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DIETARY

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 214 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DIETARY, in a general sense, a system or course of diet, in the sense of food; more particularly, such an allowance and regulation of food as that supplied to workhouses, the army and navy, prisons, &c. Lowest in the scale of such dietaries comes what is termed " bare existence " diet, administered to certain classes of the community who have a claim on their fellow-countrymen that their lives and health shall be preserved in statu quo, but nothing further. This applies particularly to the members of a temporarily famine-stricken community. Before the days of prison reform, too, the dietary scale of many prisons was to a certain extent penal, in that the food supplied to prisoners was barely sufficient for existence. Nowadays more humane principles apply; there is no longer the obvious injustice of applying the same scale of quantity and quality to all prisoners under varying circumstances of constitution and surroundings, and whether serving long or short periods of imprisonment. The system of dietary in force in the local and convict prisons of England and Wales is that recommended by the Home Office on the advice of a departmental committee. As to the local prison dietary, its application is based on (1) the principle of variation of diet with length of sentence; (2) the system of progressive dietary; (3) the distinction between hard labour diets and non-hard labour diets; (4) the differentiation of diet according to age and sex. There are three classes of diet, classes A, B and C. Class A diet is given to prisoners undergoing not more than seven days' imprisonment. The food is good and wholesome, but sufficiently plain and unattractive, so as not to offer temptation to the loafer or mendicant. It is given in quantity sufficient to maintain health and strength during the single week. Prisoners sentenced to more than seven days and not more than fourteen days are given class A diet for the first seven days and class B for the remainder of the sentence. In most of the local prisons in England and Wales prisoners sentenced to hard labour received hard labour diet, although quite 60 % were unable to perform the hardest forms of prison labour either through physical defect, age or infirmity. The departmental committee of '1899 in their report recommended that no distinction should be made between hard labour and non-hard labour diets. Class A diet is as follows :—Breakfast, Bread, 8 oz. daily (6 oz. for women and juveniles) with 1 pint of gruel. Juveniles (males and females under members; while after 1250 the imperial and episcopal towns often appear through their representatives. By the 4th century, therefore, the originally homogeneous diet of princes is already, at any rate practically if not yet in legal form, divided into three colleges—the electors, the princes and nobles, and the representatives of the towns (though, as we shall see, the latter can hardly be reckoned as regular members until the century of the Reformation). Under the Hohenstaufen it is still the rule that every member of the diet must attend personally, or lose his vote; at a later date the principle of representation by proxy, which eventually made the diet into a mere congress of envoys, was introduced. By the end of the 13th century the vote of the majority had come to be regarded as decisive; but in accordance with the strong sense of social distinctions which marks German history, the quality as well as the quantity of votes was weighed, and if the most powerful of the princes were agreed, the opinion of the lesser magnates was not consulted. The powers of the medieval diet extended to matters like legislation, the decision upon expeditions (especially the expeditio Romana), taxation and changes in the constitution of the principalities or the Empire. The election of the king, which was originally regarded as one of the powers of the diet, had passed to the electors by the middle of the 13th century. A new era in the history of the diet begins with the Reformation. The division of the diet into three colleges becomes definite and precise; the right of the electors, for instance, to constitute a separate college is explicitly recognized as a matter of established custom in 1544. The representatives of the towns now become regular members. In the 15th century they had only attended when special business, such as imperial reform or taxation, fell under discussion; in 1500, however, they were recognized as a separate and regular estate, though it was not until 1648 that they were recognized as equal to the other estates of the diet. The estate of the towns, or college of municipal representatives, was divided into two benches, the Rhenish and the Swabian. The estate of the princes and counts, which stood midway between the electors and the towns, also attained, in the years that followed the Reformation, its final organization. The vote of the great princes ceased to be personal, and began to be territorial. This had two results. The division of a single territory among the different sons of a family no longer, as of old, multiplied the voting power of the family; while in the opposite case, the union of various territories in the hands of a single person no longer meant the extinction of several votes, since the new owner was now allowed to give a vote for each of his territories. The position of the counts and other lords, who joined with the princes in forming the middle estate, was finally fixed by the middle of the 17th century. While each of the princes enjoyed an individual vote, the counts and other lords were arranged in groups, each of which voted as a whole, though the whole of its vote (Kuriatstimme) only counted as equal to the vote of a single prince (Virilstimme). There were six of these groups; but as the votes of the whole college of princes and counts (at any rate in the 18th century) numbered loo, they could exercise but little weight. The last era in the history of the diet may be said to open with the treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty acknowledged that Germany was no longer a unitary state, but a loose confederation of sovereign princes; and the diet accordingly ceased to bear the character of a national assembly, and became a mere congress of envoys. The " last diet " which issued a regular recess (Reichsabschied—the term applied to the acta of the diet, as formally compiled and enunciated at its dissolution) was that of Regensburg in 1654. The next diet, which met at Regensburg in 1663, never issued a recess, and was never dissolved; it continued in permanent session, as it were, till the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. This result was achieved by the process of turning the diet from an assembly of principals into a congress of envoys. sixteen years of age) get, in addition, } pint of milk. Dinner, 8 oz. of bread daily, with I pint of porridge on three days 8 oz. of potatoes (representing the vegetable elements oonf thtwoe other week, days, Men. Women. Juveniles. Breakfast. Daily: 8 oz. 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread . . . I pt. I pt. I pt. Gruel .. .. # Pt. Milk . . . . Dinner. Sunday: 6 oz. Bread . 8 „ Potatoes . . . 6 oz. 8 ,, Cooked meat, pre- 4 „ 3 served by heat Monday: 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread . . . 8 „ 8 „ Potatoes . . . Beans . . . io „ 8 „ Fat bacon . . 2 ,, 1 „ Tuesday: 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread 8 ,, 8 „ Potatoes . . Soup . . . I pt. I pt. Wednesday : 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread . . . 8 „ 8 „ Potatoes . . . Suet pudding . 10 „ 8 Thursday: 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread . . . 8 „ 8 ,, Potatoes . Cooked beef, 4 „ 3 ,, without bone Friday: 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread 8 8 ,, Potatoes . Soup . . . I pt. I pt. Saturday:— . 6 oz. 6 oz. Bread . . 8 „ 8 „ Potatoes . . . Suet pudding . so „ 8 „ Supper. Daily: 8 oz. Bread . . I pt. Porridge . . . Gruel . . . 6 oz. 6 oz. 1 pt. Cocoa . . I pt. and 8 oz. of suet pudding (representing the fatty element) on the other two days. Supper, the breakfast fare repeated. Class B diet, which is also given to (I) prisoners on remand or awaiting trial, (2) offenders of the 1st division who do not maintain themselves, (3) offenders of the 2nd division and (4) debtors, is as shown in Table I. Class C diet is class B amplified, and is given to those prisoners serving sentences of three months and over. The dietary of convict prisons, in which prisoners are all under long sentence, is divided into a diet for convicts employed at hard labour and a diet for convicts employed at sedentary, indoor and light labour. It will be found set forth in the Blue-book mentioned above. The sparest of all prison diets is called " punishment diet,” and is administered for offences against the internal discipline of the prison. It is limited to a period of three days. It consists of I lb of bread and as much water as the prisoner chooses to drink. In French prisons the dietary is nearly two pounds weight of bread, with two meals of thin soup (breakfast and dinner) made from potatoes, beans or other vegetables, and on two days a week made from meat. In France the canteen system is in vogue, additional food, such as sausages, cheese, fruit, &c., may be obtained by the prisoner, according to the wages he receives for his labours. The dietary of Austrian prisons is 1J lb of bread daily, a dinner of soup on four days of the week, and of meat on the other three days, with a supper of soup or vegetable stew. Additional food can be purchased by the prisoner out of his earnings. These dietaries may be taken as more or less typical of the ordinary prison fare in most civilized countries, though in some countries it may err on the side of severity, as in Sweden, prisoners being given only two meals a day, one at mid-day and one at seven P.M., porridge or gruel being the principal element in both meals. On the other hand, the prison dietaries of many of the United States prisons go to the other extreme, fresh fish, green vegetables, even coffee and fruit, figuring in the dietary. Another class of dietary is that given to paupers. In England, until 1900, almost every individual workhouse had its own special dietary, with the consequence that many erred on the side of scantiness and unsuitability, while others were too lavish. By an order of the Local Government Board of that year, acting on a report of a committee, all inmates of workhouses, with the exception of the sick, children under three years of age, and certain other special cases, are dieted in accordance with certain dietary tables as framed and settled by the board. The order contained a great number of different rations, it being left to the discretion of the guardians as to the final settlement of the tables. For adult inmates the dietary tables are for each sex respectively, two in number, one termed " plain diet " and the other infirm diet.” All male inmates certified as healthy able-bodied persons receive plain diet only. All inmates, however, in workhouses are kept employed according to their capacity and ability, and this is taken into consideration in giving allowances of food. For instance, for work with sustained exertion, such as stone breaking, digging, &c., more food is given than for work without sustained exertion, such as wood-chopping, weeding or sewing. Table II. shows an example of a workhouse dietary. In the casual wards of workhouses the dietary is plainer, consisting of 8 oz. of bread, or 6 oz. of bread and one pint of gruel or broth for breakfast; the same for supper; for dinner 8 oz. of bread and I4 oz. of cheese or 6 oz. of bread and one pint of soup. The American poor law system is based broadly on that of England, and the methods of relief are much the same. Each state, however, makes its own regulations, and there is considerable diversity in workhouse dietaries in consequence. The German system of poor relief is more methodical than those of England and America. The really deserving are treated Breakfast. Dinner. Supper. 10 -41 6. .4 'cot 8 t'' s. 2 s) o as boa (R a v p'i , (..7 gci v Sunday . oz. pt. oz. oz. oz. pt. oz. oz. oz. oz. pt. pt. oz. oz. pt. pt. pt. oz. 8 * 4 41 12 . .. .. .. .. .. .. 8 z 1 .. Monday . 4 I 6 I 6 Iy Tuesday . 4 II1, 4% i2 6 I' Wednesday 4 Iy 4 I2 IO 6 Ia Thursday . 4 i 4 4 4z 12 H .. .. 1 2 Friday 4 I 8 3 I .. 6 I a Saturday . 4 IJ 6 .. I 6 .. IJ * On Sundays s pint of tea and 2i oz. of butter are given instead of porridge. with more commiseration, and a larger amount of outdoor relief is given than in England. There--isno casual ward, tramps and beggars being liable to penal treatment, but there are " relief stations,” somewhat corresponding to casual wards, where destitute persons tramping from one place to another can obtain food and lodging in return for work done. In the British navy certain staple articles of diet are supplied to the men to the value approximately of 6d. per diem—the standard government ration—and, in addition, a.messing allowance cf 4d. per diem, which may either be expended on luxuries in the canteen, or in taking up government provisions on board ship, in addition to the standard ration. The standard ration as recommended in 1907 by a committee appointed to inquire into the question of victualling in the navy is as follows: Service Afloat. 1 lb bread (or 4 lb bread and 4 lb trade flour). 1 lb fresh meat. I lb fresh vegetables. 4 pint spirit. . 4. oz. sugar. 4 oz. tea (or 1 oz. coffee for every 4 oz. tea). oz. ordinary or soluble chocolate (or I oz. coffee). 4 oz. condensed milk. I oz. jam or marmalade. 4 oz. preserved meat on one day of the week in harbour, or on two days at sea. Mustard, pepper, vinegar, and salt as required. Substitute for soft bread when the latter is not available—lb biscuit (new type) or 1 lb flour. Substitutes for fresh meat when the latter is not available: (I) Salt pork day: 1 lb salt pork. 4 lb split peas. Celery seed, 1 oz. to every 8 lb of split peas put into the coppers. 1 lb potatoes (or 1 oz. compressed vegetables). (2) Preserved meat day: 6 oz. preserved meat. 8 oz. trade flour. 4 oz. refined suet . or 4 oz. rice. 2 oz. raisins 1 lb potatoes (or 1 oz. compressed vegetables). On shore establishments and depot ships 4 pt. fresh milk is issued in lieu of the 4 oz. of condensed milk. In the United States navy there is more liberality and variety of diet, the approximate daily cost of the rations supplied being Is. 3d. per head. In the American mercantile marine, too, according to the scale sanctioned by act of Congress (December 21, 1898) for American ships, the seaman is better off than in the British merchant service. The scale is shown in Table III. V6 cale. Articles. Weekly Articles. Scale. Arti Scale. 31 lb Biscuits. 4 oz. Tea. 34 Salt beef. 21 Sugar. ,, k. ,, Molasses. lasses. 3 Flour. pork. I4 Fruits, dried. IZ ,, Meats, preserved. 9 oz. Pickles. 2 ,, 4 pt. Io1 „ Bread, fresh (8 lb flour 1 ,, Vinegar. „ in lieu). 8 oz. Corn Meal. Fish, dried. 12 „ Onions. 7 „ Potatoes or yams. 7 „ Lard. „ Tomatoes, preserved. 7 „ Butter. a, Peas. „ Mustard. 4 „ Calavances. 4 „ Pepper. 1 „ Rice. 4 „ Salt. 54 oz. Coffee, green. In the British mercantile marine there is no scale of provisions prescribed by the Board of Trade; there is, however, a traditional scale very generally adopted, having the sanction of custom only and seldom adhered to. The following dietary scale for steerage passengers, laid down in the 12th schedule of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894, is of interest. See Table IV. Certain substitutions may be made in this scale at the option of the master of any emigrant ship, provided that the substituted articles are set forth in the contract tickets of the steerage passengers. In the British army the soldier is fed partly by a system of co-operation. He gets a free ration from government of I lb of bread and 4 lb of meat; in addition there is a messing allowance of 34d. per man per day. He is able to supplement his food by purchases from the canteen. Much depends on the individual management•in eachregiment as to the satisfactory expenditure of the messing allowance. In some regiments an allowance is'- made from the canteen funds towards messing in addition to that granted by the government. The ordinary field ration of the British soldier is x4 lb of bread or I lb of biscuit; I lb of fresh, salt or preserved meat; 1 oz. of coffee; *oz. of tea; 2 oz. of sugar; 1 oz. of salt, s oz. of pepper, the whole -weighing something over 2 lb 3 oz. This cannot be looked on as a fixed ration, as it varies in different campaigns, according to the country into which the troops may be sent. The Prussian soldier during peace gets weekly from his canteen 11 lb i oz. of rye bread and not quite 21 lb of meat. This is obviously insufficient, but under Scale A. Scale B. For voyages not ex- For voyages ex- ceeding 84 days ceeding 84 days for sailing ships for sailing ships or 50 days for -steamships. or 5o days for steamships. Bread or biscuit, not in- lb oz. lb oz. ferior to navy biscuit 3 8 3 8 Wheaten flour I o 2 0 Oatmeal I 8 I o Rice . i 8 0 8 Peas . i 8 i 8 Beef . I 4 I 4 Pork .. I o I o Butter .. 0 4 Potatoes 2 0 2 0 Sugar I o 1 o Tea 0 2 0 2 Salt . 0 2 0 2 Pepper (white or black), o • 01 o o1 ground . Vinegar i gill i gill Preserved meat . i o Suet . .. 0 6 Raisins .. o 8 Lime juice . .. 0 6 the conscription system it is reckoned that he will be able to make up the deficiency out of his own private means, or obtain charitable contributions from his friends. In the French infantry of the line each man during peace gets weekly 15 lb of bread, 3i lb of meat, 21 lb of haricot beans or other vegetables, with salt and pepper, and 14 oz. of brandy. An Austrian under the same circumstances receives 13.9 lb of bread, 1 lb of flour and 3.3 lb of meat. The Russian conscript is allowed weekly:
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