DIPLOMATIC , thescience of diplomas, founded on the critical study of the " diplomatic "
See also:sources of
See also:history: diplomas, charters, acts,
See also:treaties, contracts, judicial records, rolls, chartularies, registers, &c . The employment of the word " diploma," as a general
See also:term to designate an
See also:historical document, is of comparatively
See also:recent date . The
See also:Roman diploma, so called because it was formed of two sheets of
See also:metal which were shut together (Gr . &z-).ovv, to
See also:double) like the leaves of a
See also:book, was the pass-
See also:port or licence to travel by the public
See also:post; also, the certificate of
See also:discharge, conferring privileges of citizenship and
See also:marriage on soldiers who had served their
See also:time; and, later, any imperial
See also:grant of privileges . The word was adopted, rather pedantically, by the humanists of the
See also:Renaissance and applied by them to important deeds and to acts of
See also:sovereign authority, to privileges granted by
See also:kings and by
See also:great personages; and by degrees the term became extended and embraced generally the documents of the
See also:middle ages . History of the Study.—The term " diplomatic," the French diplomatique, is a
See also:modern adaptation of the Latin phrase res diplomatica employed in early
See also:works upon the subject, and more especially in the first great text-book, the De re diplomatica, issued in 1681 by the learned
See also:Benedictine, Dom
See also:Mabillon, of the abbey of St Germain-
See also:des-Pres . Mabillon's
See also:treatise was called forth by an earlier
See also:work of Daniel
See also:van Papenbroeck, the editor of the Acta Sanctorum of the
See also:Bollandists, who, with no great knowledge or experience of archives, undertook to criticize the historical value of
See also:ancient records and monastic documents, and raised wholesale suspicions as to their authenticity in his Propylaeum antiquarium circa veri ac falsi discrimen in vetustis membranis, which he printed in 1675 . This was a rash
See also:challenge to the
See also:Benedictines, and especially to the
See also:congregation of St Maur, or confraternity of the Benedictine abbeys of France, whose combined efforts produced great
See also:literary works which still remain as monuments of profound learning . Mabillon was at that time engaged in
See also:collecting material for a great history of his
See also:order . He worked silently for six years before producing the work above referred to . His refutation of Papenbroeck's criticisms was
See also:complete, and his
See also:rival himself accepted Mabillon's
See also:system of the study of diplomatic as the true one . The De re diplomatica established the science on a secure basis; and it has been the foundation of all subsequent works on the subject, although the immediate result of its publication was a
See also:flood of controversial writings between the
See also:Jesuits and the Benedictines, which, how-ever, did not affect its stability .
InSpain, the Benedictine
See also:Perez published, in 1688, a series of
See also:dissertations following the
See also:line of Mabillon's work . In England, Madox's Formulare Anglicanum, with a dissertation concerning ancient charters and
See also:instruments, appeared in 1702, and in 1705
See also:Hickes followed with his Linguarum septentrionalium
See also:thesaurus, both accepting the principles laid down by the learned Benedictine . In Italy, Maffei appeared with his Istoria diplomatica in 1727, and
See also:Muratori, in 1740, introduced dissertations on diplomatic into his great work, the Antiquitates Italicae . In Germany, the first diplomatic work of importance was that by Bessel, entitled Chronicon Qotwicense and issued in 1732; and this was followed closely by similar works of
See also:Baring, Eckhard and Heumann . France, however, had been the
See also:cradle of the science, and that
See also:country continued to be the home of its development . Mabillon had not taken cognizance of documents later than the 13th century . Arising out of a discussion relative to the origin of the abbey of St Victor en Caux and the authenticity of its archives, a more comprehensive work than Mabillon's was compiled by the two Benedictines, Dom Toustain and Dom Tassin, viz. the Nouveau Traite de diplomatique, in six volumes, 1750-1765, which embraced more than diplomatic proper and extended to all branches of Latin palaeography . With great
See also:industry the compilers gathered together a mass of details; but their arrangement is faulty, and the text is broken up into such a multitude of divisions and subdivisions that it is tediously minute . However, its more extended
See also:scope has given the Nouveau Traite an ad-vantage over Mabillon's work, and modern compilations have
See also:drawn largely upon it . As a result of the Revolution, the archives of the middle ages lost in France their juridical and legal value; but this rather tended to enhance their historical importance . The taste for historical literature revived . The Academie des Inscriptions fostered it .
In r821 the Ecole des Chartes was founded; and, after a few years of incipient inactivity, it received a further impetus, in 1829, by the issue of a royalordinance re-establishing it . Thenceforth it has been an active centre for the teaching and for the encouragement of the study of diplomatic throughout the country, and has produced results which other nations may envy . Next to France, Germany and
See also:Austria are distinguished as countries where activity has been displayed in the systematic study of diplomatic archives, more or less with the support of the state . In Italy, too, diplomatic science has not been neglected . In England, after a long
See also:period of regrettable indifference to the study of the
See also:national and municipal archives of the country, some effort has been made in recent years to remove the reproach . The publications of the Public Record
See also:Office and of the department of
See also:MSS. in the
See also:British Museum are more numerous and are issued more regularly than in former times; and an awakened
See also:interest is manifested by the foundation in the
See also:universities of a few lectureships in diplomatic and palaeography, and by the
See also:attention which those subjects receive in such an institution as the
See also:London School of
See also:Economics, and in the publications of private literary
See also:societies . But such efforts can never show the systematic results which are to be attained by a
See also:special institution of the character of the French Ecole des Chartes . Extent of the Science.—The
See also:field covered by the study of diplomatic is so extensive and the different kinds of documents which it takes into its purview are so numerous and various, that it is impossible to do more than give a few general indications of their nature . No nation can have advanced far on the path of
See also:civilization before discovering the
See also:necessity for documentary evidence both in public and in private
See also:life . The
See also:laws, the constitutions, the decrees of
See also:government, on. the one
See also:hand, and private contracts between man and man, on the other, must be embodied in formal documents, in order to ensure permanent record . In the case of a nation advancing independently from a
See also:primitive to a later stage of civilization we should have to trace the origin of its documentary records and examine their development from a rudimentary
See also:condition . But in an inquiry into the history of the documents of the middle ages in
See also:Europe we do not begin with primitive forms .
Those ages inherited the documentary system which had been created and
See also:developed by the Romans; and, imperfect and limited in number as are the earliest surviving charters and diplomas of
See also:medieval history, they
See also:present themselves to us fully developed and
See also:cast in the
See also:mould and employing the methods and formulae of the earlier tradition . Based on this foundation the chanceries of the severalcountries of Europe, as they came into existence and were organized, reduced to method and
See also:rule on one general system the various documents which the exigencies of public and of private life from time to time called into existence, each individual
See also:chancery at the same time following its own line of practice in detail, and evolving and confirming particular formulas which have become characteristic of it .
See also:Classification of Documents.—If we classify these documents under the two
See also:main heads of public and private deeds, we shall have to place in the former category the legislative, administrative, judicial, diplomatic documents emanating from public authority in public
See also:form: laws, constitutions, ordinances, privileges, grants and concessions, proclamations, decrees, judicial records, pleas, treaties; in a word, every kind of deed necessary for the orderly government of a civilized state . In early times many of these were comprised under the general term of " letters," litterae, and to the large number of them which were issued in open form and addressed to the community the specific title of " letters patent," litterae patentes, was given . In contradistinction those public documents which were issued in closed form under seal were known as " close letters," litterae ciausae . Such public documents belong to the state archives of their several countries, and are the monuments of administrative and
See also:political and domestic history of a nation from one generation to another . In no country has so perfect a series been preserved as in our own . Into the Public Record Office in London have been brought together all the collections of state archives which were formerly stored in different official repositories of the
See also:kingdom . Beginning with the great survey of Domesday, long series of enrolments of state documents, in many instances extending from the times of the Angevin kings to our own
See also:day in almost unbroken sequence, besides thousands of
See also:separate deeds of all descriptions, are therein preserved (see RECORD) . Under the category of private documents must be included, not only the deeds of individuals, but also those of corporate bodies representing private interests and
See also:standing in the position of individual units in relation to the state, such as municipal bodies and monastic
See also:foundations . The largest class of documents of this character is composed of those numerous conveyances of real
See also:property and other title deeds of many descriptions and dating from early periods which are commonly described by the generic name of " charters," and which are to be'found in thousands, not only in such public repositories as the Public Record Office and the British Museum, but also in the archives of municipal and other corporate bodies throughout the country and in the
See also:muniment-rooms of old families . There are also the records of the manorial courts preserved in countless
See also:court-rolls and registers; also the scattered muniments of the dissolved monasteries represented by the many collections of charters and the valuable chartularies, or registers of charters, which have fortunately survived and exist both in public and in private keeping .
It will be noticed that in this enumeration of public and private documents in England reference is made to rolls . The practice of entering records on rolls has been in favour in England from a very. early date subsequent to theNorman
See also:Conquest; and while in other countries the comprehensive term of " charters " (literally " papers ": Gr. xaprgs) is employed as a general description of documents of the middle ages, in England the
See also:fuller phrase " charters and rolls " is required . The
See also:master of the rolls, the Magister Rotulorum, is the official keeper of the public records . From the great
See also:body of records, both public and private, many fall easily and naturally into the class in which the text takes a simpler narrative form; such as judicial records, laws, decrees, proclamations, registers, &c., which tell their own
See also:story in formulae and phraseology early developed and requiring little
See also:change . These we may leave on one side . For fuller description we select those deeds which, conferring grants and favours and privileges, conform more nearly to the idea of the Roman diploma and have received the special attention of the chanceries in the development and arrangement of their formulae and in their methods of execution . All such medieval deeds are composed of certain recognized members or sections, some essential, others special and
See also:peculiar to the most elaborate and
See also:solemn documents . A deed of Structure the more elaborate character is made up of two
See also:principal °f
See also:ate"- divisions: I. the TEXT, in which is set out the
See also:object of vaI the deed, the statement of the considerations and en-cumdiplomas. stances which have led to it, and the declaration of the will and intention of the
See also:person executing the deed,. together with such protecting clauses as the particular circumstances of the case may require; 2. the
See also:PROTOCOL (originally, the first
See also:sheet of a
See also:roll ; Gr. lrpwros, first, and ,coaxav, to glue); consisting of the
See also:introductory and of the concluding formulae: superscription, address, salutation, &c., at the beginning, and date, formulae of execution, &c., at the end, of the deed . The latter portion of the protocol is sometimes styled the eschatocol (Gr. fo- aros, last, and KoXXav, to glue) . While the text followed certain formulae which had become fixed by
See also:common usage, the protocol was always special and varied with the practices of the several chanceries, changing in a sovereign chancery with each successive reign . The different sections of a full deed, taking them in order under the heads of Initial Protocol, Text and Final Protocol or Eschatocol, are as follows :—The initial protocol consists of the Invocation, the The In"' Superscription, the Address and the Salutation . 1 .
The cation . INVOCATION, lending a character of sanctity to`'the
See also:pro- ceedings, might be either verbal or symbolic . The verbal invocation consisted usually of some pious ejaculation, such as In nomine Dei, In nomine doming nostri Jesu Christi; from the 8th century, In nomine Sanctae et individuae Trinitatis ; and later, In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti . The symbolic form was usually the chrismon, or
See also:monogram composed of the Greek initials XP of the name of Christ . In the course of the loth and I ith centuries this
See also:symbol came to be so scrawled that it had probably lost all meaning with the
See also:scribes . From the 9th century the
See also:letter C (initial of Christus) came gradually into use, and in :German imperial diplomas it superseded the chrismon . Stenographic signs of the system known as Tironian notes were also sometimes added to this symbol down to the end of the loth century, expressing such a phrase as Ante omnia Christus, or Christus`, or
See also:Amen . From the Merovingian period, too, a
See also:cross was often used . The symbol gradually died out after the I2th century for general use, surviving only in notarial instruments The and
See also:wills . 2.The SUPERSCRIPTION (superscriptio,intitulatio) Super- expressed the name and titles of the grantor or person scNption. issuing the deed . 3 . The ADDRESS .
As diplomas were originally in epistolary form the address was then a necessity . While in Merovingian deeds the old
See also:pattern was adhered The to, in the Carolingian period the address was sometimes Address. omitted . From the 8th century it was not considered neces- sary, and a distinction arose in the case of royal acts, those having the address being styled letters, and those omitting it, charters . The general form of address ran in phrase as
See also:Omnibus Thesalu (or Universis) Christi fidelibus presentes litteras ins pecturis . ninon . 44 The SALUTATION was expressed in such words as Salutem; Salutem et dilectionem; Salutem et apostolicam benedictionem, but it was not essential . Then follows the text in five sections: the Preamble, the Notification, the Exposition, the Disposition and the Final Clauses . 5 . The The PREAMBLE (prologus, arenga) : an ornamental introduction Preamble. generally composed of pious or moral sentiments, a prefatio ad captandam benevolentiam which facit ad
See also:ornament um, degenerating into tiresome platitudes . It became stereotyped at an early age: in the loth and firth Notl- centuries it was a most ornate performance; in the The nastier] . 12th century it was cut
See also:short; in the 13th century it died out . 6 .
The NOTIFICATION (n'ptiftcatio, promulgatio) was the publication of the purport of the deed introduced by Bx- such a phrase as notum sit, &c . 7 . The EXPOSITION The set out the motives influencing the issue of the deed . 8 . The position . DISPOSITION described the object of the deed and the will The Dls- and intention of the grantor . 9 . The FINAL CLAUSES en-TheFinal n' sured the fulfilment of the terms of the deed; guarded The Fe against infringement, by comminatory anathemas and
See also:im-Clauss. precations, not infrequently of a vehement description, or by penalties; guaranteed the validity of the deed; enumerated the formalities of subscription and execution; reserved rights, &c . Next comes the final protocol or eschatocol comprising: the Date, the Appreciation, the Authentication . It was particularly in this portion of the deed that the varying practices of the several chanceries led to minute and intricate distinctions at The Date different periods. to . The DATE . By the Roman
See also:law every
See also:act must be dated by the day and the
See also:year of execution .
Yet in the middle ages, from the 9th to the
See also:lath century, a large proportion of deeds bears no date . In the most ancient charters the date clause was frequently separated from the body of the deed and placed in an isolated position at the
See also:foot of the sheet . From the lath century it commonly followed the text immediately . Certain classes of documents, such as decrees of
See also:councils, notarial deeds, &c., began withthe date . The usual
See also:formula was data, datum, actum, factum, scriptum ... In the Carolingian period a distinction
See also:grew up between datum and actum, the former applying to the time, the latter to the place, of date . In the papal chancery from an early period down to the 12th century the use of a double date prevailed, the first following the text and being inserted by the
See also:scribe when the deed was written (scriptum), the second being added at the foot of the deed on its execution (actum), by the chancellor or other high functionary . From the Roman
See also:custom of dating by the consular year arose the medieval practice of dating by the regnal year of emperor,
See also:king or
See also:pope . Special
See also:dates were sometimes employed, such as the year of some great historical event,
See also:siege, pestilence, &c . Ii . The APPRECIATION . The feliciter of the TtreAppre-Romans became the medieval feliciter in Domino, or ciatlo / In Dei nomine feliciter, or the more
See also:simple Deo gratias or the still more simple Amen, for the auspicious closing of a deed .
In Merovingian and Carolingian diplomas it follows the date; in other cases it closes the text . In the greater papal bulls it appears in the form of a triple Amen . Benevalete was also employed as the appreciation in early deeds; but in Merovingian diplomas and in papal bulls this valedictory salutation becomes amark of authentication, as will be noticed below . I2 . The AUTHENTICATION was a solemn proceeding which was discharged by more than The Au-one act . The most important was the subscription or thentica• subscriptions of the person or persons from whom the deed lion . emanated . The laws of the
See also:late Roman
See also:empire required the subscriptions and the impressions of the signet
See also:seals of the parties and of the witnesses to the deed . The subscription (subscriptio) com-, prised the name, signature and description of the person
See also:signing . The impression of the signet (not the signature) was the signum, sometimes signaculum, rarely sigillum . The practice of subscribing with the autograph signature obtained in the early middle ages, as appears from early documents such as those of Ravenna . But from the 7th century it began to decline, and by the lath century it had practically ceased .
In Roman deeds an illiterate person affixed his. mark, or signum manuale, which was attested . The cross being an easy form for a mark, it was very commonly used and naturally became connected with theChristian symbol . Hence, in course of time, it came to be attached very generally to subscriptions, auto-graph or otherwise . Great personages who were illiterate required something more elaborate than a common mark: Hence arose the use of the monogram, the caracter nominis, composed of the letters of the name . The emperor
See also:Justin, who could not write, made use of a monogram, as did also
See also:Theodoric, king of the
See also:Ostrogoths . Those Merovingian kings, likewise, who were illiterate, had their individual monograms; and at length Charlemagne adopted the monogram as his
See also:regular form of signature . From his reign down to that of
See also:Philip the
See also:Fair the monogram was the recognized sign
See also:manual of the sovereigns of France (see
See also:AUTOGRAPHS) . It was employed by the German emperors down to the' reign of Maximilian I . The royal use of the monogram was naturally imitated by great
See also:officers and ecclesiastics . But another form of sign manual also arose out of the subscription . The closing word (usually subscripsi), written or abbreviated as sub., or ss. or s., was often finished offwith flourishes and interlacings, sometimes accompanied with Tironian notes, the whole taking the shape of a domed structure to which the French have given the name of ruche or bee-hive . Thus in the early middle ages we have deeds authenticated by the subscription, usually autograph, giving the name and titles of the person executing, and stating the
See also:part taken by him in the- deed, and closing with the subscripsi; often in shape of the ruche and constituting the signum manuale .
If not autograph, the subscription might be impersonal in such form as signum (or signum manus) + N. in the Carolingian period, while phrases were constantly used in the body of the deed implying that it was executed by autograph subscription, it did not necessarily follow that such subscription was actually written in person . The ruche was also adopted by chancellors, notaries and scribes as their official mark . While autograph subscriptions continued to be employed, chiefly by ecclesiastics, down to the beginning of the 12th century, the monogram was perpetuated from the loth century by the notaries . Their marks, simple at first, became so elaborate from the end of the 13th century that they found it necessary to add their names inordinary writing, or also to employ a less complicated design . This was the commencement of the modern practice of writing the signature which first came into vogue in the 14th century . To lend further
See also:weight and authority to the subscription, certain symbols and forms were added at different periods . Imitating, the corroborative Legi of the
See also:Byzantine quaestor and the Legimus of the Eastern emperors, the Frankish chancery in the West made use of the same form, notably in the reign of
See also:Charles the Bald, in some of whose diplomas the Legimus appears written in larger letters in red . The valedictory Benevalete, employed in early deeds as a form of appreciation (see above), appears in Merovingian and in The Beneearly Carolingian royal diplomas, and also in papal bulls, valeta . as an authenticating addition to the subscription . In the diplomas it was written in cursive letters in two lines, Bene
See also:wade, just to the right of the incision cut in the sheet to hold fast the seal, which sometimes even covered part of the word . In the most ancient papal bulls it was written by the pope himself at the foot of the deed . in two lines, generally in larger capital or uncial characters, placed between two crosses .
From the beginning of the i 1th century it became thefashion to
See also:link the letters; and, dating from the time of
See also:Leo IX., A.D . 1048-1054, the Benevalete was inscribed in form of a monogram . During Leo's pontificate it was also accompanied with a flourish called the Komma, which was only an exaggeration of the mark of
See also:punctuation (periodus) which from the 9th to the 11th century closed the subscription and generally resembled the modern semicolon . Leo's successors abandoned the Komma, but the monogrammatic Benevaletc continued, invariable in form, but from time to time varying in
See also:size . In Leo IX.'s pontificate also was introduced the
See also:Rota . This sign, when it had received its final shape in the The Rota. nth century, was in form of a
See also:wheel, composed of two concentric circles, in the space between which was written the
See also:motto or
See also:device of the pope (signum papae), usually a short
See also:sentence from one of the Psalms or some other portion of Scripture; preceded by a small cross, which the pontiff himself sometimes inscribed . The central space within the wheel was divided (by cross lines) into four quarters, the two upper ones being occupied by the names of the apostles St
See also:Peter and St Paul, and the two
See also:lower ones by the name of the pope . The Rota was placed on the
See also:left of the subscription, the monogrammatic Benevalete on the right . The two signs were likewise adopted by certain ecclesiastical chanceries and by feudal lords, particularly in the 12th century . From the same period also the
See also:Spanish and Portuguese monarchs adopted the Rota, the, signo rodado, which is so conspicuous in the royal charters of the Peninsula . Besides the subscription, an early
See also:auxiliary method of authentication was by the impression of the seal which, as noticed above, was sealing. required by the Roman law . But the general use of the signet gradually failed, and by the 7th century it had ceased .
Still it survived in the royal chanceries, and the sovereigns both of the Merovingian and of the Carolingian lines had their seals; and, in the 8th century, the mayors of thepalace like-wise . It is interesting to find instances of the use of
See also:antique intaglios for the purpose by some of them . In England too there is
See also:proof that the Mercian kings Offa and Coenwulf used seals, in imitation of the Frankish monarchs . In the 7th century, and still more so in the 8th and 9th centuries, the royal seals were of exaggerated size: the precursors of the great seals of the later sovereigns of western Europe . The waxen seals of the early diplomas were in all cases en placard: that is, they were attached to the
See also:face of the document and not suspended from it, being held in position by a cross-cut incision in the material, through which the
See also:wax was pressed and then flattened at the back . On the cessation of autograph signatures in subscriptions, the general use of seals revived, beginning in the loth century and becoming the ordinary method of authentication from the 12th to the 15th century inclusive . Even when signatures had once again become universal, the seal continued to hold its place; and thus sealing is, to the present day, required for the legal execution of a deed . The
See also:attachment en placard was discontinued, as a general practice, in the middle of the I1th century; and seals thenceforward were, for the most part, suspended, leathern thongs being used at first, and afterwards silken and hempen cords or
See also:parchment labels . In documents of minor importance it was sometimes the custom to impress the seal or seals on one or more strips of the parchment of the deed itself, cut, but not entirely detached, from the lower margin, and left to hang loose . Besides waxen impressions of seals, Impressions in metal, bearing a device on both faces, after the fashion of a
See also:coin, and suspended, were employed from an early period . The most widely known instances are the bullae attached to papal documents, generally of lead . The earliest surviving papal bulla is one of Pope
See also:Zacharias, A.D .
746, but earlier examples are known from drawings . The papal bulla was a disk of metal stamped on both sides . From the time ofBoniface V. to Leo IV., A.D . 617-855, the name of the pontiff, in the genitive case, was impressed on the obverse, and his title as pope on the
See also:reverse, e.g . Bonifati/ papae . After that period, for some time, the name was inscribed in a circle
See also:round a central ornament . Other variations followed; but at length in the pontificate of
See also:Paschal II., A.D . 1099, the bulla took the form which it afterwards retained: on the obverse, the heads of the apostles St Peter and St Paul; on the reverse, the pope's name, title and number in succession . In the period of time between his election and consecration, the pope made use of the
See also:half-bull, that is, the obverse only was impressed . It should be mentioned that, in order to conform to modern conditions and for convenience of despatch through the post, Leo XIII., in 1878, substituted for the leaden
See also:band a red
See also:stamp bearing the heads of the two apostles with the name of the pope inscribed as a
See also:legend . The Carolingian monarchs also used metal bullae . None of Charlemagne's have survived, but there are still extant leaden examples of Charles the Bald .
The use of lead was not persisted in either in the chancery of France or in that of Germany .
See also:Golden bullae were employed on special occasions by both popes and temporal monarchs; for example, they were attached to the confirmations of the elections of the emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries; the bull of Leo X. conferring the title of Defender of the Faith on
See also:Henry VIII. in 1524, and the deed of
See also:alliance between Henry and
See also:Francis I. in 1527, had golden bullae; and other examples could be cited . But lead has always been the common metal to be thusemployed . In the
See also:southern countries of Europe, where the warmth of the
See also:climate renders wax an undesirable material, leaden bullae have been in ordinary use, not only in Italy but also in the Peninsula, in southern France, and in the Latin East (see SEALS) . The necessity of conforming to exact phraseology in diplomas and of observing regularity in expressing formulas naturally led to the compilation of formularies . From the early middle ages Forma . the
See also:art of composition, not only of charters but also of lades. general
See also:correspondence, was commonly taught in the monasteries . The teacher was the dictator, his method of teaching was described by the verb dictare, and his teaching was dictamen or the ars dictaminis . 'For the use of these monastic
See also:schools, formularies and manuals comprising formulas and
See also:models for the composition of the various acts and documents soon became indispensable . At a later stage such formularies developed into the models and
See also:treatises for epistolary
See also:style which have had their imitations even in modern times . The widespread use of the formularies had the
See also:advantage of imposing a certain degree of uniformity on the phrasing of documents of the western nations of Europe . Those compilations which are of an earlier period than the 1tth century have been systematically examined and are published those of more recent date still remain to be thoroughly edited .
The early formularies are of the simpler kind, being collections of formulas without dissertation . The Formulae Marculfi, compiled by the
See also:monk Marculf about the year 65o, was the most important work of this nature of the Merovingian period and became the official formulary of the time; and it continued in use in a revised edition in the early Carolingian chancery . Of the same period there are extant formularies compiled at various centres, such as
See also:Reichenau, St
See also:Regensburg, Cordova, &c . (see Giry,
See also:Manuel de diplomatique, pp . 482-488) . The
See also:Liber dimwits Romanorum Pontificum was compiled in the 7th and 8th centuries, and was employed in the papal chancery to the end of the 11th century . Of the more developed treatises and manuals of epistolary rhetoric which succeeded, and which originated in Italy, the earliest example was the Breviarium de dictamine of the monk Alberic of
See also:Monte Cassiro, compiled about the year 1075 . Another well-known work, the Rationes dictandi, is also attributed to the same author . Of later date was the Ars dictaminis of
See also:Bernard of
See also:Chartres of the 12th century . (Among special works on formularies are: E. de Roziere, Recueil general des formules usitees clans ?empire des Francs (3 vols.,
See also:Paris, 1861–1871); K . Zeumer, Formulae Merovingici et Karolini aevi (Hanover, 1886) ; and L . Rockinger, Briefsteller and Formelbucher des 11 bis .
14 Jahrhunderts (
See also:Munich, 1863-1864) . Organization.—The formalities observed by the different chanceries of medieval Europe, which are to be learned from a study of the documents issued by them, are so varied and often so minute, that it is impossible to give a full account of them within the limits of the present article . We can only state some of the results of the investigations of students of diplomatic . The chancery which stands first, and foremost is the papal chancery . On account of its antiquity and of its steady development, it has served as a
See also:model for the other chanceries of Europe . Organized in remote times, it adopted for chancery. the structure of its letters a number of formulas and rules which developed and became more and more fixed and precise from century to century . The Apostolic court being organized from the first on the model of the Roman imperial court, the early pontiffs would naturally have collected their archives, as the emperors had done, into sonnies . Pope
See also:Julius I., A.D . 337–353, reorganized the papal archives under an official schola notariorum, at the
See also:head of which was a primicerius notariorum . Pope
See also:Damasus, A.D . ,366-384, built a record office at the Lateran, archivium sanctae Romanae ecclesiae, where the archives were kept and registers of them compiled . The collection and orderly arrangement of the archives provided material for the
See also:establishment of regular diplomatic usages, and the science of formulae naturally followed .
For the study of papal documents four 'periods have been defined, each successive period being distinguished from its predecessor by some particular development of forms andprocedure . The first period is reckoned from the earliest times to the accession of Leo IX., A.D . 1048 . For almost the whole of the first eight centuries no
See also:original papal documents have survived . But copies are found in canonical works and registers, many of them false, and others probably not transcribed in full or in the original words; but still of use, as showing the growth of formulas . The earliest original document is a fragment of a letter of Adrian I., A.D . 788 . From that date there is a series, but the documents are rare to the beginning of the 11th century, all down to that period being written on papyrus . The latest existing papyrus document in France is one of
See also:Sergius IV., A.D . I0II; in Germany, one of Benedict VIII., A.D . 1022 . The earliest document on vellum is one of
See also:John XVIII., A.D .
1005 . The nomenclature of papal documents even at an early period is rather wide . In their earliest form they are Letters, called in the documents themselves, litterae, epistola, pagina, scriptum, sometimes decretum . A classification, generally accepted, divides them into: 1 . Letters or Epistles: the ordinary acts of correspondence with persons of all ranks and orders; including constitutions (a later term) or decisions in matters of faith and discipline, and encyclicals giving directions to bishops of the whole
See also:church or of individual countries . 2 . Decrees, being letters promulgated by the popes of their own motion . 3 .
See also:Decretals, decisions on points of ecclesiastical administration or discipline . 4 . Rescripts (called in the originals preceptum, auctoritas, privilegium), granting
See also:requests to petitioners . But writers differ in their terms, and such sub-divisions must be more or less arbitrary .
The comprehensive term " bull " (the name of the leaden papal seal, bulla, being transferred to the document) did not come into use until the 13th century . Copies of papal deeds were collected into registers or bull
See also:aria . Lists showing the
See also:chronological sequence of documents are catalogues of acts . When into such lists indications from narrative sources are introduced they become regesta (res gestae) : a term not to be confused with "
See also:register." Clearness and conciseness have been recognized as attributes of early papal letters; but even in those of the 4th century certain rhythmical periods have been detected in their composition which became more marked under Leo the Great, A.D . 440-461, and which developed into the cursus or
See also:prose rhythm of the pontifical chancery of the I Ith and 12th centuries . In the most ancient deeds the pope styles himself Episcopus, sometimes Episcopus Catholicae Ecclesiae, or Episcopus Romanae Ecclesiae, rarely Papa .
See also:Gregory I., A.D . 590, was the first to adopt the form Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, which became general in the 9th century, and thenceforth was invariable . The second period of papal documents extends from Leo IX. to the accession of Innocent III., A.D . 1048-1198 . At the beginning of the period formulae tended to take more definite shape and to become fixed . In the superscription of bulls a distinction arose : those which conferred lasting privileges employing the words in perpetuum to close this clause; those whose benefaction was of a transitory character using the form of salutation, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem .
But it was underUrban II., A.D . Io88-1099, that the principal formulae became stereotyped . Then the distinction between documents of lasting, and those of transitory, value became more exactly defined; the former class being known as greater bulls, bullae majores (also called privilegia), the latter lesser bulls, bullae minores . The leading characteristics of the greater bulls were these: The first line containing the superscription and closing with the words in per petuum (or, some-times, ad per petuam, or aeternam, rei memoriam) was written in tall and slender ornamental letters, close packed; the final clauses of the text develop with tendency to fixity; the pope's subscription is accompanied with the rota on the left and the benevalete monogram on the right; and certain elaborate forms of dating are punctiliously observed . The introduction of subscriptions of cardinals as witnesses had gradually become a practice . Under Victor II., A.D . 1055-1057, the practice became more confirmed, and after the time of Innocent II., A.D . 1130-1145, the subscriptions of the three orders were arranged
See also:accord- '
See also:ing to
See also:rank, those of the
See also:cardinal bishops being placed in the centre under the papal subscription, those of the priests under the rota on the left, and those of the deacons under the benevalete on the right . In the lesser bulls simpler forms were employed; there was no introductory line of
See also:stilted letters; the salutation, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem, closed the superscription; the final clauses were shortened; there was neither papal subscription, nor rota, nor benevalete; the date was simple . From the time of Adrian I., A.D . 772-795, the system of double dating was followed in the larger bulls . . The first date was written by the scribe of the document, scriptum per manum N. with the
See also:month (rarely the day of the month) and year of the indiction .
The second, the actual date of the execution of the deed, was entered (ostensibly) by some high official, data, or datum, per manum N., and contained the day of the month (according to the Roman
See also:calendar), the year of indiction, the year of pontificate (in some early deeds, also tl'A year of the empire and the post-consulate year), and the year of the Incarnation, which, however, was gradually introduced and only became more common in the course of the I 1 th century . For example, a common form of a full date would run thus: Datum Laterani, per manum N., sanctae Romanae ecclesiae diaconi cardinalis, xiiii. kl . Maii, indictione'V.,
See also:anno dominicae Incarnationis mxcvii., pontificatus autem domini papae Urbani secundi X° . The simpler form of the date of a lesser bull might be: Datum Laterani, iii. non .
See also:Jan., pontificatus nostri anno
See also:iiii . By degrees the use of the lesser bulls almost entirely superseded that of the greater bulls, which became exceptional in the 13th century and almost ceased after the
See also:migration to
See also:Avignon in 1309 . In modern times the greater bulls occasionally reappear for very solemn acts, as bullae consistoriales, executed in the
See also:consistory . The third period of papal documents extends from Innocent III. to
See also:Eugenius IV., A.D . 1198-1431 . The pontificate of Innocent III. was a most important epoch in the history of the development of the papal chancery . Formulas became more exactly fixed,
See also:definitions more precise, the observation of rules and precedents more
See also:constant . The
See also:staff of the chancery was reorganized .
The existing series of registers of papal documents was then commenced . The growing use of lesser bulls for the business of the papal court led to a further development in the 13th century . They were now divided into two classes: Tituli and Mandatnenta . The former conferred favours, promulgated precepts, judgments, decisions, &c . The latter comprised ordinances, commissions, &c., and were executive documents . There are certain features which distinguish the two classes . In the tituli, the initial letter of the pope's name is ornamented with openwork and the other letters are stilted . In the mandamenta, the initial is filled in solid and the other letters are of the same size as the
See also:rest of the text . In the tituli, enlarged letters mark the beginnings of the text and of certain clauses; but not in the mandamenta . In the former the mark of
See also:abbreviation is a looped sign; in the latter it is a
See also:horizontal stroke . In the former the old practice of leaving a
See also:gap between the letters s and t, and c and t, whenever they occur together in a word (e.g. is te, sane tus), and linking them by a coupling stroke above the line is continued; in the latter it disappears . The leaden bulla attached to a titulus (as a permanent deed) is suspended by cords of red and yellow silks; while that of a mandamentum (a temporary deed) hangs from a hempen
See also:cord .
See also:fourth period, extending from 1431 to the present time, the tituli and mandamenta have continued to be the ordinary documents in use; but certain other kinds have also arisen . Briefs (brevia) , or apostolic letters, concerning the
See also:personal affairs of the pope or the administration of the temporal dominion, or conceding indulgences, came into general use in the 13th century in the pontificate of Eugenius IV . They are written in the
See also:italic hand on thin
See also:white vellum; and the name of the pope with his style as papa is written at the head of the sheet, e.g . Eugenius papa iiii . They are closed and sealed with Seal of the
See also:Fisher-man, sub anulo Piscatoris . Briefs have almost superseded the mandamenta . The documents known as Signatures of the court of Rome or Latin letters, and used principally for the expedition of indulgences, were first introduced in the 15th century They were drawn in the form of a petition to the pope, which he granted by the words fiat ut petatur written across the top . They were not sealed; and only the pontifical year appears in the date . Lastly, the documents to which the name of Motu proprio is given are also without seal and are used in the administration of the papal court, the formula place' et ita motu proprio
See also:mandamus being signed by the pope . The character of the
See also:handwriting employed by the papal chancery is discussed in the article PALAEOGRAPHY . Here it will be enough to state that the early style was derived from the Lombardic hand, and that it continued in use down to the beginning of the 12th century; but that, from the loth century, owing to the general adoption of the Caroline minuscule writing, it began to fail and gradually became so unfamiliar to the uninitiated, that, while it still continued in use for papal bulls, it was found necessary to accompany them with copies written in the more intelligible Caroline script . The intricate, fanciful character, known as the Lilera sancti Petri, was invented in the time of
See also:Clement VIII., A.D .
1592-1605, was fully developed under
See also:Alexander VIII., 1689-1691, and was only abolished at the end of the year 1878 by Leo XIII . Of the chancery of the Merovingian line of kings as many as ninety authentic diplomas are known, and, of these,
See also:thirty-seven are originals, the earliest being of the year 625 . The most ancient examples were written on papyrus, vellum superseding that material towards the end of the 7th century . All these diplomas are technically letters, having the superscription and address and, at the foot, close to the seal, the valedictory benevalete . They commence with a monogrammatic invocation, which, together with the superscription and address written in fanciful elongated letters, occupies the first line . The superscription always runs in the form, N. rex Francorum . The most complete kinds of diplomas were authenticated by the king's subscription, that of the referendarius (the official charged with the custody of the royal seal), the impression of the seal, and exceptionally by subscriptions of prelates and great personages . The royal subscription was usually autograph; but, if the sovereign were too
See also:young or too illiterate to write, a monogram was traced by the scribe . The referendary, if he countersigned the royal subscription, added the word optulit to his own signature; if he subscribed independently, he wrote recognovit et subscripsit, the end of the last word being usually lost in flourishes forming a ruche . The date gave the place, day, month and year of the reign . The Merovingian royal diplomas are of two classes: (I) Precepts, conferring gifts, favours, immunities and confirmations, entitled in the documents themselves as praeceptum, praeceptio, auctoritas; some drawn up in full form, with preamble and ample final clauses; others less precise and formal . (2) Judgments (judicia) , which required no preamble or final clauses as they were records of the sovereign's judicial decisions; they were subscribed by the referendary and were sealed with the royal seal .
Other classes of documents were the cartae de mundeburde, taking persons under the royal
See also:protection, and indiculi or letters transmitting orders or notifying decisions; but no examples have survived . The diplomas of the early
See also:Carolingians differed, as was natural, but little from those of their predecessors . As mayors of the palace, Charles Martel and
See also:Pippin took the style of vir inluster . On becoming king, Pippin retained it; Pip pinus, vir inluster, rex Francorum, and it continued to be part of the royal title till Charlemagne became emperor . The royal subscription was in form of a sign-manual or mark; but Charlemagne elaborated this into a monogram of the letters of his name built up on a cross . In 775 the royal title of Charlemagne became Carolus, gratia Dei rex Francorum et Langobardorum, ac patricius Romanorum, the last words being assumed on his visit to Rome in 774 . On becoming emperor in Boo, he was styled Imperator, Romanum gubernans imperium, rex Francorum et'Langobardorum . It is to be noticed that thenceforth his name was spelt with initial K (as it was on the monogram), having previously been written with C in the deeds . Most of his diplomas were authenticated by the subscription of the chancellor and impression of the seal . A novelty in the form of dating was also introduced, two. words, datum (for time) and
See also:action (for place), being now employed . The character of the writing of the diplomas, founded on the Roman cursive hand, which had become very intricate under the
See also:Merovingians, improved under their successors, yet the reform which was introduced into the literary script hardly affected the cursive writing of diplomatic until the latter part of Charlemagne's reign . The archaic style was particularly maintained in judgments, which were issued by the private chancery of the palace, a department more
See also:con- servative in its methods than the imperial chancery .
It was in the reign of
See also:Louis Debonair, A.D . 814-840, that the Carolingian diploma took its final shape . A variation now appears in the monogram, that monarch's sign-manual being built up, not on a cross as previously, but on the letter H., the initial of his name Hludovicus, and serving as the pattern for successive monarchs of the name of Louis . In the Carolingian chancery the staff was exclusively ecclesiastical; at its head was the chancellor, whose title is traced back to the cancellarius, or
See also:petty officer under the Roman empire, stationed at the
See also:bar or lattice (cancelli) of the
See also:basilica or other law court and serving as
See also:usher . As keeper of the royal archives his subscription was indispensable for royal acts . The diplomas were drawn up by the notaries, an important body, upon whom devolved the
See also:duty of maintaining the formulae and traditions of the office . It has been observed that in the 9th century the documents were drawn carefully, but that in the loth century there was a great degeneration in this respect . Under the early Capetian kings there was great confusion and want of uniformity in their diplomas; and it was not until the reign of Louis VI., A.D . I Io8, that the formulae were again reduced to rules . The acts of the imperial chancery of Germany followed the patterns of the Carolingian diplomas, with little variation down to the reign of
See also:Barbarossa, A.D . 1152-1190 . 1mpeNal The sovereign's style was N. divina favente dementia German rex; after
See also:coronation at Rome he became imperator chancery.
See also:augustus .
At the end of the loth century,
See also:Otto III. developed the latter title into Romanorum imperator augustus . Under Henry III., and regularly from the time of Henry V., A.D . Ii06-1125, the title before coronation has been Romanorum rex . The royal monogram did not necessarily contain all the letters of the name; but, on the other hand, from the year 976, it became more complicated and combined the imperial title with the name . For example, the monogram of Henry II. combines the words Henricus Romanorum imperator augustus . The flourished ruches also, as in the Frankish chanceries, were in vogue . Eventually they were used by certain of the chancellors as a sign-manual, and took fanciful shapes, such as a
See also:building with a cupola, or even a diptych . They disappear early in the 12th century, the period when in other respects the chancery of the
See also:Holy Roman Empire largely adopted a more simple style in its diplomas . Lists of witnesses, in support of the royal and official subscriptions, were sometimes added in the course of the iith century, and they appear regularly in documents a
See also:hundred years later . For the study of diplomatic in England, material exists in two distinct series of documents, those of the Anglo-Saxon period, and those subsequent to the Norman Conquest . The Anglo-Saxon kings appear to have borrowed, partially, the maatic In o- style of their diplomas from the chanceries of their England . Frankish neighbours, introducing at the same time modifications which give those documents a particular character marking their
See also:nationality .
In some of the earlier examples we find that the lines of the
See also:foreign style are followed more or less closely; but very soon a simpler model was adopted which, while it varied in formulas from reign to reign, lasted in general construction down to the time of the Norman Conquest . The royal charters were usually drawn up in Latin, sometimes in Anglo-'Saxon, and began with a preamble or exordium (in some instances preceded by an invocation headed with the chrismon or with a cross), in the early times of a simple character, but, later, drawn out not infrequently to great length in involved and bombastic periods . Then immediately followed the disposing or granting clause, often accompanied with a few words explaining the
See also:motive, such as, for the
See also:good of the soul of the grantor; and the text was closed with final clauses of varying extent, protecting the deed against infringement, &c . In early examples the dating clause gave the day and month (often according to the Roman calendar) and the year of the indiction; but the year of the Incarnation was also immediately adopted; and, later, the regnal year also . The position of this clause in the
See also:charter was subject to variation . The subscriptions of the king and of the personages witnessing the deed, each preceded by a cross, but all written by the hand of the scribe, usually closed the charter . A peculiarity was the introduction, in many instances, either in the body of the charter, Mero- vingian chancery . Carolingian chancery . or in a separate
See also:paragraph at the end, of the boundaries of the
See also:land granted, written in the native
See also:tongue . The sovereigns of the several kingdoms, of the Heptarchy, as well as those of the
See also:United Kingdom, usually styled themselves rex . But from the time of IEthelstan, A.D . 825-840, they also assumed fantastic titles in the text of their charters, such as: rex et primicerius, rex et rector, gubernator et rector, monarchus, and particularly the Greek basileus, and basileus
See also:industries .
At the same time the name ofAlbion was also frequently used for Britain . A large number of documents of the Anglo-Saxon period, dating from the 7th century, has survived, both original and copies entered in chartularies . Of distinct documents there are nearly two hundred; but a large proportion of these must be set aside as copies (both contemporary and later) or as
See also:spurious deeds . Although there is evidence, as above stated, of the use of seals by certain of the Mercian kings, the method of authentication of diplomas by seal impression was practically unknown to the Anglo-Saxon sovereigns, save only to
See also:Edward the
See also:Confessor, who, copying the custom which obtained upon the continent, adopted the use of a great seal . With the Norman Conquest the old tradition of the Anglo-
See also:Saxons disappeared . The Conqueror brought with him the practice of the Roman chancery, which naturally followed the Capetian model; and his diplomas of
See also:English origin differed only from those of
See also:Normandy by the addition of his new style, rex Anglorum, in the superscription . But even from the first there was a. tendency to simplicity in the new English chancery, not improbably suggested by the brief formalities of Anglo-Saxon charters, and, side by side with the more formal royal diplomas, others of shorter form and less ceremony were issued, which by the reign of Henry II. quite superseded the more solemn documents . These simpler charters began with the royal superscription, the address, and the salutation, e.g . Willelmus, Dei gratia rex Anglorum, N. episcopo et omnibus baronibus et fidelibus suis Francis et Anglis salutem . Then followed the notification and the grant, e.g . Sciatic me concessisse, &c., generally without final clauses, or, if any, brief clauses of protection and
See also:warranty; and, at the end, the
See also:list of witnesses and the date: The regnal year was usually cited; but the year of the Incarnation was also sometimes given . The great seal was appended .
To some of the Conqueror's charters his subscription and those of his
See also:queen and sons are attached, written by the scribe, but accompanied with crosses which may or may not be autograph . By the reign of John the simpler form of royal charters had taken final shape, and from this time the acts of the kings of England have been classified under three heads: viz . (e) Charters, generally of the pattern described above; (2) Letters patent, in which the address is general, Universis presentee litteras inspecturis, &c.; the corroborative clause describes the character of the document, In cujus rei testimonium has literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes; the king himself is his own witness, Teste me ipso; and the great seal is appended; (3) Close letters, administrative documents conveying orders, the king witnessing, Teste me ipso . The style of the English kings down to John was, with few exceptions, Rex Anglorum; thenceforward, Rex Angliae . Henry II. added the feudal titles,
See also:dux Normannorum et Aquitanorum et comes A ndegavorum, which Henry III. curtailed to dux A quitaniae . John added the title dominos Hiberniae; Edward III., on claiming the
See also:crown of France, styled himself rex Angliae et Franciae, the same title being
See also:borne by successive kings down to the year 1801; and Henry VIII., in 1521, assumed the title of fidei defensor . The formula Dei gratia does not consistently accompany the royal title until the reign of Henry II., who adopted it in 1173 (see L . Delisle, Memoire sur la chronologie des chartes de
See also:Henri II., in the Bibl. de t' Ecole des Charles, lxvii . 361-401) . The forms adopted in the royal chanceries were naturally imitated in the composition of private deeds which in all countries form the mass of material for historical and diplomatic Private
See also:research . The student of English diplomatic will soon deeds . remark how readily the private charters, especially conveyances of real property, fall into classes, , and how stereotyped the phraseology and formulae of each class become,only modified from time to time by particular acts of legislation .
The- brevity. of the early conveyances is maintained through successive generations, with only moderate growth as time progresses through the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries . The different kinds of deeds which the requirements of society have from time to , time called into existence must be learned by the student from the text-books . But a particular form of document which was especially in favour in . England should be mentioned . This was the chirograph (Gr. xetp, a hand, yOakes, to write), which is found even in the Anglo-Saxon period, and which got its name from the word chirographum, cirographum or cyrographum being written in large letters at the head of the deed . At first the word was written, presumably, at the head of each of the two authentic. copies which the two parties to a transaction would require . Then it became the
See also:habit to use the word thus written as a
See also:tally, the two copies of the deed being written on one sheet, head to head, with the word between them, which was then cut through longitudinally in a straight, or more commonly waved or indented (in modum dentium) line, each of the two copies thus having half of the word at the head .. Any other word, or a series of letters, might thus be employed; and more than two copies of a deed could thus be made to tally . The chirograph was the precursor of the modern
See also:indenture, the commonest form of English deeds, though no longer atally . In other countries, the notarial instrument has performed . the functions which the chirograph and indenture have discharged for us . AuTxoxrrIES.—General treatises, handbooks, &c., are J . Mabillon, De re diplomatica (1709); Tassin and Toustain, Nouveau Traite de diplomatique (1750–1765) ; T .
Madox, Formulare Anglicanuum(1702) ; G . Hickes, Linguarum septentrionalium thesaurus (1703-1705) ; F . S.Maffei, Istoria diplomatica (1727); G .Marini, I Papiri diplomatica (1805) ; G . Bessel, Chronicon Gotwicense (De diplomatibus imperatorum ac regum Germaniae) (1732); A . Fumagalli, Delle istituzioni diplomatiche (1802) ; M . F . Kopp, Palaeographia critica (1817-1829); K . T . G . Schonemann, Versuch eines vollstandigen Systems der Diplomatik (1818) ; T . Sickel, Lehre von den Urkunden der erstenKarolinger (1867); J .
Ficker, Beitrage zur Urkundenlehre (1877–1878); A . Gloria, Compendio delle lezeoni di paleografia e diplomatica (187o); C .Paoli, Programma scolastico di paleografia
See also:Latina e di diplomatica (1888–189o); H . Bresslau, Handbuch der Urkundenlehre fair Deutschland and Italien (1889) ; A . Giry, Manuel de diplomatique (1894); F . Leist, Urkundenlehre (1893); E . M .
See also:Thompson, Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography, cap. xix . (1906)' J . M . Kemble, Codex diplomaticus aevi Saxonici (1839-1848) ; W . G .
Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum (1885–1893) ; J . Munoz y Rivero,Manuel de paleografia diplomatica Espanola (1890); M . Russi, Paleografia e diplomatica de' documents delle provincie Napolitane (1883) . - Facsimiles are given in J . B .
See also:Silvestre, Pateographie universelle (English edition, 185o); and in the Facsimiles, &c., published by the Palaeographical Society (1873–1894) and the New Palaeographical Society (1903, &c.) ; and also in the following works :—A . Champollion-
See also:Figeac, Chartes et manuscrits sur papyrus (1840) ; J . A . Letronne, Diplomes et chartes de l'epoque merovingienne (1845–1866)x; J . Tardif, Archides de l'Empire: Facsimile de chartes et diplo"
See also:mes merovingiens et carlovingiens (1866) ; G . H . Pettz, Schrifttafeln zum Gebrauch bei- , diplomatischen Vorlesungen 0844–1869); H. von
See also:Sybel and T .
Sickel, Kaiserurkunden in Abbildungen (1880–1891); J. von Pflugk-Harttun , Specimina selecta chartarum Pontifeum Romanorum (1885–1887; Specimina palaeographica regestorum Romanorum pontificum (1888) ; Recueil de fac-similes a l'usage de l'Ecole des Charles (not published) (1880, &c.) ; J . Munoz y Rivero, Chrestomathia palaeographica: scripturae Hispanae veteris specimina (189o); E . A .Bond, Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum '(1873–1878): W . B . Sanders, Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon
See also:Manuscripts (charters) (1878–1884); G . F . Warner and H . J .
See also:Ellis, Facsimiles of Royal and other Charters in the British Museum (1903) . ( .
DIPLOMACY (Fr. diplomatic)
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