DOCTRINE .) 158 . By a treaty withRussia (1825) that power gave up all claims on the Pacific
See also:coast south of the
See also:present limits of
See also:Alaska . The
See also:northern boundary of the
See also:United States had The been defined by the treaty of 1783; and, after the
See also:North-west acquisition of
See also:Louisiana, a
See also:convention with
See also:Great Boundary . Britain (1818) settled the boundary on the
See also:line of 490 N.
See also:lat. as far west as the Rocky Mountains . West of these mountains the so-called
See also:country, on whose limits the two
See also:powers could not agree, was to be held in
See also:common possession for ten years . This common possession was prolonged by another convention (1827) indefinitely, with the
See also:privilege to either power to terminate it, on giving twelve months'
See also:notice . This arrangement lasted until 1846 (see OREGON:
See also:History) . 159 . Monroe's
See also:term of
See also:office came to an end in
See also:March 1825 . He had originally been an extreme Democrat, who could hardly speak of
See also:Washington with
See also:patience; he had slowly modified his views, and his tendencies were now eagerly claimed by the few remaining Federalists as identical with their own . The nationalizing
See also:faction of the dominant party had scored almost election all the successes of the administration, and the of1824. divergence between it and the opposing faction was steadily becoming more apparent . All the candidates for the
See also:presidency in 1824—Andrew
See also:Jackson, a private
See also:citizen of
See also:William H .
See also:Crawford, Monroe's secretary of the
See also:John Quincy
See also:Adams, his secretary of state; and
See also:Clay, the
See also:speaker of the
See also:House of Representatives—claimed to be Republicans alike; but the
See also:personal nature of the struggle was shown by the tendency of their supporters to
See also:call themselves " Adams men " or " Jackson men," rather than by any real party title .
See also:Calhoun was supported by all groups for the
See also:vice-presidency, and was elected without difficulty . The choice of a
See also:president was more doubtful . 16o . None of the four candidates had anything like a party organization behind him . Adams and Clay represented the Party nationalizing
See also:element, as Crawford and Jackson Divergence. did not; but there the likeness among them stopped . The strongest forces behind Adams were the new manufacturing and commercial interests of the East; behind Clay were the desires of the West for
See also:internal improvements at Federal expense as a set-off to the benefits which the seaboard states had already received from the
See also:government; and the two elements were soon to be united into the
See also:National Republican or Whig party (q.v.) . Crawford was the representative of the old Democratic party, with all its
See also:Southern influences and leanings . Jackson was the personification of the new democracy—not very cultured, perhaps, but honest, and hating every shade of class
See also:control instinctively . As he became better known the whole force of the new
See also:drift of things turned in his direction . Crawford was taken out of the
See also:race, just after the electors had
See also:cast their votes, by
See also:physical failure, and Adams, later, by the revival of
See also:ancient quarrels with the Federalists of New England; and the future was to be with Clay or with Jackson . But in 1824 the electors gave no one a majority; and the House of Representatives, voting by states, gave the presidency to Adams .
161 . Adams's election in 1825 was due to the fact that Clay'sfriends in the House—unable to
See also:vote for him, as he was the The Adams lowest in the electoral vote, and only three names Administra- were open to choice in the House—very naturally gave tion 1825- their votes to Adams . As Adams appointed Clay 29. to the leading position in his
See also:cabinet, the defeated party at once raised the cry of " bargain and intrigue," one of the most effective in a democracy, and it was kept up through-out Adams's four years of office . Jackson had received the largest number of electoral votes, though not a majority,' and the hazy notion that he had been injured because of his devotion to the
See also:people increased his popularity . Though demagogues made use of it for selfish purposes, this feeling was an honest one, and Adams had nothing to oppose to it . He tried vigorously to uphold the "
See also:system," and succeeded in passing the
See also:tariff of 1828; he tried to maintain the influence of the United States on both the American continents; but he remained as unpopular as his
See also:grew popular . In 1828 Adams was easily displaced by Jackson, the electoral vote being 178 to 83 . Calhoun was re-elected vice-president . 162 . Jackson's inauguration in 1829 closes this
See also:period, as it ends the
See also:time during which a disruption of the Union by the Election of peaceable withdrawal of any state was even possible . 1828 . De- The party which had made state
See also:sovereignty its mocracy and
See also:bulwark in 1798 was now in control of the govern-
See also:Nationality. ment again; but Jackson's proclamation in his first term, in which he warned South Carolina that " disunion by armed force is treason," and that
See also:blood must flow if the
See also:laws were resisted, speaks a very different
See also:tone from the speculations of ' Jackson received 99, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37; in the House of Representatives Adams received the votes of 13 states, Jackson of 7, and Crawford of 4 .
For vice-president Calhoun received 182 electoral votes, and his
See also:principal competitors, Nathan Sanford, of New
See also:York, and Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina, received 30 and 24 respectively . Jefferson on possible future divisions of the United States . And even the sudden attempt of South Carolina to exercise
See also:action (§§ 172-173) shows that some
See also:interest dependent upon state sovereignty had taken alarm at the drift of events, and was anxious to
See also:lodge a claim to the right before it should slip from its fingers for ever .
See also:Nullification was only the first skirmish between the two hostile forces of
See also:slavery and democracy . 163 . When the vast territory of Louisiana was acquired in 1803 the new owner found slavery already established there by
See also:custom recognized by French and
See also:law . Slavery . Congress tacitly ratified existing law by taking no action; slavery continued legal, and spread further through the territory; and the state of Louisiana entered as a slave state in 1812 . The next state to be carved out of the territory was
See also:Missouri, admitted in 1821 . A Territory, on applying for
See also:admission as a state, brings a constitution for inspection by Congress; and when it was found that the new state of Missouri proposed to recognize and continue slavery, a vigorous opposition spread through the North and West, and carried most of the senators and representatives from those sections with it . In the House of Representatives these two sections had a greatly
See also:superior number of members; but, as the number of Northern and Southern states had been kept about equal, the compact Southern vote, with one or two Northern
See also:allies, generally retained control of the
See also:Senate . Admitted by the Senate and rejected by the House, Missouri's application hung suspended for two years until it was successful by the admission of Maine, a balancing Northern state,2 and by the following arrangement, known as the Missouri The Missouri Compromise of 182o: Missouri was to enter as a compromise. slave state; slavery was for ever prohibited through- out the
See also:rest of the Louisiana
See also:Purchase north of lat .
36° 3o', the
See also:main southern boundary of Missouri; and, though nothing was said of the territory south of the compromise line, it was understood that any state formed out of it was to be a slave state, if it so wished (see MISSOURI COMPROMISE and
See also:Missoula, § History) .
See also:Arkansas entered under this
See also:provision in 1836 . 164 . The question of slavery was thus set at rest for the present, though a few
See also:agitators were roused to more zealous opposition to the essence of slavery itself . In the next
See also:decade these agitators succeeded only in the conversion of sectional Divergence . a few recruits, but these recruits were the ones who took up the
See also:work at the opening of the next period and never gave it up until slavery was ended . It is plain now, however, that North and South had already drifted so far apart as to
See also:form two sections, and it became evident during the next
See also:forty years that the wants and desires of these two sections were so divergent that it was impossible for one government to make satisfactory laws for both . The chief cause was not removed in 1820, though one of its effects was got out of the way for the time . 165 . The vast
See also:flood of human beings which had been pouring westward for years had now
See also:pretty well occupied the territory east of the
See also:Mississippi, while, on the west side of that stream, it still showed a disposition to hold to the
See also:Area . The settled
See also:river valleys . The settled area had increased from 240,000 sq. m. in 1790 to 633,000 sq. m. in 1830, with an
See also:average of 2o•3 persons to the square mile .
There was still a great
See also:deal of
See also:Indian territory in the Southern states of
See also:Alabama, Mississippi, and
See also:Florida, for the Southern
See also:Indians were among the finest of their race; they had become semi-civilized, and were formidable antagonists to the encroaching
See also:white race . The states interested had begun preparations for their forcible removal, in public
See also:defiance (see GEORGIA: History) of the attempts of the Federal government to protect the Indians (1827); but the removal was not completed until 1835 . In the North, Wisconsin and Michigan, with the northern halves of
See also:Illinois and
See also:Indiana, were still very thinly settled, but everything indicated early increase of population . The first lake steamboat, the " Walk-in-the-
See also:Water," had appeared at
See also:Detroit in 1818, and the opening of the
See also:Erie Canal in 1825 added to the number 2 A prompt admission of Missouri would have balanced the slave and
See also:free states, but Alabama's admission as a slave state balanced them in 1819 . of such vessels . Lake Erie had seven in 1826; and in 183o, while the only important lake
See also:town, Detroit, was The steamboat. hardly more than a frontier fort, a daily line of yet ' steamers was
See also:running to it from
See also:Buffalo, carrying the increasing stream of emigrants to the western territory . 166 . The
See also:land system of the United States had much to do with the early development of the West . From the first settlement, the universally recognized
See also:rule had been that of absolute individual
See also:property in land, with its corollary of unrestricted competitive or "
See also:rack " rents; and this rule was accepted fully in the national land system, whose basis was reported by Jefferson, as chairman of a
See also:committee of the
See also:Confederation Congress (1785) . The public lands were to be divided into "hundreds" each ten
See also:miles square and containing one
See also:hundred mile-square plots . The hundred was called a " township," and was afterwards reduced to six miles square, of
See also:thirty-six mile-square plots of 64o acres each . From time to time principal meridians and east and west
See also:base lines have been run, and townships,have been determined by their relations to these lines .
The sections (plots) have been sub-divided, but thetransfer describes each parcel from the survey map, as in the case of " the south-west quarter of section 20, township 30, north, range 1 east of the third principal meridian." The price fixed in 1790 as a minimum was $2 per acre; it has tended to decrease, and no effort has ever been made to gain a revenue from it . When the nation acquired its western territory it secured its title to the
See also:soil, and always made it a fundamental
See also:condition of the admission of a new state that it should not tax United States lands . To compensate the new states for the freedom of unsold public lands from
See also:taxation, one township in each thirty-six was reserved to them for educational purposes; and the excellent public school systems of the Western states have been founded on this provision . The cost of obtaining a quarter section (16o acres), under the still later
See also:homestead system of granting lands to actual settlers, has come to be only about $26; the interest on this, at 6%, represents an
See also:rent of one cent per acre—making this, says F . A .
See also:Walker, as nearly as possible the " no-rent land " of the economists . 167 . The bulk of the early westward
See also:migration was of home production; the great immigration from
See also:Europe did not begin until about 1847 . The West as well as the East thus had its institutions fixed before being called upon to absorb an enormous
See also:foreign element . I.—Industrial Development and Sectional Divergence, 1829-1850 . 168 . The eight years 1829–1837 have been called " the reign of Andrew Jackson "; his popularity, his long struggle for the New presidency, and his feeling of his official ownership
See also:Political of the subordinate offices gave to his administration Methods. at least an appearance of Caesarism .
But it was a strictly constitutional Caesarism; the restraints of written law were never violated, though the methods adopted within the law were new to national politics . Since about "Boo state politics in New York andPennsylvania had been noted for the systematic use of the offices and for the merciless manner in which the office-holder was compelled to work for the party which kept him in place . The presence of New York and Pennsylvania politicians in Jackson's cabinet taught him to use the same system . Removals, except for cause, had been relatively rare before; but under Jackson men were removed almost exclusively for the purpose of installing some more serviceable party
See also:tool; and a clean sweep was made in the
See also:civil service . Other parties adopted the system, and it remained the rule at a
See also:change of administration until comparatively
See also:recent years . 16g . The system brought with it a semi-military reorganization of parties . Hitherto nominations for the more important The New offices had been made mainly by legislative caucuses; organiza- candidates for -president and vice-president were Lion of nominated by caucuses of congressmen, and candi- Parties.
See also:dates for the higher state offices by caucuses of the state legislatures .
See also:Late in the preceding period " conventions " of delegates from the members of the party in the state were held in New York and Pennsylvania; and in 1831–1832 this became the rule for presidential nominations . It rapidly
See also:developed into systematic state,
See also:county, and city" conventions "; and the result was the appearance of that
See also:complete political machinery, the American political party, with its
See also:local organizations, and its delegates to county, state and national conventions . The Democratic machinery was the first to appear, in Jackson's second term (1833–1837) . Its workers were paid in offices, or hopes of office, so that it was said to be built on the " cohesive power of public
See also:plunder "; but its success was immediate and brilliant .
The opposing party, the Whig party (q.v.), had no
See also:chance of victory in 1836; and its complete overthrow drove its leaders into the organization of a similar machinery of their own, which scored its first success in 1840 . Since that time these
See also:strange bodies, unknown to the law, have governed the country by turns; and their enormous growth has steadily made the organization of a third piece of such machinery more difficult or hopeless . 170 . The
See also:Bank of the United States had hardly been heard of in politics until the new Democratic organization came into hostile contact with it . A semi-official demand Bank of the upon it for a political
See also:appointment was met by a united refusal; and the party managers called Jackson's States.
See also:attention to an institution which he could not but dislike the more he considered it . His first
See also:message spoke of it in unfriendly terms, and every succeeding message brought a more open attack . The old party of Adams and Clay had by this time taken the name of Whigs, probably from the notion that they were struggling against " the reign of Andrew Jackson," and they adopted the cause of the bank with eagerness . The bank
See also:charter did not expire until 1836, but in 1832 Clay brought up a
See also:bill for a new charter . It was passed and vetoed; and the Whigs made the
See also:veto an important issue of the presidential election of that
See also:year . They were beaten; Jackson was re-elected, receiving 219 electoral votes, and Clay, his Whig opponent, only 49, and the bank party could never again get a majority in the House of Representatives for the charter . The insistence of the president on the point that the charter was a "
See also:monopoly "
See also:weight with the people . But the president could not obtain a majority in the Senate .
He determined to take a step which would give him an initiative, and which his opponents could not induce both houses to unite in overriding or punishing . Taking
See also:advantage of the provision that the secretary of the treasury might
See also:order the Removal public funds to be deposited elsewhere than in the of the bank or its branches, he directed the secretary to, Deposits. deposit all the public funds elsewhere . Thus deprived of its great source of dividends, the bank fell into difficulties, became a state bank after 1836, and then went into bankruptcy .
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