Online Encyclopedia

DRAWN W

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 495 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DRAWN W SCALE Length.—Decametre or lo metres; double metre; metre or woo millimetres; decimetre or o•1 metre; centimetre or o•oi metre; millimetre. Capacity.—2o litres; Io litres or decalitre; 5, 2, I, 0.5, 0.2, o. l (decilitre) ; 0.05, 0.02, 0.01 (centilitre) ; 0.005, 0.002, o•001 (millilitre) litres. Cubic Measures.—moo (litre), 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 cubic centimetres, I c.c. or moo cubic millimetres. Weights. 2o, to, 5, 2, I kilograms; 500 to I gramme; 5 to I decigram; 5 to I centigram: 5 to I milligram. (Series 5, 2, 2,1 I, i.e. with a duplicate weight of Y' 2.") 3. Equivalents.—The metric equivalents of the units of the metric system in terms of the imperial system, as recalculated in 1897, are as follows:—1 Metric Equivalents, King's Printers (1898). 2 The equivalent of the litre in gallons may also be derived as follows: Let P(I —p/d) =Pi(' —p/d'), where P is the weight of the water contained in the gallon when weighed in London—g. London=g. Paris (45°) X I.000577• The correction for temperature, 62° F., is —o.o906 in.; hence 29'9094 inches. One inch =25.4 mm.; also 29'9094X25'4 = 759'69876; and 759'698761 • X 1.000577 = 760.137 mm. PI is the weight of the brass weights (to lb) 0 =8.143. p, the density (0.001218738) of dry air, containing 4 vols. of carbonic acid in 10,000 vols. ; 1=16.667° C.; B =760.137 mm. of mercury at 9°, lat. 45°, and at sea-level. Coefficient of expansion of air =0'00367; A mercury at o° C. =13'595• d is the density of water at 62° F. (16.667° C.) =0.9988611. d1, the density of the brass as above. to lb =4'5359243 kg. From the above it follows that P=4'5407857 kg. Therefore—' gallon = P/0•9988611=4'5459631 litres. The equivalents of the Russian weights and measures, in terms also of the imperial and metric weights and measures, were re- calculated in 1897.1 The following are the leading equivalents: 10.025 pood. t Russian pound= 96 zolotniks. 9216 dolis. =0.40951240 kg. =0.902820.18 lb avoir. 0.00066 verst. 0.33 sagene. 16 verchoks. 28o liniias. =0.711200 metre. =0 777778 yard. to schtoffs =1= too tcharkas = 12.299 litres =2.7056 gallons. t tchetverte =8 tchetveriks =20991 hectolitres =5.7719 bushels. 4. Local Control.—The necessary local inspection and verification of weights and measures in use for trade (as distinct from the verbal and written use of weights and measures) is in the United Kingdom undertaken by inspectors of weights and measures, who are appointed by the local authorities, as the county and borough councils. An inspector is required to hold a certificate of qualification, and for his guidance general regulations are made by his local authority as to modes of testing weights, measures and weighing instruments.' In Europe the local inspection is generally carried out through the State, and a uniform system of local verification is thereby maintained. 5. Errors.—In the verification of weights and measures a margin of error is permitted to manufacturers and scale-makers, as it is found to be impossible to make two weights, or two measures, so identical that between them some difference may not be found either by the balance or the microscope. For common weights and measures this margin (tolerance, remedy or allowance, as it is also called) has been set out by the Board of Trade for all the various kinds of weights and measures in use for commercial purposes in the United Kingdom, and similar margins of error are recognized in other countries. For instance, on t lb avoir. weight made of brass, 2 grains in excess are allowed; on t oz. troy or apothecaries' weight, +0.2 grain is allowed; on t pint pot, 4 fluid drachms is permitted; on 1 brass yard, 0.05 inch in excess or 0.02 inch in deficiency in length is allowed for ordinary trade purposes. 6. Foreign Weights and Measures.—Throughout the British Empire the imperial system of weights and measures is legal. In Russia, as in the United Kingdom and the United States, the national weights and ,measures are followed (§ 3 above), although the use of metric weights and measures is permissive. In India the native weights, &c., ancient and arbitrary, are still followed. In 188o the British yard was adopted for the whole of India (Measures of Length Act) at a normal temperature of 85° F. as standardized to the imperial yard at 62° F. The metric system was also introduced, mainly for railway purposes, in 1870 and 1871 (Indian Acts). Certified measures of the yard, foot and inch are kept by the Commissioners of Police at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22° 35' 6.5" (Calcutta), g = - [ 0.99825151 are taken. The " Iola " (18o grains) is properly the Government unit of weight for currency; and 8o tolas make the " Government seer." 7. Customary Weights and Measures.—In some districts of the United Kingdom, as well as in provincial districts of other countries, old local and customary denominations of weights and measures are still found to be in use, although their use may have been prohibited by law. So powerful is custom with the people.' 8. Legislation.—In everyday transactions with reference to weights and measures, the British legislature also exercises C.I.P.M. Proces-verbaux (1897), p. 155. s Regulations, Birmingham, Glasgow, London, Manchester, &c. ' Report Select Committee (1892); Merchant's Handbook, W. A. Browne (1892); Reports H.M. Representatives Abroad, Foreign Office, 1900-1901. control in industrial pursuits. For instance, in weighing live cattle, owners of markets are now required to provide adequate accommodation.4 Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops. The Merchandise Marks Act 1887 makes it an offence also to apply in trade a false description, as to the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of goods sold; and this Act appears to reach offences that the Weights and Measures Acts may perhaps not reach. 9. Pharmaceutical Weights and Measures.—By the Medical Act of 1858, and the Act of 1862, the General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom are authorized to issue a " Pharmacopoeia " with reference to the weights and measures used in the preparation and dispensing of drugs, &c. The British Pharmacopoeia issued by the Council in 1898 makes no alteration in the imperial weights and measures required to be used by the Pharmacopoeia of 1864. For all pharmaceutical purposes, however, the use of the metric system alone is employed in all paragraphs relating to analysis, whether gravimetric or volumetric. For measures of capacity the Pharmacopoeia continues to use imperial measuring vessels graduated at the legal temperature of 62° F. The official names of the metric capacity units are defined at 4° C., as generally on the Continent. The new Pharmacopoeia also follows foreign practice, and employs metric measures of capacity and volumetric vessels graduated at 15.5 C., or 6o° F. Specific gravity bottles are also adjusted at 6o° F., the figures indicating specific gravities being quotients obtained by dividing in each instance the weight of the solid or liquid by the weight of an equal bulk of water, both taken at 6o° F.5 1o. Gauges.—" Gauges," as understood at one time, included only those used in the measurement of barrels, casks, &c., and hence the term " gauger." For engineering and manufacturing purposes the more important linear gauges are, however, now used, adjusted to some fundamental unit of measure as the inch; although in certain trades, as for wires and flat metals, gauges continue to be used of arbitrary scales and of merely numerical sizes, having no reference to a legal unit of measure; and such are rarely accurate. A- standard gauge, however, exists (Order in Council, August 1883), based on the inch, but having numbered sizes from 7/0 (0.5 inch) to No. 50 (0.001 inch) to meet the convenience of certain trades .6 1t. Screws.—The screw is an important productive measuring instrument, whether used as a micrometer-screw of less than an inch in length, or as a master-screw of z0 feet in length. The probable errors and eccentricities of small micrometer-screws have been care-fully investigated to =o•0000t inch; but the accuracy of leading screws used in workshops has not been sufficiently verified. For some engineering purposes it would appear to be desirable to produce master-screws to an accuracy of 3400 of an inch to the foot of screw, so as to serve indirectly for the verification of " guiding screws " for general use in workshops? Attempts in this direction were originally made by Whitworth, Clement, Donkin, Rogers, Bond and others, but we still need a higher accuracy in screw-threads. 12. Educational.—Ordinary arithmetic books often contain references to local and customary weights and measures and to obsolete terms of no practical use to children. It appears to be desirable, as the Committee of Council on Education have done, to recognize only the legal systems of weights and measures—the imperial and metric. The Education Code of Regulations for 1900 prescribes that the tables of weights and measures to be learned include those only which are in ordinary use, viz. in all classes or forms above the third the tables of ( Weight—ton, cwt, stone, lb, oz. and dr., i Length—mile, furlong, rod or pole, chain, yd., ft. and inch, Capacity—quarter, bushel, pk., gall., qt. and pt. In Code standards above the fifth, in addition to the foregoing, the tables of {Area—sq. mile, acre, rood, pole, yd., ft. and inch, Volume—cubic yard, foot and inch. Instruction•in the principles of the metric system, and in the ad-vantages to be gained from uniformity in the method of forming multiples and sub-multiples of the unit, are, under this Code, to be 4 Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878. 5 Pharmacopoeia (1901); Calendar Pharmaceutical Society, 1902. 6 Order in Council, 26th August 1881. Systematique des vis horlogeres, Thury (Geneva, 1878). Bulletin Soc. d'Encouragement pour 1'Industrie Nationale, Paris, 1894. Report of British Association on Screw-threads, r9oo. t archinne 1 vedro given to the scholars in Standards IV., V., VI. and VII. As a preparation for this it is stated in the Code that it will be useful to give in Standard III. (arithmetic) elementary lessons on the notation of decimal fractions. (See ARITHMETIC.) Table of the Principal Foreign Weights and Measures now in use, and of their Equivalents in Imperial or in Metric Weights and Measures. 16.8 litres. o•699 quarter (dry measure), 5.6o bushels. t metric are, 119.6 sq. yds. new archin (Law 1881) =I metre (39.37 inches) =10 parmaks (decimetres) = Too khats (centimetres), 1 mill =10oo archins (kilometre). Pharoagh = 10 mills. Another pharoagh = 2 hours'-journey. Archin . . . Bulgaria . . 0.758 metre (masons). o•68o metre (tailors). Archine, or Ar- Russia . 28 inches, or 0.7112 metre. chinne Ardeb . Egypt 5.447 bushels (Customs). 5 bushels (old measure). Are . =100 sq. metres = 119.6 sq. yds. Area . . Spain I metric are. Arpent . France . . r Legal arpent was equal to 100 sq. Canada perches = 51.07 metric ares. 1 In Quebec =180 French feet. Arroba . Portugal . . 14.68 to 15 kilogrammes. Spain . . Mayor = 3.55 gallons,or T cantara. Artaba . Persia 1.809 bushel. Menor=2.76 gallons (liquids). Aune Belgium . . 1 metre. Formerly 1.312 yard. France . 1.885 metre (1812). Jersey . . 4 feet. Barilo . Rome . . 12.834 gallons. Bat, or Tical Siam . 234 grains. Batman . Persia 61 lb ay.; varies locally. Turkey . . = Io ocks. Behar . Arabia . . 439'45 lb ay., nearly. Berri Turkey . . 1.084 mile (old measure). Boisseau . . Belgium . . 15 litres. Boutylka Russia . 1.353 pint (wine bottle). Braga Portugal . 2.22 metres. Braccio Spain 0.67o metre (commercial). Rome . . Braccio-d'ara =29.528 inches. Brasse France . . 5.328 feet. Braza . . Argentina . 5.682 feet. Bu, or tsubo . Japan . . 3.0306 square metres. Bushel . . . U. States 2150.42 cubic inches, about Canada . . r 0.96944 imperial bushel. bushel = 8 gallons = 32 quarts = 64 pints. Bunder . Netherlands. 2.471 acres (old hectare). Cabot Jersey . . 10 pots, or 4 gallons, I quart 3 gills imperial measure. Candy . Bombay . . 56o lb ay. Madras . . 493.7 lb ay. Cantar . . . Turkey . . 124.7 lb ay. (old weight). Cantara piccolo Italy . . . 74.771 lb ay. Capicha . Persia . o•58 gallon. Catty China . . 11 lb ay. See Tacl. N. Borneo . 11 lb ay. Siam . . . 2.675 lb ay., or 61° hap. Madras . 1.322 acre. • U. States Canada . =T2.3 public works. =12.5 = 12.4 statistics. =12.6 architects. = 12.7 common. = 13.1 tribunal of mathematics. =13.2 Board of Revenue. =14.1 Customs. t kilogramme. 11 lb ay. (Treaty). 121 sq. feet (Treaty). 72,600 sq. feet (Treaty). 5 tolas, or 900 grains. 71. in. (linear) ; 121 in. (building). 1815 sq. feet (Treaty). 1.66 lb ay. of water at 62 ° F., as a measure of capacity. 144 oz. ay. of water. t quart. 1.809 gallon. 1.136 metre. o•66 metre. 18 to 21 inches. 18 inches. 18 inches. 18 inches approximately. 27 inches. 1.16 litre (dry) ; 0.504 litre liquid. Daktylon (Royal) Greece . . 1 centimetre. Daribah . . Egypt 43.58 bushels (Customs). Decagramme = To grms. = 5.64 drams ay. Decalitre = IO litres =2.2 gallons. Decametre =10.936 yards. De9Iatina Russia =2400 square sagenes=2.7 acres. Decigramme = u grm. =1.54 grain. Decilitre =116 litre =p.1'76 pint. Decimetre =3.937 inches =o•1 metre. Decimetre, cubic =10oo c.c. =61.024 cub. in. Decimetre, square . = too sq. centm. =15.5 sq. in. Denaro . . . Rome . . 18.17 grains (old weight. Deunam Turkey . 1 metric are. 27 inches usually. 21.3 inches Nile measure. 27 inches (old measure of pike). 1.761 dram ay. (Customs). 3.0884 grammes (Cairo). Djerib . . . Turkey . T hectare. Doha, or Dola Russia 0.686 grain. 96 doll =1 zolotnick. Drachma . . Netherlands. 3.906 grammes. Turkey . . 154.324 grains. Drachme (Royal) Greece . . 1 gramme (gold weight). Constantinople =57.871 grains. See Ock. • Austria . . 12.448 gallons. ^ Netherlands . 1 metre. (Old ell = 27.08 inches). • Jersey . . 4 feet. • N. Borneo . 1 yard. ^ Switzerland . 0.6561 yard. Egypt . . Usually 25 inches. Moldavia . 1 hectare, 43 ares, 22 centiares. • Argentina . 3.773 bushels. Portugal . . 55.364 litres. Spain . . 1.526 bushel. Peru 11 bushel. 1.615 acre, but varies locally. Germany . t hectolitre. Egypt . 1.038 acre (Masri). Also I•I27 acre locally. 1.266 acre (old). China . 5.83 grains (silver weight). Denmark . 0.9564 bushel. Denmark 1.0297 foot. Norway . . 0.3137 metre. Rome . . o•8 pint. • U. States 12 inches. Canada . . French foot =12.8 inches. Amsterdam South Africa 11.147 in.] old measure. Old Rhenish 12.356 in.J Almude . . . Portugal . Anoman (Ammo- Ceylon mam, Amomam) Ara . . Italy . Archin, or Ar- Turkey . t shin Cawnie Cental . Centigramme Centilitre . Centimetre . Centimetre, cubic (c.c.) . Centimetre, square . Centner . . . Austria Denmark . Switzerland . Chain Canada . Cyprus . Chang . China Siam . Chapah . . N. Borneo . Chee. See Tahil. Chek . . . Hong Kong . Chenica . . Persia Ch'ien . China Ch'ih China 100 lb ay. (As in Great Britain.) = r1a grin. =0'154 grain. =rn litre =0.07 gill. = 0.394 inch =lib m. =o•o6T cubic inch, or I c.c. =0.155 square inch. 5o kilogrammes =110.231 lb. ay. 50 kilogrammes =110.231 lb. ay. 50 kilogrammes =110.231 lb. 66 feet. 0.33 pie. 10 chili = u ft. 9 inches (Treaty). 2.675 lb. It lb ay. 141 inches. 0.289 gallon. 581 grains (silver weight). Varies throughout China from 11 to 15.8 inches. For Customs purposes the Treaty ch'ih =- 14'1 inches, and 5 ch'ih =1 pu. Ch'ih . Peking . Chupak . Collothun Coss . Covado . Covid, or Cubit Chilogramme Chin or Catty Ching . Ch'ing . Chittack. Ch'ok Chao . Chupah Covido Covido (Great) Cuartillo . . Shanghai • Italy . • China China China Bengal Corea China Singapore Malacca . Straits Settle- ments Persia . Bengal Portugal . Madras . Bombay . Siam . Arabia Spain . Dirhem . Diraa, or Draa, Egypt or Pic Turkey Egypt . Dram. See Oke. Ducat . . . Vienna . 53.873 grains. Duim . Netherlands. T centimetre. Eimer El . Ell . Ella . Elie . Endaseh, or Hindazi Faltche Fanega Fass . . Feddan Fen . Fjerdingkar. Fod . . Foglietto Foot . [COMMERCIAL 3.821 bushels. 16o litres. I decigramme. t decilitre. 9 quarts. 53331 lb ay. 12.8 litres. 78.96 inches (Treaty). to inches. 8.281 lb = 3.75652 kilogrammes. too kyats =3.652 lb ay. 0.650 metre. 30 hectolitres. 5831 grains (silver weight). 229'83 sq. metres. about 2 mile =36o pu. Varies with length of ch'ih. A small weight 0.583 grain. 11 oz. 16Hang =I chin =t1Ib ay. 0'7477 lb ay. 1.0127 lb ay. 1.014 lb. I.012 lb ay. point, or 0.089 inch. 0.1 inch. t archine=28o liniias. t litre = too mystra. 4 quarts. =1.7598 pint t litre. 0.90282 lb ay. Apoth. livre= 11.5204 oz. troy. Kilogramme. 0.4895 kilogramme. New loth =1 decagramme. Old loth, nearly 1 oz. ay. 15.625 grammes. 270.1 grains. Postal loth, 2572 grains. 1.245 quart. 2.64 gallons. t decilitre. 582 grains. 931 lb ay. 2.04 lb ay. 3 mask =cubit =192 inches. 0.2448 kilogramme (old weight). 0'4645 lb ay. 4331.37 grains =24 karato. = 8 oncas =229.5 grammes. 3550.54 grains. 82.286 lb ay., Government. 721 lb (old bazaar). 74.67 lb ay., factory. 28 lb nearly, Bombay. 25 lb nearly, Madras. 37 to 44 lb, Juggerat. Local maunds vary on either side of 8o lb. 1,000,000 metres. 39.37 inches. 39.370113 inches — ° m. =1000 c.d.=3J•3I5 cubic `set. = too square decimetres =10.764 square feet. t metre. 1.691 bushel. =140 millimetre. 0.925 mile. 1 kilometre. 100o archins (new mil). 4.68o miles. Nautical mile = 1852 metres. 4.714 miles. 1.296 mile. 1.949 kilometre. =ia gramme=o•o15 grain. =mob litre. =0'03937 inch -=Iezz m. 71 grains. 45'72 centimetres. 12 kilogramme = 1.172 oka ra~aa kwan. 0.631 acre. 492 Fot . . Sweden . 11.689 in. to fot = 1 stong. I ref =10 stanger. I mil=36o ref. Founte, or Funt Russia . 0.90282 lb ay. or Livre Foute, or Pied Russia . I English foot. Frasco Fuss . Gallon Gantang Garnetz . . Russia . 0.3607 peck. Gin. See Kati. Gisla . . . Zanzibar . . Measure of 36o lb ay. of rice. Go . . . . Japan . 180.39 cubic centimetres. Grain . Russia . o.96o grain (apothecaries). Gramme (gr.) . =15.4323564 grains ay. troy. =0.2572 drachm, or 0.7716 scruple. = 0.03215 oz. troy. Gramme (Royal) Greece t millimetre. Gramo . . . Spain . . t gramme. Grano . . . Rome . . 0.757 grain. Grao . . . Portugal . . 0.768 grain; also measure o. 18 in. Grein . Netherlands . =0.065 gramme. Guz, or Gudge . India: Bengal 36 inches. „ Bombay 27 inches. , Madras . 33 inches, Government Survey. Persia . . The guz, gueza or zer varies from 24 to 44 inches. A guz of 40.95 inches (Guz, Azerbailan)is common. Government standard guz=362 inches. There is a guz for retail trade of 25 inches. Arabia . 25 inches to 37 inches (Bassorah). Hat'h, or Moo- Bengal . . 18 inches. lum, or Cubit Bombay . . 18 inches, or cu}sit. Hectare = too ares, or 2.471 acres. Hectogramme . . too grm. =3.51 oz. ay. Hectolitre . . . too litres =2.7 bushels. Hectometre . . . =109.36 yards. Hiyaka-me Japan 5797.198 grains. Hiyak-kin . . Japan . 1321 lb ay. Hoon. See Tahil. Hu . China 122 gallons, n.arly. Immi Switzerland 1.5 litre. Joch . Austria-Hun- 1.422 acre. gary Kaima Sweden 0.576 gallon, Kan Netherlands t litre. Hong Kong 12 lb ay. Kanne or Kanna Germany t litre, or fo merly 1.762 pint. Sweden . . 0.576 pint. Kantar, or Can- Egypt . . 99'0492 lb ay. = too roils (Cuss taro toms). 45 kilogrammes of cotton. 44.5 kilogrammes other produce. Karwar . . Persia . . too batman. Kassabah Egypt . . 3.8824 yards (Customs). Kati, Catty or 1 China, Straits Gin Settlements } 13 lb ay. Keila, or Pishi Zanzibar . . Measure of 6 lb ay. of rice. Ken . . Japan 5.965 ft., 1.81 metre. Kerat Turkey 11 inch measure (old). 3.09 grains weight (old) Kette, or Chain Germany 14.994 ellen, or 10.936 yards. Keu Siam . 40 inches. Khat (New) Turkey t centimetre. Kite . . . Cyprus 8 gallons. Killow . . Turkey 0.97 bushel. Kilogramme =1000 grm. =2.2046223 lb ay. Kilometre . . =0.6214 mile. Kin Japan, China o•601 kilogramme =1.325 lb. Klafter Austria . . =2.0740 yards. Switzerland 1.9685 yard. Koddi Arabia . . 1.67 gallon. Koilon (Royal) . Greece . . t hectolitre. Old koilon = 33.16 litra. Koku . Japan =39.7033 galls. = 4.9629 bushels. Kon . . Corea 11 lb ay. Korn-tonde . . Norway . 138.97 litres. . . Argentina 21 litres. . . Vienna . . 12 zolls=1.037 foot. Switzerland 31 fuss = 1 metre. See Stab. . U. States . ( 231 cubic inches =8.3389 lb ay. Canada . j( of water at t. 39.8° Fahr. At 62° Fahr. =0.8325 imp. gallon. Straits Settle- 32 gallons. ments N. Borneo 144 oz. ay. weight of water as measure of capacity. Korn-tonde . Korn-top Maal Korrel . Kotyle (Royal) . Kouza Koyan Krina Kung Kup . Kwan or Kuwan Kyat Lak't Last . Leang Lekha Li Liang . Libbra Libra Libra (Castilian) Libra, or Arratel Line or Ligne . Liniia Litra (Royal) Litre . . . Litre (metric) Litro. . Livre (lb) Livre-poids . Loth . . Maass Maatze . Mace Mahud Maik . Marc, or Mark . Marco . Maund . Metro Metz. . . Micron (g) Miglio . Mille Mil, or Mill . Mile . Mile (postal) Milha . Mille . Milligramme Millilitre. Millimetre Miscal Mkono Mna . . Momme . Morgen . Megametre (as- tronomy) Metre (m.) U. States Great Britain Metre. cubic Metre, square Spain Italy . Austria Rome Netherlands . Turkey . Denmark France. . Germany Austria . Portugal . France Persia East Africa Greece . Japan Denmark. Norway . Prussia . Sweden . Norway . Netherlands . Greece . Cyprus Straits Setts . Bulgaria . China Siam . Japan Burma Bulgaria . Netherlands . China . Bulgaria . China . China Italy . Argentina Spain, Mexico Portugal. Paris . Russia Greece Cyprus Spain Italy . Russia Belgium France . Germany Switzerland Vienna . . Austria . Switzerland . Netherlands . China . N. Borneo Arabia Burmah France Sweden Vienna Portugal . Spain India Quart . Quarto Quintal . Quintal (metric) Quintale . . Pu . . Puddee Pulgada . Pund. . Ratel . . . Rattel, or Rottle Pouce Poud, or Pcod Pound . . . Ri . Sagene Scheffel Rode . Roede Rotl, or Rottolo Schepel . Schopperi Se . Seer Rottol . Rubbio Sheng Shih . Shoo Skaal-pund . Seidel Sen . Ser . Shaku Skeppe . 1 Skjeppe . Stab . Stadron (Royal) Stere (metric) . Stero . Streepe . Stremma Strich . Striche Stunde Mou . . China Commonly 806.65 sq. yds. Varies locally. Shanghai =6600 sq. ft. (Municipal Council). By Cus- toms Treaty =920.417 sq. yds., based on ch'ih of 14.1 inches. Mud . . Netherlands . I hectolitre. Myriagramme = to kilogrammes =22.046 lb ay. Noma . East Africa . 72 keilas. Nm . . Siam . . . i 2 inch. 1 decigram me. Legal ock (1881) = loo drachmas. New batman = to ocks, and kantar = to batmans ock =, kilogramme. 0.29 litre. 1.730 litre. 1.28 litre for liquids). 1.282 kilogramme (old). 2t lb. ay. =400 drams (Cyprus). 2.751 lb ay. (Customs). 2.8o5 lb (Alexandria). 2.8o lb =1.282 kilogramme. 1.33 litre. 1.1518 pint. weight). Onca Portugal . . 28.688 grammes. Once . France . . 30.59 grammes (old). Oncia . Rome . . 436.165 grains. Onze . Netherlands . I hectogramme. to orzen=pond. Ounce _ IT. States . Av. ounce =4.37.5 grains. Packen Russia Palame (Royal) Greece Palm . . . Holland Palmo . Portugal . Spain . Para . . . . N. Borneo Parah . . Ceylon Parasang. See Persakh. Parmak. See Archin. Passeree . . Bengal Pe . Portugal. Pecheus (Royal) Greece Pecul . . . China Perche . . France Canada Persia Pharoagh. See Archin. Pic . . . . Cyprus . . 2 feet. Picul . . Japan Straits Settle- 133s ay. ments, Hong Kong North Borneo A measure of 18o lb weight of water. Picki Greece . . 0.648 metre. China . . 25 gallons (dry measure). Pie . Rome . . 11.73 inches. Pie de Burgos Spain . . 11.13 inches. Pied . . Belgium . . 11.81 inches = to pounces. Canada . . 12.79 inches. Pied de Roi . Paris . 0.3248 metre. Pike . . Turkey . . See Dir'aa. Pint U. States . 0.8325 imperial pint. Pinte France . 0.931 litre. Pipa Portugal . . 534 litres (Oporto). 420 litres (Lisbon). 500 litres (officially). Pipe Gibraltar. 105 to 126 gallons. Pishi. See Keila. Poide de Marc . France . 0.2448 kilo =8 onces. Polegada Portugal . . 27.77 millimetres. Pond Netherlands . 1 kilogramme. Apothecaries pond =375 grammes. Pot Denmark . 1.7 pint =4 paegle. Switzerland . 2.64 pints or 1.5 litre. Belgium . . 1 y litre (dry). litre (liquid). Norway . . o.965 litre.France 1.o66 inch (old measure). Russia . . I inch. Russia . . 0.016122 ton =36 lb. U. States . Standard troy lb =576o grains. Avoir. lb = 7000 grains. Russia . . 0.90282lb ay. (0.4095 kilogramme). Jersey . 7561 grains =16 oz. Jersey = I livre. China . . 70.5 inches =5 ch'ih. Madras . . 2.89 pints. too cubic inches= Government puddee. Spain . 0.927 inch. Denmark . 1.1023 lb ay., or 500 grammes. Norway . . 0.1 981 kilogramme. Sweden . . 656o grains. Varies locally. 5500.5 grains (apoth.). U. States . See Bushel. Rome 2.024 bushels. Portugal . 3.46 litres. Spain loo libras (Castilian) = T01 *4 lb. Portugal . 58.752 kilogrammes, or 129* lbay.. Argentina too libras, or Io1.27 lb ay. France . = too kilogrammes =1.968 cwt. Italy . 1 metric quintal. Persia 1.01 ¢ lb ay. Arabia 1.02 lb ay., nearly (dry measure). 17.219 lb ay. weight. Japan . . 2.440 miles (itinerary). 2.118 miles (natural). Denmark . 3.762 metres. Netherlands . i dekametre. Egypt . . 0.9905 lb ay. (Customs). 0.9805 lb ay. (Govt.). Cairo. . . 2.206 lb great rottolo. 0.715 lb less rottolo. Alexandria 2.124 lb great rottolo. Rottolo mina = a oka. Turkey . 2.513 pints (old measure). Spain 1.012 quarter (dry measure). Russia . . 7 feet. Germany . 50 litres, formerly 14.56 metzen (Prussia). Netherlands . t decalitre. Germany . 2 litre, formerly cell gallon. Switzerland . 0.375 litre. japan . . 118.615 square yards (.9918 are). India Government seer =2i; lb ay. Bengal, 8o tolas weight of rice (heaped measure), about 60 cubic inches (struck measure). Southern India =weight of 24 current rupees. Madras, 25 lb nearly. Juggerat, weight of 40 local rupees. Bombay, old seer, about 28 lb. Ceylon . Measure of 1.86 pint. Persia 16 miscals, or 1136 grains weight (Sihr). Note.—In India the seer, like the maund, varies considerably; usually 40, seers go to a maund. Austria . . 0.6224 pint. Siam . . . 44.4 miles, nearly. India . 1 litre (Indian Law, 1871). Japan 0.30 metre, also 9.18273 square decimetres; also 18.039 cubic centimetres. China 1.813 pint. China 16o lb. Japan 1.804 litre. Sweden . 435.076 grammes, or 0.959 lb ay. Norway . 0.4981 kilogramme, or officially J kilogramme. Denmark 17.39 litres. Norway . . 17.37 litres. Germany I metre, or 3.3 old fuss, but varied. Greece . . I kilometre. t cubic metre. Italy . . I metric stere. Holland . 1 millimetre. Greece . . I metric are. 238.1 square pecheus (Constantinople). Germany t millimetre. Switzerland . 3J strich =I millimetre. Germany . Old itinerary measure, 2.3 to 3.4 miles. Obolos : . Greece Ock . . . Turkey Octavillo . Spain Oitavo . . Portugal. Oke . . . Bulgaria . Cyprus Egypt . Greece . Turkey . (old 2.834 lb ay. Persakh, or Para-sang Pfund . Germany . = 16 unzen =32 loth old weight. POI to 1.23 lb ay. S Zoll. pf and (1872) = 500 grammes. Prussia . . Old zoll lb =1.1023 lb ay. Switzerland . 500 grammes =16 unze. Apoth. pf. =375 grammes. Vienna . . Pfund =560.06 grammes. Zoll. pfund (1871) =500grammes. 1083.382 lb ay. r decimetre. t decimetre. 0.22 metre. 8.346 inches. 90 lb ay. 5.59 pints. 5 seers. metre (old). 1 metre =1.543 old pecheuse. 1331 lb ay. 22 square pieds de roi. In Quebec 18 French feet. Probably 3.88 miles =6000 guz. Stunde Switzerland . 4.8 kilometres. Stunder=5 stun- den, or 24 kilometres. Sultchek Turkey . . Cubic measure (1881) whose sides equal a parmak (decimetre). Sung Corea . . 4 lb ay., nearly. 1331 lb ay. = 25 gallons. Also 1331 lb weight. 2 miles, nearly. About 31 miles = to li. 17 ,12 grains, or 72 tanks =30 pice. 0.866 gill=0.218 pint. 5.772 bushels =8 tchetveriks, or 2.099 hectolitres. Burmese measures of capacity depend on the teng or basket. Officially a basket is 2218.2 cubic inches, but the teng varies locally : Akyab=23 lb of rice. Bassein = 51 lb of rice. Moulmein =48 lb of rice. Rangoon = 48 to 5o lb of rice. 1.5 pint. 4.688 gallons. 18.0391 litres =3.9703 galls. = 1.98 pecks. 2.1315 yards. 18o grains. Legal weight of rupee. 187.17 lb ay. of rice. 2240 lb ay., also a net ton of 20o0lb. 131.392 litres (liquid measure). 139.121 litreq (dry measure). loon kilogrammes. loon kilogrammes = 0.9842 ton. 793.15 kilogrammes. 29'526 cwt. 18 pints approximately. 128.2 kilogrammes. 1.41 inch (Treaty measure). 100.142 miles = 25 Ii, based on the ch'ih of 14.1 inches. 33 inches. 2.782 feet. 2.841 feet. 1.11 metre. t hectolitre. 2.7056 gallons= to schtoffs, or 12.3 litres. 12.8 litres. 1.75 inch. o•66288 mile. t metric are. 1.7 gallon. 15 litres. 312h lb ay. 8o inches. t gramme. t metric stere. Yard . U. States . 36 inches. Mexico . . 838 centimetres. Zac Netherlands . t hectolitre. Zer (Persia). See Guz. Zoll . . . . Switzerland . 31 zoll =1 decimetre. Old zoll nearly one inch. (See also Pfund.) Zolotnik Russia . 65.83o6 grains, or 96 doli. (H. J. C.) WEIGHT-THROWING, - the athletic sport of hurling heavy weights either for distance or height. Lifting and throwing weights of different kinds have always been popular in Great Britain, especially Scotland and Ireland, and on the continent of Europe, particularly in Germany, Switzerland and Austria-Hungary. No form of throwing weights is included in the British athletic championship programme, although " putting the shot " (q.v.) and " hammer-throwing " (q.v.) are recognized championship events. In America throwing the 56-lb weight for distance belongs to the championship programme. It was once a common event in Great Britain at all important athletic meetings, the ordinary slightly conical half-hundredweight being used and thrown by the ring attached to the top; the ring, however, was awkward to grip, and a triangular handle was afterwards substituted. In America the 56-lb weight is a ball of iron or lead with a triangular or pear-shaped handle. The weight used to be thrown standing, but since 1888 it has been thrown from a 7-ft. circle with a raised edge, like that used for the hammer and shot in America. In throwing the athlete stands slightly stooping, with his feet about 18 in. apart and grasping the handle with both hands opposite his thighs. The weight is swung round and back past the right leg as far as possible, then up, over and round the head, as in the hammer-throw. One complete swing round the head is usually enough, as too much momentum is apt to throw the athlete off his balance. The weight is then swung round together with the whole body as rapidly as possible, as in hammer-throwing. The athlete works himself to the front of the circle just before the moment of delivery and begins the final heave with his back towards the direction in which he wishes to throw the weight. This heave is accomplished by completing the final spin of the body, giving the legs, back and arms a vigorous upward movement at the same time, and following the weight through with the uplifted arms as it leaves the hands, but taking care not to overstep the circle. With one hand a smoother swing can be made but much less power applied. In throwing for height the athlete stands beside the high-jump uprights and casts the weight over the cross-piece, making the swing and spin in a more vertical direction with a heave upward at the moment of delivery. Throwing for height and with one hand were formerly events in the American championship programme, but have been discontinued. The record for throwing the 56-lb weight for height is 15 ft. 61 in., made by the American-Irishman J. S. Mitchell. The record for distance, 38 ft. 8 in., was made in 1907 by the American-Irishman John Flanagan. In throwing weights large and heavy men have an advantage over small, brute strength being the chief requisite, while a heavy body makes a better fulcrum while revolving than a light one. WEI-HAI-WEI, a British naval and coaling station, on the N.E. coast of the Shan-tung peninsula, China, about 40 M. E. of the treaty port of Chi-fu and 115 M. from Port Arthur. It was formerly a Chinese naval station strongly fortified, but was captured by the Japanese in February 1895, and occupied by their troops until May 1898, pending the payment of the indemnity. Port Arthur having in the spring of that year been acquired by the Russian government under a lease from China, a similar lease was granted of Wei-hai-wei to the British government, and on the withdrawal of the Japanese troops the British fleet took possession, the flag being hoisted on the 24th of May 1898. No period was fixed for the termination of the lease, but it was stipulated that it should continue so long as Russia continued to hold Port Arthur. The lease of Port Arthur having been ceded to Japan in September 1905, the British lease of Wei-haiwei was made to run for as long as Japan held Port Arthur. The harbour is formed by an island named Liu-kung-tao running east and west across the mouth of a small bay, leaving an entrance at each end. Towards the mainland the water shoals, and the best anchorage is under the lee of the island. The native city is walled, and has a population of about 2000. The chief port is named Port Edward; it has good anchorage with a depth of 45 ft. of water. The leased area comprises, besides the harbour and island, a belt of the mainland, to English miles wide, skirting the whole length of the bay. The coast line of the bay is some 10 m., and the area thus leased extends to 285 sq. m. Within this area Great Britain has exclusive jurisdiction, and is represented by a commissioner under the colonial office; and has, besides, the right to erect fortifications, station troops and take any other measures necessary for defensive purposes at any points on or near the coast in that part of the peninsula east of 121° 40' E. Within that zone, which covers 1505 sq. m., Chinese administration is not interfered with, but no troops other than Chinese and British are allowed there. The territory consists of rugged hills rising to 1600 ft. and well-cultivated valleys. The hills also, as far as possible, Tael . . Siam . . . Hong Kong . China . . 9361 grains. 11 oz. ay. Silver weight, 11 oz. ay. Japan . . to momme. (No current coin of the tael.) Straits Settle- 11 oz. ay. = to chee = too hoon. ments Tam . . Hong Kong Tan . . China Tang . Burma Tang-sun . China Tank Bombay Tcharka . Russia Tchetverte . Russia Teng Burma Tahil Thanan Siam . Thangsat Siam . To Japan Toise France Tola . . India Tomand Arabia Ton . . U. States Tonde . . Denmark Tonne, or Millier France . Germany Tonne (metric) . Tonnelada . . Portugal. Toros Greece Tou China Tovar Bulgaria . T'sun China Tu China Vara Peru . Spain Argentina Portugal . Vat . . Holland Vedro . Russia Bulgaria . Verchok . . Russia Versta, or Verst. Russia Vierkanteroede . Holland Viertel . Denmark Switzerland Viss . . Rangoon Wa Siam . Wigtje Netherlands . Wisse Netherlands . are terraced for cultivation and in some instances are planted with dwarf pine and scrub oak. It contains some 310 villages and a population of about 150,000. Chinese war-vessels are at liberty to use the anchorage, notwithstanding the lease; and Chinese jurisdiction may continue to be exercised within the walled city of Wei-hai-wei, so far as not inconsistent with military requirements. Wei-hai-wei was made the headquarters of a native Chinese regiment in the pay of Great Britain, and organized and led by British officers; but this regiment was disbanded in 1902. Wei-hai-wei is used by the China squadron as a sanatorium and exercising ground. Its excellent climate attracts many visitors. Wei-hai-wei being a free port no duties of any kind are collected there. The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist. In each of the years 1903—1909 the expenditure exceeded the revenue (about $70,000 in 1909—1910), deficits being made good by grants from the British parliament.
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