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DOLNJA TUZLA, or D0N

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 393 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DOLNJA TUZLA, or D0N,ff SOLI, the capital of the Dolnja Tuzla district, in Bosnia, beautifully situated on the Jala or Julla, a small stream flowing into the SpreCa, which joins the Bosna at Doboj, 39 M. W.N.W.; and on a branch railway from Doboj. Pop. (1895) 10,227; almost all, including a permanent colony of gipsies, being Moslems. Dolnja Tuzla is the seat of a district court and an Orthodox bishop; with several churches, many mosques, a hospital, gymnasium and commercial school. Besides large alkali works, it has a vigorous trade in grain,_ livestock, timber and coal, from the surrounding hills, where there is a colony of Hungarian miners; while the salt springs, owned by the state both at Dolnja, or Lower, and Gornja, or Upper Tuzla, 6 m. E., are without a rival in the Balkan Peninsula. Dolnja Tuzla was called by the Romans Ad Salinas. Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentions it, in the loth century, as Salenes; in other medieval documents it appears as Sou, Sow or Soli. Its modern name is derived from the Turkish tuz, " salt." In 1690 the Austrians routed the Turks at Gornja Tuzla, and removed the Franciscan friars, with about 3000 other Roman Catholics, into Slavonia. of natural history, to which, after the death of Daubenton, he had been elected in January z800. His course of lectures concluded, he revisited Switzerland. Returning thence he reached the residence of his brother-in-law at Chateau-Neuf, in the department of Saone-et-Loire, where he was seized with a fever, to which in a few days he succumbed, on the 26th of November 'Sol. Dolomieu's geological theories are remarkable for originality and boldness of conception. The materials constituting the primordial globe he held to have arranged themselves according to their specific gravities, so as to have constituted a fluid central sphere, a solid crust external to this, next a stratum of water, and lastly the atmosphere. Where water penetrated through the crust, solidification took place in the underlying fluid mass, which enlarging in consequence produced rifts in the superincumbent rocks. Water rushing down through the rifts became decomposed, and the resulting effervescence occasioned submarine volcanoes. The crust of the earth he believed to be continually increasing in thickness, owing to the deposition of aqueous rocks, and to the gradual solidification of the molten interior, so that the volcanic eruptions and other geological phenomena of former must have been of far greater magnitude and frequency than those of recent times. See Lacepede, " Eloge historique de Dolomieu," in Memoires de la classe des sciences de l'Institut (1806); Thomson, in Annals of Philosophy, vol. xii. p. 161 (1808). _
End of Article: DOLNJA TUZLA, or D0N
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