See also:Roman emperor 284–305, is said to have been
See also:born at Dioclea, near Salona, in Dalmatia . His
See also:original name was Diocles . Of humble origin, he served with high distinction and held important military commands under the emperors Probus and Aurelian, and accompanied Carus to the Persian War . After the
See also:death of
See also:Numerianus he was chosen emperor by the troops at Chalcedon, on the 17th of
See also:September 284, and slew with his own hands Arrius Aper, the
See also:praefect of the
See also:praetorians . He thus fulfilled the prediction of a druidess of Gaul, that he would
See also:mount a
See also:throne as soon as he had slain a
See also:wild boar (aper) . Having been installed at
See also:Nicomedia, he received general
See also:acknowledgment after the
See also:murder of
See also:Carinus . In consequence of the rising of the Bagaudae in Gaul, and the threatening attitude of the German peoples on the Rhine, he appointed Maximian
See also:Augustus in 286; and, in view of further dangers and disturbances in the
See also:empire, proclaimed
See also:Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Caesars in 293 . Each of the four rulers was placed at a
See also:separate capital—Nicomedia, Mediolanum (Milan),
See also:Augusta Trevirorum (
See also:Trier), Sirmium . This amounted to an entirely new organization of the empire, on a plan commensurate with the
See also:work of
See also:government which it now had to carry on . At the age of fifty-nine, exhausted with labour,
See also:Diocletian abdicated his
See also:sovereignty on the 1st of May 305, and retired to Salona, where he died eight years afterwards (others give 316 as the
See also:year of his death) . The end of his reign was memorable for the persecution of the Christians . In defence of this it may be urged that he hoped to strengthen the empire by reviving the old religion, and that the
See also:church as an
See also:independent state over whose inner
See also:life at least he possessed no influence, appeared to be a
See also:standing menace to his authority .
Under Diocletian the
See also:senate became a
See also:political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute
See also:monarchy approaching to despotism . He wore the royal diadem, assumed the title of
See also:lord, and introduced a complicated
See also:system of ceremonial and
See also:etiquette, borrowed from the East, in
See also:order to surround the monarchy and its representative with mysterious sanctity . But at the same
See also:time he devoted his energies to the improvement of the administration of theempire; he reformed the standard of coinage, fixed the price of provisions and other necessaries of daily life, remitted the tax upon inheritances and manumissions, abolished various monopolies, repressed corruption and encouraged
See also:trade . In addition, he adorned the city with numerous buildings, such as the thermae, of which extensive remains are still standing (Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 39;
See also:Eutropius ix . 13;
See also:Zonaras xii . 31) . See A . Vogel, Der Kaiser Diocletian (
See also:Gotha, 1857), a
See also:sketch, with notes on the authorities; T . Preuss, Kaiser Diocletian and
See also:seine Zeit (
See also:Leipzig, 1869) ; V . Casagrandi, Diocleziano (
See also:Faenza, 1876) ; H . Schiller, Gesch. der romischen Kaiserzeit, ii . (1887) ; T .
Bernhardt, Geschichte Roms von
See also:Valerian bis zu Diocletians
See also:Tod (1867); A . J .
See also:Mason, The Persecution of Diocletian (1876) ; P . Allard, La Persecution de Diocletien (1890) ; V . Schultze in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie fiir protestantische Theologie, iv . (1898); Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chaps . 13 and 16; A . W . Hunzinger, Die Diocletianische Staatsreform (1899) ; O . Seeck, " Die Schatzungsordnung Diocletians" in Zeitschrift fur Social- and Wirthschaftsgeschichte (1896), a valuable paper with notes containing references to
See also:sources; and O . Seeck, Geschichte
See also:des Untergangs der antiken Welt, vol. i. cap. i . On his military reforms see T .
See also:Mommsen in Hermes,
See also:xxiv., and on his
See also:tariff system, DIOCLETIAN, EDICT OF .
DIOCESE (formed on Fr. diocese, in place of the Eng...
EDICT OF DIOCLETIAN (De Pretiis rerum venalium)
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