in variety, in felicity, in symmetry, in pathos, in power .
Demosthenes has at command all the discursive brilliancy which fascinates a festal
See also:audience . He has that power of concise and lucid narration, of terse reasoning, of persuasive appeal, which is required by the forensic speaker . His political eloquence can worthily image the
See also:majesty of the state, and enforce weighty counsels with lofty and impassioned fervour . A true artist, he grudged no labour which could make the least part of his work more perfect . Isocrates spent ten years on the Panegyricus . After Plato's death, a
See also:manuscript was found among his papers with the first eight words of the Republic arranged in several different orders . What wonder, then, asks the Greek critic, if the
See also:diligence of Demosthenes was no less incessant and minute ? "To me," he says, "it seems far more natural that a man engaged in composing political discourses, imperishable memorials of his power, should neglect not even the smallest details, than that the veneration of painters and sculptors, who are darkly showing forth their
See also:manual tact and toil in a corruptible material, should exhaust the refinements of their
See also:art on the
See also:veins, on the feathers, on the down of the
See also:lip, and the like niceties." More than
See also:half of the sixty-one speeches extant under the name of Demosthenes are certainly or probably
See also:spurious . The results to which the preponderance of opinion leans are given works in the following table . Those marked a were already rejected or doubted in antiquity; those marked m, first in modern times: The
See also:dates agree in the main with those given by A . D . Schafer in"Demosthenes and
See also:seine Zeit (2nd ed., 1885-1887), and by F .
Blass in Die attische Beredsamkeit (1887-1898), who regards thirty-three (or possibly thirty-five) of the speeches as genuine . I . DELIBERATIVE SPEECHES . GENUINE . Or . 14 . On the Navy Boards . Or . 16 . For the People of Megalopolis . Or . 4 .
First Philippic Or . 15 . For the Rhodians . Or . 1 . First Olynthiac Or . 2 . Second Olynthiac . Or . 3 . Third Olynthiac . Or .
5 . On the Peace Or . 6 . Second Philippic . Or . 8 . On the Affairs of the Chersonese Or . 9 . Third Philippic . (a) Or . SPURIOUS . 7 .
On Halonnesus (byHegesippus) (a) Rhetorical Forgeries . Or . 17 . On the Treaty with Alexander . (a) Or . To .
See also:Fourth Philippic . • 354 B.C . . 352 . 351 • 351 „ • 349 „ • 349 „ • 348 . 346 • 344 . 341 It .
341 342 B.C . (m) Or . I I . Answer to Philip's
See also:Letter.' (m) Or . 12 . Philip's Letter . (m) Or . 13 . On the Assessment (rtvrtts) . II . FORENSIC SPEECHES . A .
IN PUBLIC CAUSES . GENUINE . Or . 22 . In (Kara) Androtionem • 355 B.C . Or . 20 . Contra (7p6s) Leptinem . 354 Or . 24 . In Timocratem . 352 Or .
23 . In Aristocratem . . 352 Or . 21 . In Midiam . • 349 Or . 19 . On the Embassy . • 343 Or . 18 . On the Crown .
DEMOTIC (Gr. Srlµorucos, of or belonging to the pe...
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