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DETAILS OF MODERN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 332 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DETAILS OF MODERN (From the British official Country AUSTRIA BELGIUM. DENMARK. GREAT BRITAIN. FRANCE. GERMANY. AND BULGARIA. Pattern of the Year . 1885. x889. 188g. 1967. 1967. 1886. 1898. Designation MANNLICHER. MAUSER. KRAG- CHARGER SHORT LEBEL. - MAIISER. LOADING LEE-ENFIELD, LEE-ENFIELD, JORGENSEN. MARK I. MARS III Magazine System Box Box Horizontal-box Box Box Tube Box Number of Cartridges in Magazine 5 5 5 0 10 8 Charger or Clip . Clip Ch. Ch. Ch. Ch. No Ch. Cut off . . . . No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Safety Bolt Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Weight:- 8 lb 5i oz. 8 lb } oz. g lb xx) oz. 9 lb 4 OZ. 8 lb 2) OZ. g lb 3i OZ. 9 lb. Without bayonet . With bayonet . 8 lb 15* oz. 9 1 9) oz. 10 lb 41 oz. 10 lb 3i oz. gib 10i oz. xo lb xl oz. 9 lb 14 oz. Length:- 4 ft. 2 in. 4 ft. 2.25 in. 4 ft. 4.75 in. 4 ft. 1.5 in. 3 ft. 8.5 in. 4 ft. 3.12 in. 4 ft. 1.4 in. Without bayonet . With bayonet . 4 ft. 11.5 in. 4 ft. Iris in. 5 ft. 3 in. 5 ft. 1.5 in. 5 ft. 1.7 in. 5 ft. 11.84 in. 5 ft. 9.75 in. Barrel:- 30•12 30.67 32'9 30'19 2$.19 31.496 29'05 Length in. 8 mm. 8 7.65 8 7.7 7.7 7'9 Calibre .. in. •315 •301 •315 •303 .303 •31x •315 Rifling:- 4 4 6 5 5 4 4 Number of grooves Twist (to right, except in Lee- 31 32'5 37.5 33 30 30.2 Enfield and Lebel) x turn in calibres Soo paces 500 m. 300 M. 200 M. Sights:- Lowesffo[ 183 m. 250 M. (410 yds. (547 yds.) (328 yds.) (206 yds.) (273 yds.) (219 yds.) Highest for 2600 paces 2000 M. x966 m. 256o m. 2009 M. 2000 M. (2132 yds.) (2,87 yds.) (2078 yds.) (2800 yds.) (2187 yds.) (2187 yds.) Cartridge:- 3.0 3'055 3'0 3'22 3.18 Length . . . . in. 3.05 2.95 Weight . grs. 455 441 460 415 447 415 431 369.9 BuShllet:- Round Round Round Round Round Pointed Round Pointed ape of point Material of envelope . Steel, lubricated C.N. C.N. C.N. C.N. Copper zinc, Steel, coated Steel, coated i Length .... in. 1•24 1•205 1.187 I.221 no envelope with C.N. with C.N. S 1•625 1.235 x•105 1.25 Diameter (max.) •3228 '31 .323 '311 '3225 •327 '3189 '323 Weight . grs. 244 219 237 215 231 298 227 154'5 Charge:- '--42'44 37 33'95 31'5 42'43 46'2 40.75 48.4 Weight gm. Propellant. N.C. N.G. and N.C. N.C. Cordite N.C. N.C. N.C. N.C. Muzzle Velocity . . f.s. 2034 2034 1968 2060 2073 2380 2093 2882 Chamber Pressure:- 19.7 19'7 15.1 15.5 17.75 17'75 21 17'5 Tons on sq. in. too yds. wrong at any range." Now at r000 yds. an error in judging distance of 13 yds. above or below the true range will cause all the shots of a particular rifle to fall away from the target, and the better the marksman-i.e. the closer his group-the more necessary is perfection in judging distance, a perfection which in reality seems unattainable. The British musketry regulations therefore lay it down that the individual marksman's fire at service targets is unprofitable at ranges of more than 600 yds. Beyond that distance collective fire, controlled and directed by an officer or non-commissioned officer, is the rule. The question as to whether fire is to be opened in any given set of circumstances is decided by the fire-director, who considers first whether the probable error in judging distance is greater than half of the effective zone for the estimated range. If it is so, he must order " combined sights," i.e. half of the units under his command use one elevation, the rest another, which method artificially increases the dispersion of the bullets and thereby the probability of the target being included in the zone. This, however, makes the fire less effective, and in practice cannot profitably be used by any body of rifles of less than 8o or too. The commander of only a single section, therefore, however tempting the target, must refrain from opening fire at all. At medium ranges, however, controlled and directed fire is effective, and at such ranges troops should still be sufficiently in
End of Article: DETAILS OF MODERN
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