DERBY , a municipal,
See also:county and
See also:borough, and the county
See also:town of
See also:Derbyshire, England, 1284 m . N.N.W. of
See also:London by the Midland railway; it is also served by the
See also:Northern railway . Pop . (1891) 94,146; (1901) 114,848 . Occupying a position almost in the centre of England, the town is situated chiefly on the western
See also:bank of the
See also:river Derwent, on an undulating site encircled with gentle eminences, from which flow the Markeaton and other brooks . In the second
See also:half of the 19th century the prosperity of the town was enhanced by the
See also:establishment of the
See also:head offices and
See also:principal workshops of the Midland Railway
See also:Company . Derby possesses several handsome public buildings, including the town
See also:hall, a spacious range of buildings erected for the postal and inland revenue offices, the county hall, corn
See also:exchange and market hall . Among churches may be mentioned St
See also:Peter's a
See also:building principally of Perpendicular date but with earlier portions; St Alkmund's with its lofty
See also:spire, Decorated in
See also:style; St Andrew's, in the same style, by
See also:Sir G . G .
See also:Scott; and All
See also:Saints', which contains a beautiful
See also:good stained
See also:glass and monuments by L . F . Roubiliac, Sir
See also:Francis Chantrey and others .
See also:body of this
See also:church is in classic style (1725), but the tower was built 1509-1527, and is one of the finest in the midland counties, built in three tiers, and crowned with battlements and pinnacles, which give it a
See also:total height of 210 ft . The
See also:Roman Catholic church of St Mary is one of the best examples of the
See also:work of A . W . Pugin . The Derby grammar school, one of the most
See also:ancient in England, was placed in I 16o under the administration of the
See also:chapter of
See also:Darley Abbey, which
See also:lay a little
See also:north of Derby . It occupies St
See also:House, once the town residence of the
See also:family, and has been enlarged in
See also:modern times, accommodating about 16o boys . The Derby municipal technical
See also:college is administered by the corporation . Other institutions include
See also:schools of science and
See also:art, public library, museum and art gallery, the Devonshire
See also:alms-houses, a remodelled foundation inaugurated by
See also:Elizabeth, countess of
See also:Shrewsbury, in the 16th century, and the town and county infirmary . The
See also:free library and museum buildings, together with a recreation ground, were gifts to the town from M . T .
See also:Bass, M.P . (d .
1884), while an
See also:arboretum of seventeen acres was presented to the town by
See also:Joseph Strutt in 184o . Derby has been long celebrated for its
See also:porcelain, which rivalled that of Saxony and France . This manufacture was introduced about 1750, and although for a
See also:time partially abandoned, it has been revived . There are also spar
See also:works where the fluor-spar, or Blue
See also:John, is wrought into a variety of useful and ornamental articles . The manufacture of
See also:lace and
See also:cotton formerly employed a large portion of the population, and there are still numerous silk mills and elastic
See also:web works . Silk " throwing " or
See also:spinning was introduced into England in 1717 by John Lombe, who found out the secrets of the craft when visiting Piedmont, and set up machinery in Derby . Other
See also:industries include the manufacture of paint, shot,
See also:white and red lead and
See also:varnish; and there are sawmills and' tanneries . The manufacture of hosiery profited greatly by the inventions of Jedediah Strutt about 1750 . In the northern suburb of Littlechester, there are chemical and steam
See also:boiler works . The Midland railway works employ a large number of hands . Derby is a
See also:suffragan bishopric in the
See also:diocese of Southwell . The parliamentary borough returns two members .
The town is governed by amayor, sixteen aldermen and
See also:forty-two councillors .
See also:Area, 3449 acres . Littlechester, as its name indicates, was the site of a Roman fort or
See also:village; the site is in great
See also:part built over and the remains practically effaced . Derby was known in the time of the heptarchy as Northworthig, and did not receive the name of Deoraby or Derby until after it was given up to the Danes by the treaty of
See also:Wedmore and had become one of their five boroughs, probably ruled in the ordinary way by an
See also:earl with twelve " lawmen " under him . Being won back among the sweeping conquests of iEthelflred,
See also:lady of the Mercians, in 917, it prospered during the loth century, and by the reign of
See also:Edward the
See also:Confessor there were 243 burgesses in Derby . However, by ro86 this number had decreased to roo, while 103 " manses " which used to be assessed were waste . In spite of this the amount rendered by the town to the
See also:lord had increased from £24 to £30 . The first extant
See also:charter granted to Derby is dated 1206 and is a
See also:grant of all those privileges which the burgesses of Nottingham had in the time of
See also:Henry I. and Henry II., which included freedom from
See also:toll, a gild
See also:merchant, power to elect a
See also:provost at their will, and the
See also:privilege of holding the town at the ancient
See also:farm with an increase of £10 yearly . The charter also provides that no one shall dye
See also:cloth within ten leagues of Derby except in the borough . A second charter, granted by Henry III. in 1229, limits the power of electing a provost by requiring that he shall be removed if he be displeasing to the
See also:king . Henry III. also granted the burgesses two other charters, one in 1225 confirming their privileges and granting that the comitatus of Derby should in future be held on Thursdays in the borough, the other in 126o granting that no
See also:Jew should be allowed to live in the town . In 1337 Edward III. on the petition of the burgesses granted that they might have two bailiffs instead of one .
Derby was incorporated by
See also:James I. in 1611 under the name of the bailiffs and burgesses of Derby, but
See also:Charles I. in 1637 appointed a mayor, nine aldermen, fourteen brethren and fourteen capital burgesses . In 168o the burgesses were obliged to resign their charters, and received a new one, which did not, however, alter the
See also:government of the town . Derby has been represented in parliament by two members since 1295 . In the
See also:rebellion of 1745 the
See also:young Pretender marched with his army as far south as Derby, where the council was held which decided that he should return to Scotland instead of going on to London . Among early works on Derby are W . Hutton,
See also:History of Derby (London, 1791); R .
See also:Simpson, History and Antiquities of Derby (Derby, 1826) .
DERBENT, or DERBEND
EARLS OF DERBY
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