IONIANS , the name given by the Greeks to one of the
See also:principal divisions of the Hellenic peoples, In historic times it was applied to the inhabitants of (I)
See also:Attica, where some believed the Ionians to have originated; (2) parts of Euboea; (3) the Cycladic islands, except Melos and
See also:Thera; (4) a section of the west
See also:coast of
See also:Asia Minor, from the gulf of
See also:Smyrna to that of Iasus (see
See also:IONIA); (5) colonies from any of the foregoing, notably in
See also:Thrace, Propontis and
See also:Pontus in the west, and in
See also:Egypt (
See also:Naucratis, Daphnae); some authorities have found traces of an
See also:ancient Ionian population in (6)
See also:north-eastern Peloponnese . The meaning and derivation of the name are not known . It occurs in two forms, 'IaFover and, "Icaves (compare Xaover and X&.:ves in
See also:Epirus)—not counting the name 'Ibvtor applied to the open
See also:sea west of
See also:Greece . In the traditional genealogy of the Hellenes,
See also:Ion, the ancestor of the Ionians, is
See also:brother of Achaeus and son of Xuthus (who held Peloponnese after the dispersal of the
See also:children of Hellen) . But this genealogy, though it is attributed to
See also:Hesiod, is apparently
See also:post-Homeric; and it is clear that the Ionian name had
See also:independent and varied uses and meanings in very early
See also:tithes . In
See also:Homer the word 'IaFover occurs as a name of inhabitants of Attica, with the epithet EXKeXiTWVes (II. xiii . 685=" trail-vest "), describing some point of
See also:costume, and later regarded as imputing effeminacy . The Homeric Hymn to
See also:Apollo of
See also:Delos (7th century) describes an Ionian population in the
See also:Cyclades with a loose religious
See also:league about the Delian sanctuary . The same word 'IaFwv (Javan) appears in
See also:Hebrew literature of the 8th and 7th centuries, to denote one
See also:group of the " Japhetic " peoples of Asia Minor, Cyprus and perhaps Rhodes: " by these were the isles of the nations divided, in their lands, every one after his
See also:tongue, after their families, in their nations," a comprehensive expression for the
See also:island-strewn regions farther west (Gen. x. so) . In Ezek.
See also:xxvii . 13, 19, Javan trades with Tyre in slaves,
See also:work, iron and drugs . Later allusions show that on Semitic lips Javan meant western traders in general .
InPersian Yauna was the generic
See also:term for Greeks.' Yunan is still a popular synonym for Oroum, a Greek, among the
See also:Arabs; in India Yavana was long the generic name for all foreigners from the north and west, a use dating probably from
See also:clay and the Graeco-Bactrian monarchs . The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by
See also:Herodotus (i . 45, 56, 143-145, v . 66, vii . 94, viii . 44-46) . The " children of Ion " originated in north-eastern Peloponnese; and traces of them remained in Troezen and Cynuria . Expelled by the
See also:Achaeans (who seem to have entered Peloponnese about four generations before the Dorian Invasion) they invaded and dominated Attica; and about the
See also:time of the Dorian Invasion took the lead under the
See also:Attic branch of the Neleids of Pylus (Hdt. i . 147, v . 65) in the colonization of the Cyclades and of
See also:Asiatic Ionia, which in Homer is still " Carian." Many of the colonists, however, were not Ionians, but refugees from other parts of Greece, between Euboea and Argolis (Hdt. i . 146), others looked on Attica as their first home, though the true Ionians were intruders there . The
See also:Pan-Ionian sanctuary of
See also:Poseidon on the Asiatic promontory of Mycale was regarded as perpetuating a cult from Peloponnesian
See also:Achaea, and the league of twelve cities which maintained it, as imitated from an Achaean dodecapolis, and as claiming (absurdly, according to Herodotus 1 .
143) purer descent than other Ionians . In Herodotus's account of the first Greek intercourse with Egypt (about 664 B c.) he describes " Ionian and Carian " adventurers and mercenaries in the
See also:Delta . Later the commoner antithesis is between Ionian and Dorian, first (probably) in the colonial regions of Asia Minor, and later more universally . In the 5th century the name " Ionian " was already falling into discredit . Causes of this were (1) the peace-loving luxury (
See also:born of commercial
See also:wealth and contact with
See also:life) of the
See also:great Ionian cities of Asia; (2) the tameness with which they submitted first to
See also:Lydia and to
See also:Persia, then to Athenian pretensions, then to
See also:Sparta, and finally to Persia again; (3) the decadence and downfall of Athens, which still counted as Ionian and had claimed (since
See also:Solon's time) seniority among " Ionian " states . In the later 4th century the name survives only (a) as a
See also:geographical expression for
See also:part of the coast of Asia Minor, (b) in
See also:European Greece as the name of that section of the
See also:Amphictyony in which Athens and its colonies were reckoned . The traditional
See also:history of Asiatic Ionia is generally accepted, and in its broad outlines is probably well founded .
See also:Common to all groups of Ionians in the
See also:Aegean is a dialect of Greek which has a for a (in Attic only partially) and (in Asiatic Ionian especially) K for sr in certain words . Herodotus states that there were four distinct dialects in Asiatic Ionia itself (i . 142) and the dialect of Attica differed widely from all other forms of Ionic . Earlier phases of Ionic forms are dominant in the language of Homer . Most Ionian states exhibit also traces of the fourfold tribal divisions named after the " children of Ion "; but additional tribes occur locally .
(Hdt. v . 66, 69.) All reputed colonies from Attica (exceptEphesus and
See also:Colophon) kept also the feast of
See also:Apaturia; and many worshipped Apollo Patrons as the reputed
See also:father of Ion . The few observations hitherto made on the sites of Ionian cities indicate continuity of settlement and culture as far back as the latest phases of the Mycenaean (
See also:Late Minoan III.) Age and not farther, supporting thus far the traditional foundation
See also:dates . The theory of E . Curtius (1856–1890) that the Ionians originated in Asia Minor and spread thence through the Cyclades to Euboea and Attica deserts ancient tradition on linguistic and ethnological grounds of doubtful value . Ad . Holm supports it (Gesch . Gr., Berlin, 1886, i . 86), but A. von Gutschmid (Beitr. z . Gesch. d.
See also:alien Orients,
See also:Leipzig, 1856, 124 ff.) and E .
See also:Meyer (Philologus NF . 2, 1889, p .
268 ff.; NF . 3, 1890, p . 479 ff.) follow Herodotus with qualifications . J . B .Bury (Eng . Hist . Rev. xv . 228), though he regards the Ionian peoples as of European origin, thinks that they may have got their name from some part of the Asiatic coast . Ionian culture and
See also:art, though little known in their earlier phases, derive their inspiration on the one side from those of the old Aegean (Minoan)
See also:civilization, on the other from the Oriental (mainly
See also:models which penetrated to the coast through the Hittite civilization of Asia Minor .
See also:Egyptian influence is almost absent until the time of
See also:Psammetichus, but then becomes predominant for a while .
See also:Local and regional peculiarities, however, disappear almost wholly in the 5th and 4th centuries, under the overpowering influence of Athens .
IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY
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