Online Encyclopedia

IONIANS

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 731 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: del.icio.us del.icio.us it!

IONIANS  , the name given by the Greeks to one of the

See also:
principal divisions of the Hellenic peoples, In historic times it was applied to the inhabitants of (I)
See also:
Attica, where some believed the Ionians to have originated; (2) parts of Euboea; (3) the Cycladic islands, except Melos and
See also:
Thera; (4) a section of the west coast of
See also:
Asia Minor, from the gulf of Smyrna to that of Iasus (see
See also:
IONIA); (5) colonies from any of the foregoing, notably in
See also:
Thrace, Propontis and
See also:
Pontus in the west, and in
See also:
Egypt (
See also:
Naucratis, Daphnae); some authorities have found traces of an ancient Ionian population in (6) north-eastern Peloponnese . The meaning and derivation of the name are not known . It occurs in two forms, 'IaFover and, "Icaves (compare Xaover and X&.:ves in Epirus)—not counting the name 'Ibvtor applied to the open sea west of
See also:
Greece . In the traditional genealogy of the Hellenes,
See also:
Ion, the ancestor of the Ionians, is
See also:
brother of Achaeus and son of Xuthus (who held Peloponnese after the dispersal of the children of Hellen) . But this genealogy, though it is attributed to
See also:
Hesiod, is apparently
See also:
post-Homeric; and it is clear that the Ionian name had
See also:
independent and varied uses and meanings in very early
See also:
tithes . In Homer the word 'IaFover occurs as a name of inhabitants of Attica, with the epithet EXKeXiTWVes (II. xiii . 685=" trail-vest "), describing some point of costume, and later regarded as imputing effeminacy . The Homeric Hymn to Apollo of
See also:
Delos (7th century) describes an Ionian population in the
See also:
Cyclades with a loose religious
See also:
league about the Delian sanctuary . The same word 'IaFwv (Javan) appears in
See also:
Hebrew literature of the 8th and 7th centuries, to denote one
See also:
group of the " Japhetic " peoples of Asia Minor, Cyprus and perhaps Rhodes: " by these were the isles of the nations divided, in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations," a comprehensive expression for the island-strewn regions farther west (Gen. x. so) . In Ezek.
See also:
xxvii . 13, 19, Javan trades with Tyre in slaves,
See also:
bronze-
See also:
work, iron and drugs . Later allusions show that on Semitic lips Javan meant western traders in general .

In

Persian Yauna was the generic
See also:
term for Greeks.' Yunan is still a popular synonym for Oroum, a Greek, among the
See also:
Arabs; in India Yavana was long the generic name for all foreigners from the north and west, a use dating probably from Alexander's clay and the Graeco-Bactrian monarchs . The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i . 45, 56, 143-145, v . 66, vii . 94, viii . 44-46) . The " children of Ion " originated in north-eastern Peloponnese; and traces of them remained in Troezen and Cynuria . Expelled by the Achaeans (who seem to have entered Peloponnese about four generations before the Dorian Invasion) they invaded and dominated Attica; and about the time of the Dorian Invasion took the lead under the Attic branch of the Neleids of Pylus (Hdt. i . 147, v . 65) in the colonization of the Cyclades and of
See also:
Asiatic Ionia, which in Homer is still " Carian." Many of the colonists, however, were not Ionians, but refugees from other parts of Greece, between Euboea and Argolis (Hdt. i . 146), others looked on Attica as their first home, though the true Ionians were intruders there . The Pan-Ionian sanctuary of
See also:
Poseidon on the Asiatic promontory of Mycale was regarded as perpetuating a cult from Peloponnesian
See also:
Achaea, and the league of twelve cities which maintained it, as imitated from an Achaean dodecapolis, and as claiming (absurdly, according to Herodotus 1 .

143) purer descent than other Ionians . In Herodotus's account of the first Greek intercourse with Egypt (about 664 B c.) he describes " Ionian and Carian " adventurers and mercenaries in the

Delta . Later the commoner antithesis is between Ionian and Dorian, first (probably) in the colonial regions of Asia Minor, and later more universally . In the 5th century the name " Ionian " was already falling into discredit . Causes of this were (1) the peace-loving luxury (born of commercial
See also:
wealth and contact with
See also:
Oriental
See also:
life) of the
See also:
great Ionian cities of Asia; (2) the tameness with which they submitted first to
See also:
Lydia and to
See also:
Persia, then to Athenian pretensions, then to Sparta, and finally to Persia again; (3) the decadence and downfall of Athens, which still counted as Ionian and had claimed (since Solon's time) seniority among " Ionian " states . In the later 4th century the name survives only (a) as a
See also:
geographical expression for
See also:
part of the coast of Asia Minor, (b) in
See also:
European Greece as the name of that section of the
See also:
Northern Amphictyony in which Athens and its colonies were reckoned . The traditional
See also:
history of Asiatic Ionia is generally accepted, and in its broad outlines is probably well founded .
See also:
Common to all groups of Ionians in the
See also:
Aegean is a dialect of Greek which has a for a (in Attic only partially) and (in Asiatic Ionian especially) K for sr in certain words . Herodotus states that there were four distinct dialects in Asiatic Ionia itself (i . 142) and the dialect of Attica differed widely from all other forms of Ionic . Earlier phases of Ionic forms are dominant in the language of Homer . Most Ionian states exhibit also traces of the fourfold tribal divisions named after the " children of Ion "; but additional tribes occur locally .

(Hdt. v . 66, 69.) All reputed colonies from Attica (except

Ephesus and
See also:
Colophon) kept also the feast of Apaturia; and many worshipped Apollo Patrons as the reputed
See also:
father of Ion . The few observations hitherto made on the sites of Ionian cities indicate continuity of settlement and culture as far back as the latest phases of the Mycenaean (
See also:
Late Minoan III.) Age and not farther, supporting thus far the traditional foundation
See also:
dates . The theory of E . Curtius (1856–1890) that the Ionians originated in Asia Minor and spread thence through the Cyclades to Euboea and Attica deserts ancient tradition on linguistic and ethnological grounds of doubtful value . Ad . Holm supports it (Gesch . Gr., Berlin, 1886, i . 86), but A. von Gutschmid (Beitr. z . Gesch. d. alien Orients,
See also:
Leipzig, 1856, 124 ff.) and E . Meyer (Philologus NF . 2, 1889, p .

268 ff.; NF . 3, 1890, p . 479 ff.) follow Herodotus with qualifications . J . B .

Bury (Eng . Hist . Rev. xv . 228), though he regards the Ionian peoples as of European origin, thinks that they may have got their name from some part of the Asiatic coast . Ionian culture and
See also:
art, though little known in their earlier phases, derive their inspiration on the one side from those of the old Aegean (Minoan)
See also:
civilization, on the other from the Oriental (mainly
See also:
Assyrian)
See also:
models which penetrated to the coast through the Hittite civilization of Asia Minor .
See also:
Egyptian influence is almost absent until the time of Psammetichus, but then becomes predominant for a while .
See also:
Local and regional peculiarities, however, disappear almost wholly in the 5th and 4th centuries, under the overpowering influence of Athens .

End of Article: IONIANS
[back]
IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY
[next]
IONTAGNAIS

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.